Dyeing and fastness characteristics of 100% meta-aramid fiber were investigated with cationic dyes and swelling agents under various dyeing conditions such as dyeing temperature and pH of dye bath. Dye exhaustion started at around 80℃and settled down at 130℃. Among swelling agents used, N-methyl formanilide showed comparatively higher K/S values comparing to 1-phenoxypropan-2-ol. Under weak acidic conditions in the range pH 5 to 7, the exhaustion of cationic dyes could be enhanced leading to higher adsorption and stability of colorimetric property. Wash and rubbing fastness were generally good but low light fastness found can be attributable to the poor photo-stability of the cationic dyes.
In order to dye nylon/cotton blended fabrics in solid colors with only acid dyes, a hetero-bifunctional bridge compound (DBDCBS) was examined. The bridge compound was designed to react only onto cotton fabrics first, on which amino-containing acid dyes react later by covalent bonding. By the effect of DBDCBS, amino-containing acid dyes exhibited high affinity toward the cotton fabrics. From the dyeing properties examined at various conditions, the optimum dyeing was decided at pH 4 and 100℃. Consequently, the solid color was obtained on nylon/cotton blended fabrics in one bath dyeing process using only acid dyes. The DBDCBS did not show any negative effect on nylon side in terms of dyeing and physical properties.
In this work, colorants extraction process from gromwell was studied for making powder form of colorants by solving the high viscosity problem of gromwell extracts. In order to do that, sugar extracted together with colorants must be pre-extracted. For sugar decomposition, gromwell roots were pretreated with various enzyme solutions. The total sugar content of pre-extract with enzyme solution was measured. Accordingly, the effects of enzyme type and pretreatment condition on sugar decomposition were investigated to find appropriate enzyme(amylase, hemicellulase, pectinase) and enzyme activity (100~1000unit), pre-extracted time(3~24hr). Color characteristics and dye uptake of dyed fabrics were evaluated. Gromwell colorants were assessed for their potential antimicrobial activities, which possibly expand their end use as functional pigments.
The efficiency of removing sugar was increased in the order of hemicellulase, pectinase, amylase, H2O. Gromwell colorants powder yield was in the range of 4.4% to 9.8% depending on pretreatment enzyme. Gromwell colorants produced RP color on the silk and wool fabrics with good dye uptake. Antimicrobial activity of gromwell colorants will greatly increase its potentiality for applying as functional natural colorants in the future.
Generally, hair treatments by complementary actions to give a sense of activity are permanent setting, dyeing, and bleaching, etc. In this study, we investigated the wave formation ability and hair damage occuring in permanent setting and bleaching process. The wave formation ability was evaluated by the differences of length and curl diameter after permanent setting. And the hair damage was also evaluated by the protein release ability and SEM of hair. The bleached hair immediately after permanent setting treatment has better wave formation ability, but much more damaged than the bleached hair after rinsing thoroughly with warm water. It was considered that the chain of hair keratin broke down easily by the bleaching action in the existence of permanent setting agents.
In this study, to increase flame retardation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) in burning, bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP), a well known flame retardant containing phosphorous, was reacted on end groups of PET by radical pathway. End-capping mechanism of PET with BDP was suggested and confirmed by spectroscopic and thermal analysis.
From 400 MHz 31P solid state FT-NMR spectrum of end-capped PET (PET-BDP), phosphorus spectra peak in BDP was found at ca. -20 ppm. Furthermore, P-C bond stretching vibration peaks were found ca. 600 cm-1 in FT-IR spectrums of PET-BDP.
These results showed that BDP can be chemically added on end groups of PET by our method. Thermal characteristics of pure PET (pPET) and PET-BDP were measured and evaluated by TGA analysis. There was not significant changes in thermal characteristics of PET-BDP compared to that of pPET.
To improve flame retardation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) against burning, resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDP), phosphorous containing flame retardant, was incorporated into PET backbone by radical reaction pathway.
Radical endcapping of PET with RDP was confirmed by spectroscopic and thermal analysis. From 400 MHz 31P solid state FT-NMR spectrum of PET with RDP (PET-RDP), phosphorus spectra peak in RDP was found at ca. -10 ppm. Furthermore, P-C bond stretching vibration peaks were found ca. 530 cm-1 in FT-IR spectrums of PET-RDP. These results indicated that RDP can be chemically bound at the ends of PET by radical addition method. Thermal characteristics of pure PET (pPET) and PET-RDP were measured and evaluated by TGA thermal analysis. There was not significant changes in thermal characteristics of PET-RDP compared to that of pPET.
