The oil sorption capacities and biodegradability of nonwoven fabrics(pads) of PP and PP/kapok(10/90wt%)blend prepared in this study and commercial pad (T2COM: 100% PP) were compared. The biodegradability(58.5%) ofPP/kapok(10/90wt%) blend pad was about 5 times higher than those(11%) of PP and T2COM pads after 45days. The oilsorption rates of oil sorbent pads for various oils(diesel, lubricant and Bunker C oils) were markedly increased withincreasing dipping time up to about 5min and then levelled off. The oil sorption rate and oil sorption capacity werefound to increase in the order of PP/kapok(10/90wt%) blend>PP>commercial(T2COM) and Bunker C>lubricant>diesel.
Biodegradable Poly(butylene succinate), PBS, was photooxidized by UV/ozone irradiation and the effect ofUV energy on the surface properties of the UV-irradiated PBS film were investigated by the measurement of reflectance,surface roughness, contact angles, chemical composition, and zeta potential. With increasing UV energy, reflectancedecreased in the visible and ultraviolet regions particularly at the wavelength of 380nm. The irradiation producednano-scale surface roughness including the maximum peak-to-valley roughness increased from 106nm for the unirradiatedsample to 221nm at the UV energy of 10.6J/cm². The improved hydrophilicity was due to the higher O1s/C1s resultingfrom the introduction of polar groups such as C-O and C=O bonds. The surface energy of the PBS increased from42.1mJ/m² for the unirradiated PBS to 56.8mJ/m² at the irradiation of 21.2J/cm². The zeta potentials of the UV-irradiatedPBS also decreased proportionally with increasing UV energy. The cationic dyeability of the PBS increased accordinglyresulting from the improved affinity of the irradiated PBS surfaces containing photochemically introduced anionic anddipolar dyeing sites.
Novel super hydrophobic orange dyes having maximum absorption band at 450-500nm were synthesized todye polyolefin fibers such as polypropylene and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fibers, using 4-alkylanilines andβ-naphthol. Their absorption spectra at visible range showed almost the same, which meant that the alkyl substituentsintroduced to chromophore did not affect on color appearance of the dyes. Considering both color strength and washfastness, the decyl-substituted dye was determined as the optimum one practically. From the dyeing results at variousconditions, the optimum dyeing was 130℃ for 1 hour with 5% owf of dyes. The good fastness ratings to washing,rubbing were obtained showing 4-5 for both fibers. Light fastness was also acceptable giving rating 3-4 for polypropylenefibers and rating 3 for ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fibers.
Fall-arrest system have been widely applied to provide a safe stop during fall incidents for occupationalactivities. This research object to evaluate the energy capacity of fall arrest shock energy absorber lanyard in relation tothe used super fiber. In this work, shock energy absorber lanyard was prepared using high tenacity PET, high tenacityPET/P-aramid and high tenacity PET/UHMWPE, respectively. Dynamic load and static load tests based on the Korea fallprotection equipment standard(Korea Occupational Safety & Health Agency standard 2013-13) were conducted. Maximumarrest force by dynamic load test of shock energy absorber showed below 6,000N. Also, static strength by static load testof lanyard and rope remains 15,000N and 22,000N for 1 min.
This paper surveys improvement characteristics in muscle fatigue with bio-activity material imbedded fabric.
For this purpose, the subjects wear the garment which is covered by bio-activity materials all over every day during 2weeks of experimental period. After 2 weeks period, VAS(Visual Analogue Scale) index evaluation regarding musclefatigue and pain has been conducted in comparison between before wearing and after so that we can evaluate the effecton muscle fatigue improvement. The effectiveness survey for testing products consists of improvement on krunkle, musclefatigue and exercise capacity. As a result, 100% of test subject group completes a questionnaire with positive answer asabove normal in every question. In addition the preference of testing products is researched in wearing comfort, activityand convenience. And it is marked above normal by 100% of test subject group as well. Moreover any kind of unusualskin reaction has not been detected in safety evaluation. Therefore this testing products is being judged as a beneficentproduct for improvement on muscle fatigue without any skin irritation.
