dyeing were carried out using yellow, red and purple loess as mineral dyes verify their dyeability, color shade and fastness. The proper density of Chinese ink were 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 5%(o.w.b). The grinded chinese ink had better stainability compared with the general Chinese ink. The mixed dyeing improvement of stainability in the density of loess of 40%(o.w.b) among the yellow, red, and purple loess. The colors in the mixed dyeing with Chinese ink were 3.801～8.13Y, 0.128～7.038Y and 4.222～9.304Y. The colorfastness were 1-2 in the homogeneous dyeing with Chinese ink. It was improved 1-3 in the mixed dyeing. Light colorfastness of the homogeneous and mixed dyeing were excellent as a value of 5. The dry rubbing fastness in the homogeneous dyeing was 3-3.5, and 3 in the wet rubbing. As for the mixed dyeing, the dyes of Chinese ink showed poor diffusion into the fiber, resulting in low fastness due to the existence of the dyes on the surface.
fabrics mordanted with Fe2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ were dyed with the aqueous extract of Cassia tora L. seed which was known to include water soluble colorant kaempferol, one of flavonol compounds. Kaempferol can react with free radicals and chelate transition metal ions, which is thought to catalyze processes leading to the appearance of free radicals and have antioxidant activity. In relation to the coordinating and chelating mechanism of the ions with the silk protein and kaempferol, reasonable conclusions should be made on the colorant uptake and the water fastness of the fabric. The amount of the colorant on the fabric was in the order of Fe2+>Ni2+>Cu2+. In case of dyeing through coordinaiton bonds between transition metal ions and silk protein and colorants, it was thought that the ions with the smaller secondary hydration shell, the higher preference to the atoms of the ligand coordinated, and the suitable bonding stability for the substitution of primarily hydrated water molecules for colorants led to the higher colorant uptake.The water fastnsess of the fabric was in the order of Fe2+>Cu2+>Ni2+. It should be reasonable to choose transition metal ions with weak and strong tendency to the ionic and the coordination bond, respectively, to the carboxylate anion of the silk protein.Although further research needs to be done, the conclusions above may be generally applied to the natural dyeing through the coordination bond mechanism between transition metal ions and colorants and substrates.
colour-difference formulae would be based on a colour appearance model, but, So far, most colour-difference formulae in common use are based on empirical fits to data. Therefore, of the many proposed, none are completely satisfactory but advances have been made in recent years.A new color-difference data set has been produced with the aims of making a comparison of the advanced CIE Lab formulae as well as confirming the effect of color-difference. 416 low lightness pairs that have only lightness-difference were produced for evaluation of CIE Lab-based formulae on lightness-difference from glossy polyester fabric. The standard color-difference pair was prepared and used. It was neutral grey sample pair that has only lightness difference. The standard pair was used to investigate lightness tolerances. And grey-scale method used to evaluate visual assessment. CIE Lab coordinates of the samples were measured using a X-Rite 8200 spectrophotometer. Visual assessments were carried out using Gretag Macbeth The Judge Ⅱ Light Booth.
fabric is widely used in stocking, inner wear, sports wear, and casual wear, but has a defect of easy electric static charging. Accordingly there has been great demand for the hydrophillic finishing technology that could be applied to nylon fiber more easily and efficiently. In this study, ethoxylated hexylaminoanthraquinones were exhausted onto nylon from aqueous bath, and hydrophillicity of the nylon was discussed. In the treatment of nylon fabrics with ethoxylated hexylaminoanthraquinones, they were successfully exhausted onto nylon fabric without any aid of chemical auxiliary. The hydrophilicity of the dyed nylon fabrics were increased with the length of ethoxylate chain. The durability of antistatic and hydrophilic characteristics was good enough as to maintain the initial properties even after 30 repeated launderings.
filter is good enough to protect health and environment from air pollution. The reason why is gathering particles not only by mechanical mechanism but also by electrostatic attraction. Especially this filter is shown lower pressure drop than general mechanical filters as glass fiber.For making electret filter media using polypropylene meltblown(M/B) nonwoven, the nonwoven is charged with corona which was supplied high voltage DC, AC, and pulse with DC power. The electret filter media is tested with 0.3㎛ sodium chloride and dioctyl phthalate(DOP) aerosol.Results revealed that filtration performance of electret filter media increased as corona was applied with higher voltage and with AC power rather than DC, and fiber diameter was fine and uniform.