In the present study, three morpholine substituted crystal violet lactone (CVL) have been synthesized to monitor the thermochromic property. This work is explaining the role of substituent on the lactone ring. The methyl substituents induced greater chromic effects than the chloro substituents. Furthermore, the three-component mixtures that contained CVL, bisphenol-A, and methyl stearate were used to analyse the thermochromic effect of the CVLs as bulk samples with various temperature. The thermochromic properties of the CVLs were evaluated using solid-state UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. Finally, one of the synthesized CVL has been successfully converted into the form of a test paper similar to pH paper for use as thermal indicators.
To prepare bio-inspired antifouling coating materials having similar structure with lotus, self-crosslinkable waterborne polyurethanes emulsions containing paraffin wax (CWPU/P0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, the number indicated the wt% of wax) were prepared by an emulsifier-free/solvent free prepolymer mixing process. The as-polymerized CWPU/P emulsions containing 0 - 1.00wt% of paraffin wax were found to be stable after 4 months, however, CWPU/P emulsions containing 1.50 and 2.00wt% of paraffin wax were unstable within 1 month storage. Considering the stability of emulsions, the optimum paraffin wax content was found to be about 1wt% to obtain stable antifouling coating emulsion material. The surface topology of CWPU/P film samples was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This study examined the effect of paraffin wax content on the surface roughness, water contact angle/surface energy, water swelling, light transmittance and tensile properties of CWPU/P film samples.
The near infrared ray camouflage fabric has a near infrared ray reluctance similar to the surrounding environment and has a camouflage effect on the surrounding environment. Synthetic fibers used in military uniforms are difficult to have gastrointestinal function as general commercial dyes, unlike cellulose fibers, which use some commercial vat dyes to impart infrared gastrointestinal function. In this study, we optimized the adsorption pH, temperature and time for NIR dye application for polyester fabrics, and established the optimum concentration for the evaluation of adsorption build-up characteristics. In addition, it is difficult to adsorb it since the polyester material has a dense crystal structure and the NIR dye is bulky. Therefore, a swelling agent used for dyeing meta-aramid fibers with high Tg and high crystallinity was introduced as a separate preparation to increase the affinity to polyester, which is a hydrophobic fiber, to thereby obtain an excellent adsorption rate. As a result of comparing before and after using swelling agent, the adsorption rate difference was 10 times or more when compared with before.
Cotton has no adsorption ability for the cationic dye and heavy metal but, if anionized cotton can be made, it will be possible. In this study, to enable the anionisation of cotton fabric, it was modified using sodium vinylsolfonate(SV) as the anionisation reagent, employing a pad-dry-cure(PDC) technique. The effects of curing time, treatment concentrations of urea, sodium hydroxide and SV on the weight increase were experimented and then, the physical characterizations of sulfoethyl cotton(SEC) depending on the finishing conditions were estimated, thus the application possibility of SV as anionisation reagent was investigated. It was not much changed by anionisation except wrinkle recovery. And the structure of SEC was elucidated by Raman and NMR spectoscopy. The feasibility of using Raman and NMR spectroscopy with the band at 1,043cm-1c, and 50.5ppm, respectively as marker band to determine sulfoethyl group of SEC was reported. The total degree of SV substitution(DSV) was determined via elemental analysis. SEC with diverse total DSV up to 0.066 was obtained. In the thermal decomposition(pyrolysis) by DSC, it can be found that the pyrolysis temperature was about 30℃ lower than that of non-treated cotton fabric.
This investigation reported the recent development of 3 dimensional fabrics such as spacer fabric, 3 dimensional multi-layered fabric and 3 dimensional braided fabric. First, we categorized 3 dimensional fabrics into 3 main products; 3 dimensional woven fabrics, 3 dimensional knitted fabrics and 3 dimensional braided fabrics with reviewing the possible main applications. We also reported the research and development trends of 3 dimensional fabrics by analyzing technical trends in industry and research institutes at domestic and overseas. United State, Germany and Japan lead the manufacturing technology for the mainly preform related products to apply in aerospace, automotive, protections, architecture and clothing applications. Lastly, we reviewed the main products of the leading company which manufactured using the 3 dimensional fabrics.
In this study, effluent water was produced through Submerged Membrane Bio-Reactor(SMBR) process, which is a simple system and decomposes organic matter contained in wastewater with biological treatment process and performs solid-liquid separation, Especially, ozone oxidation treatment process is applied to effluent water containing fluorescent whitening agent, which is a trace pollutant which is not removed by biological treatment, and influences the quality of reused water. The concentration of CODCr in the Submerged MBR bioreactor was 449.3 mg/ℓ-CODCr, and the concentration of permeate water was 100.3 mg/ℓ-CODCr. The removal efficiency was about 70.1%. The amount of ozone required for the removal of the fluorescent whitening agent in the permeated water in SMBR was 6.67 g-O3/min, and The amount of ozone required to remove CODMN relative to the permeate water was calculated to remove 0.997mg-CODMn for 1mg of O3.