To improve the deep coloring effect of PET fabrics, the alkali treated and black dyed PET fabrics weretreated with 2 kinds of low refractive compounds such as acrylic resin and silicone resin. The color depth effect oftreated PET fabrics was evaluated as lightness(L) change by UV-visible spectrophotometer. As the weight loss of PETfiber treated with alkali increased, the color depth of PET fabrics increased. Lightness(L) of PET fabrics treated withdeep coloring agent was lower than that of untreated PET fabrics. The optimum concentration of treated PET with deepcoloring agent was 4% o.w.s. The deep coloring effect of PET fabrics treated with silicone resin was higher than onetreated with acrylic resin. PET fabrics treated with silicone resin only might be more appropriate process than PETfabrics treated with acrylic and silicone resin for giving deep coloring effect for polyester fabrics.
Poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA)/pullulan/titanium dioxide(TiO2) composite nanofibers were produced at different TiO2concentrations(1 and 3 wt.%) using the electrospinning method. The parameters of electrospinning including polymercontents, voltage and tip-to-collector distance(TCD) were optimized for fabrication process. The study showed that thebest condition to make PVA/pullulan nanofiber and effect of TiO2 nanoparticles. The PVA/pullulan/TiO2 nanofibers werecharacterized by scanning electron microscope(SEM), transmission electron microscope(TEM), Thermogravimetric analysis(TGA) and X-ray diffraction(XRD).
The high value-added functionality for synthetic fiber can be considered through a plasma enhancedtreatment. In this study, PET(Polyethyleneterephthalate) was treated with a glow plasma and corona treatment. Surfacecharacteristics of treated fabric were investigated using electron scanning microscopy(SEM), contact angle, X-rayphotoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), tensile and adhesion strength. It was found that the contact angle showed 85.5° foruntreated fabric, 0° for plasma and corona treatment at the condition of 200W for 7min. By XPS analysis, atomic ratioof O 1s/C 1s was increased from 0.27 to 0.43 by glow plasma and 0.27 to 0.41 by corona treatment at 200W for 7min,respectively. Glow plasma and corona treatment did not significantly change the tensile strength of PET fabric. Adhesionstrength showed a substantial enhancement for the surface treated with the glow plasma, while corona treatment wasadversely affected.
Detergency and soil redeposition of wool fabric in drycleaning solvents, i.e. petroleum solvent,perchloroethylene(PCE), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane(D5), with commercial detergents were studied. The detergency ofwool soiled cloth in drycleaning solvents without detergents were the order of PCE > petroleum solvent > D5. Whencommercial detergents were added to the system, the detergency were greatly improved. When 1.0% water was added tosolvents/commercial detergents system, the detergency of petroleum solvent and PCE improved whereas that of D5decreased. The soil redeposition prevention effects of solvents were the same order of detergency, i.e. PCE > petroleumsolvent > D5. When commercial detergents were added to the system, the soil redeposition changed depending onsolvents and detergents. The soil redeposition in D5 became higher with a commercial detergent, therefore it is importantto develop appropriate detergents for D5. Three silicone surfactants were tested for detergency and soil redeposition in D5to find candidate surfactants for drycleaning detergent formulations. Silicone surfactant PEG/PPG-19/19 Dimethicone wasfound to be the best surfactant for D5 drycleaning detergents.
The wearing comfort of garment is governed by two kinds of characteristics such as moisture and thermaltransport properties and mechanical properties of fabrics. The porosity influenced by yarn and fabric structural parametersis known as main factor for wearing comfort of garment related to the moisture and thermal transport properties. Thisstudy investigated effect of porosity of composite yarns to the moisture and thermal comfort properties of compositefabrics made of hollow composite DTY and ATY yarns. The theoretical porosity and pore size were inverselyproportional to cover factor of fabric, but cover factor was not correlated with experimental pore size. The wickingproperty of hydrophobic PET filament fabric showed inferior result irrespective of porosity, pore size and cover factor.
The drying rate was superior at composite fabrics with high pore size and low cover factor, and pore size was dominantfactor for drying property. On the other hand, thermal conductivity of composite fabric was mainly influenced by coverfactor and not influenced by porosity. Air permeability was influenced by both porosity and cover factor and was highlyincreased with increasing porosity and decreasing fabric cover factor.
