3-(Hydroxyphenyl phosphinyl) propanoic acid (HPPA) has been one of the most commonly used durable flame retardant agents for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) for many years. We intended to explore the application of HPPA to cellulose fabrics as formaldehyde-free phosphorus based flame retardants (FRs) through green chemistry process. The flame retardancy of the flame-retardant treated cellulose fabrics were characterized by using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) and limiting oxygen index (LOI). Structural changes of the treated cellulose fabrics were carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. To enhance the flame retardancy of HPPA treated cellulose fibers, glycerol polyglycidyl ether (GPE), a crosslinking agent was employed. Both HPPA and GPE treated cotton fabric imparted an LOI value over 26.
In order to introduce new functions onto textile fabrics, nylon and cotton were treated with green tea extracts. And then the anti-oxidant activity of fabrics treated with the extracts was evaluated by Blois method using DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl). The anti-oxidant activity was exhibited on the textile fabrics treated as well as by the extracts itself. The cotton fabric treated with 10% o.w.f. of extract appeared to have almost 90% of anti-oxidant activity and 95% was obtained for nylon.
The present paper focuses on the application of commercial acid dyes and wool reactive dyes to casein protein fabric. Nine acid dyes and six wool reactive dyes were compared their dyeing properties as well as color fastness. The exhaustion yields were higher than 80 % which dramatically increased at pH 3. Excellent wash fastness was obtained with metal-complex acid and wool reactive dyes. Both light and rubbing fastness were overall good, but perspiration fastness was comparatively poor.
In this work, poly(diallyldimethylammoniumchloride) (PDDAC) and meso-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin were considered to produce the self-assembly fabrication films. This method is based on the layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition produced by the electrostatic attraction between positively charged PDDAC and negatively charged porphyrin ions. The result of multilayer fabrication was discussed with the level of color strength (K/S). K/S spectra of the fabricated multilayer films showed gradual increase behaviors. In addition, the color photo images of the fabricated multilayer films showed that PDDAC and porphyrin were successfully attracted by electrostatic self-assembly forces.
PET fabrics were photografted under continuous UV irradiation with vinyl pyrrolidone (VP) and acryloylmorpholine(ACMO) as monomers and benzophenone as a hydrogen-abstractable photoinitiator. ACMO can be grafted onto the PET fabrics more efficiently than VP. The grafted PET surfaces were characterized by ATR, ESCA, SEM and zeta potential measurement. ATR and ESCA analysis indicated significant alterations on chemical structure and atomic composition on the surface of the grafted fabrics, where nitrogen content increased with increasing grafting yield. SEM images showed that the fabric surface was covered with the grafted polymers. The zeta potentials and the water wettability of the grafted PET increased with grafting. Also the photografted fabrics showed an increased dyeablity to reactive dyes and increased affinity to various iodine species which imparted anti-bacterial properties.
Dyeing and washing fastness properties of polyurethane-impregnated polyester (PU-impregnated PET), and the distribution of two disperse dyes between PET and PU film were studied to investigate the effect of PU portion to exhaustion and washing fastness. Dyeing properties of PU-impregnated PET were quite different with those of PET: PU-impregnated PET absorbed disperse dye linearly from the early stage of dyeing to equilibrium, and it exhibited excellent build-up property up to 4 %owf dyeing. The absorbed dye on PU film at early dyeing stage migrated to more substantive PET at the temperature higher than 115℃. The amount of exhausted dye on PET portion was larger than on PU film and the distribution ratio was 2.08~2.34. The grade of washing fastness of PU-impregnated PET was the same as or lower by 0.5~1 grade than PU film whose washing fastness was lower by 0.5~1 than PET.
Recently, computational calculation of molecular energy potentials and electrochemical reduction/oxidation behaviors are of very importance in view point of prediction of dye's properties such as energy levels and bandgaps of absorption. This can be influenced by their different constituents or substituents in chromogen molecules. Structural conformations and properties with computational modeling calculation are numerically simulated, which are fully or partly based on fundamental laws of physics. In addition, cyclic voltammetric measurement was used to obtain the experimental redox potential values, which were compared to the computed simulation values.