In order to make a supermicrofiber fabric with PET/co-PET sea-island type filament fiber, the optimum conditions of dissolution of co-PET composite filament fiber was examined. The data set was made at various organic acid concentration and steam temperature with treated time as a main variable. At the same time, the microstructure changes by organic acid treatment of sea-island type PET supermicrofibers were monitored by thermal analysis morphology, DSC thermgrams and SEM images. Weight reduction behavior of supermicrofibers by caustic treatment was investigated in a comparative method. The termination of dissolution was also confirmed using DSC thermgrams and SEM images.
This study surveyed the preparation of 8oz coated fabric and the physical property of the coated fabric according to the treated condition for the sail yacht. And the coated fabrics were compared with the performance of overseas products for verification. Physical properties of the coated fabric treated with non-yellowing functional polyurethane resin were examined according to the treatment condition such as compression and ageing treatments. Finally, yellowing fastness to light for 60 hours was assessed. Considering the compression condition after coating, good physical property was obtained at 6kgf/cm2. Also, the performance of yellowing fastness was similar to performance of overseas goods.
Cellulose was electrospun over water collector and the cellulose solution was prepared using N-methyl-morpholine N-oxide/water(nNMMO/H2O). The morphology of electrospun cellulose was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images showed that the fiber formation depended on processing parameters such as solution concentration, applied electric field strength, solution feeding rate and temperature of water in coagulation bath. High concentration, low temperature of water bath, and low feeding rate were more favorable to obtain fiber morphology. All the variables affected on the fluidity of the cellulose solution and diffusion of NMMO. Low fluidity and fast diffuision of NMMO was critical for obtaining fiber morphology.
This paper surveys the physical properties of the MWNT dispersion solution dispersed with the three types of solvents and of the polyurethane composite film for improvement of mechanical properties and electrical characteristics of PU/MWNT composite film.
For this purpose, the MWNT dispersed solution was mixed with three types of solvent such as IPA, MEK and Toluene and then mixed with polyurethane (100part) with variation of loading content (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 part) of MWNT dispersed solution in the ultrasonic wave dispersion apparatus. And eighteen PU/MWNT composite films were prepared as specimens. The various physical properties of these PU/MWNT films were measured and discussed with the loading content of three types of MWNT dispersed solutions. The highest absorbancy among the three types of dispersed solutions was shown in the IPA/MWNT solution. But the absorbancy of PU/MWNT films was not same as the solution. The low electrical surface and volume resistivity of PU/MWNT film were shown at the condition of 20 and 10 parts loading of IPA/MWNT dispersed solution,respectively. The low triboelectricity of PU/MWNT film was shown at the condition of above 30part loading of IPA/MWNT dispersed solution. The breaking strength and strain of PU/MWNT film prepared with IPA/MWNT dispersed solution were decreased with increasing loading content of IPA/MWNT from 10 to 40 parts. The maximum breaking strength and breaking strain according to the dispersion solution were shown on the IPA/MWNT dispersed solution. The uniform dispersion of PU/MWNT film according to the loading content of MWNT solution was shown by surface image analysis on the films dispersed with IPA.
firstly, 16 kinds of PU/MWNT forming films were prepared with 4 kinds of dispersion solutions (IPA/MWNT,DMF/MWNT, MEK/MWNT, and Toluene/MWNT) and 4 kinds of blowing agents (organic Ⅰ, organic Ⅱ, capsule, and inorganic). The electrical resistivity of these PU/MWNT foaming films according to the dispersion solutions and blowing agents were analysed and discussed with surface profile and cell morphology of measured by SEM. And secondly, 24 kinds of PU/MWNT foaming films were also prepared with 2 kinds of IPA dispersion solution contents and 3 kinds of blowing agents with variation of the blowing temperatures and film thickness. The physical properties of the PU/MWNT foaming films such as electrical resistivity (surface and volume) and triboelectricity with cell morphology were measured and discused through the quantities of IPA, blowing agent added and also physical conditions(temperature, thickness so on) for establishing optimum foaming conditions with good electrostatic dissipation.
The physical properties of recycled polyester yarns according to recycling methods were investigated. Virgin polyester draw texturized yarn(DTY), material-recycled(MR) polyester DTY and chemical-recycled(CR) polyester DTY were prepared. Surface morphology, thermal property, micro-structure and mechanical property of recycled polyester yarns were estimated. SEM–EDS analysis showed that the CR PET yarn had better crimp and more stable structure than MR PET yarn.
Tm of the MR PET yarn was higher than that of the CR PET yarn. The intensity of the crystallization peak of the CR PET yarn was a little higher than that of the MR PET yarn. Tensile strength of the MR PET yarn was slightly higher than that of the CR PET yarn. Breaking elongation of the CR PET yarn was slightly higher than that of the MR PET yarn.