The kapok fibers which are the functional fiber materials having natural hollows are environment friendlymaterials the demand and interest of which are increasing. The kapok fibers are environment friendly and natural hollowfibers which are 5-8 times lighter than cottons and have excellent performances in thermo keeping property, airpermeability, bulkiness and resilience. In this study, the pretreatment according to the dyeing behaviors of kapok fiberswere studied. Pretreatment(scouring, bleaching) were a variety of conditions. Scouring and bleaching, images of changedsurfaces and cross-sections and dyeing behaviors of the dye-o-meter according to the concentration measured in metersand compared. Although the final exhaustion ratio of the kapok fibers scoured with a high concentration recipe wasalmost as same as that of the kapok fibers bleached with a high concentration recipe, the initial absorption speed of thekapok fibers scoured with the high concentration recipe was faster than that of the kapok fibers bleached with the highconcentration recipe.
The aim of this study is to develop an eco-friendly reduction process of indigo as an alternative choice.
Hansenula misumaiensis was used and their reducing activity toward synthetic indigo as well as natural indigo wasestimated by dyeing test in terms of indigo dye uptake. The changes in K/S value and pH were monitored on thetime-based measurements. Also, reduction duration was evaluated. On the basis of the results described in this study, itwas confirmed that Hansenula misumaiensis reduced indigo. Reducing power of Hansenula misumaiensis reached tomaximum in two days. It can be possible to develop eco-friendly process of indigo reduction using Hansenulamisumaiensis by the optimization of strain culture conditions and the optimization of reduction conditions.
Morinda citrifolia, commercially known as Noni, is a tree that grows widely throughout the Pacific, and isrecognized as one of the most significant sources of traditional medicines among Pacific Island societies. All parts of theplant have traditional and/or modern uses, including roots and bark(dyes, medicine), trunks(firewood, tools), and leavesand fruits(food, medicine). The bark and the roots of the tree contain red and yellow pigments respectively, which areboth used in the manufacture of dyes. Dyes from Noni are being used traditionally, to color clothing and fabrics. In thisstudy, mordanting effects on the dyeing properties of Noni root extract on silk fabrics were investigated.
In this study, the colorants of Wisteria floribunda leaf were extracted with water. Silk and wool fabrics havebeen dyed with the aqueous extract of Wisteria floribunda leaf and their dyeabilities was studied. Additionally thefastness to washing, drycleaning, light and perspiration were also investigated. Silk and wool fabrics dyed with the extractof Wisteria floribunda leaf were colored in yellowish red tint. The optimum dyeing condition of the colorants extractedfrom Wisteria floribunda leaf was three repeated dyeing at 70, 95℃ for 1hr using post mordanting. For dyed silk andwool fabrics, the fastness to washing was improved by mordanting, and the fastness to drycleaning was very outstanding.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the dyeability of silk fabrics with Humulus japonicus (Hwansam)extract which is a kind of weeds that grows wild in the suburbs. In the research, the general extract method wasconducted with the extract from fresh herb of root-removed Humulus japonicus while we investigated the optimal dyeingconditions and dyeability depending on the changes of the kind of mordants, methods and temperature. The functionalproperties such as antibacterial activities, deodorization and UV protection were also reviewed. The ideal output, as aresult, was shown at 100% of dye concentration, 90℃ of dyeing temperature and 40 minutes of dyeing time while interms of dye uptake depending on the kind of mordants and methods, it was found that among four mordants of SnCl2,AlK(SO4)2, CuSO4, and FeSO4 post-mordanting with FeSO4 showed the best result. Color fastness to washing, drycleaning and rubbing was found strong at grade 4-5 and the grade to light was as good as 3 while to perspiration wasgood at 4-5 as well. In aspects of functional properties, it showed excellent results of 99% deodorization rate, 98% UVprotection rate and 99.9% bacterial reduction against Staphylococcus aureus.
The functional materials have been developed as a promising research topic toward the end uses for organicmaterials and applications. In this study, fluorescein based dye was synthesized by three step reaction. We have designedand synthesized the colorimetric dye through the reactions of fluorescein and methoxy group and ethylene diamine andsquaric acid. The structure of the non-fluorescent spirolactam was elucidated by 1H-NMR, LC-Mass and FT-IR analyzes.
Further studies are in progress to understand the effects of various substituent during the recognition process and todevelop fluorescein based sensors for cations or anions.