The objective was to study the efficiency of Houttuynia cordata extract colorants as eco-friendly and functional dye for wool fabric. Effects of dyeing conditions and mordanting on dye uptake, color change, and colorfastness were investigated. Also, antimicrobial activity and deodorization performance were evaluated. The Houttuynia cordata colorants showed good affinity to wool fabric and produced YR Munsell color. The optimum condition of dyeing was 2.0% of colorants concentration(o.w.b.) at 100°C for 60 minutes under pH 5.3. Regardless of the mordant type and mordanting method, mordants improved dye uptake and the increase in dye uptake by Fe mordant was higher than that of Al mordant. Al post-mordanting and Fe mordanting changed the color of dyed fabric with Y Munsell color. The colorfastness of un-mordanted and Al post-mordanted fabrics were excellent above grade 4. Bacteria reduction rate(Staphylococcus aureus) of wool fabric dyed with Houttuynia cordata colorants was excellent at 98.2%. Also, the deodorization was good at 81%. The results show Houttuynia cordata colorants can be used as a functional natural dye for wool fabric.
In this study, we conducted alkali hydrolysis on sea-island type PET ultramicrofiber tricot fabric and dyeing according to the various conditions with black disperse dye. Herein, we evaluated the weight loss rate and tensile strength according to the NaOH contents. The optimal alkali hydrolysis treatment conditions were set to 25 %omf NaOH with a treatment time of 60 min at 110 ℃, and average weight loss rate of the PET ultramicrofiber tricot fabric is about 23 %. The dyeing conditions were investigated with different dyeing temperatures(95-135 ℃), dyeing time(20-60 min), dye contents(2-10 %omf), dispersant contents(1-9 g/ℓ), pH buffer solution contents(1-9 g/ℓ), UV-absorbent contents(5-25 %omf) and reduction cleaning process conditions for black color. We obtained the optimum conditions of the dyeing with the dye contents of 8 %omf, the dispersant contents of 1 g/ℓ, the pH buffer solution contents of 1 g/ℓ, the UV-absorbent contents of 10 %omf, the dyeing temperature of 135 ℃ and the dyeing time of 40 min. The light colorfastness of dyed ultramicrofiber PET tricot fabric was good to excellent in the range of 4 to 5.
The previous study reported that the quaternary copolymer of MMA, BA, MAA, and NEA was expected to be a good monomer composition for a binder polymer with good rubbing fastness for digital textile printing (DTP) pigment ink.
However, the rubbing fastness of the dyed fabric with the quaternary copolymer binder containing pigment ink is not enough to be commercially used. Therefore, this study aims to optimize MMA:BA:MAA:NEA compoistion for improved rubbing fastness. And the binder polymer with various MMA:BA:MAA:NEA compoistions were synthesized using miniemulsion polymerization. The particle size, viscosity, molecular weight, and Tg of the synthesized binder were evaluated. And the color strength and rubbing fastness of the black pigment ink dyed cotton fabrics with the prepared binders were also evaluated. Then, the stiffness of undyed and dyed cotton fabrics were evaluated to investigate the changes in touch as the binder structure changes.
Low temperature dyeing properties of wool with reactive dyes and acid dyes were investigated for the feasibility study of their application to hair dyeing. The low temperature(30℃, 40℃) dyeing achieved light depth of shade in wool dyeing and reactive dyeing exhibited relatively higher color strength and chroma values than acid dyeing. Leveling agent slightly improved the levelness of the wool dyeing and the leveling properties of dyed wool at low temperature were good to excellent, irrespective of the dyes applied. Color loss during the repeated shampooing was in the range of 9.6~22.2% for reactive dyes and -7.4~31.5% for acid dyes and in some cases, the color fastness to shampooing was reasonable level. The overall experimental results showed that the application of low temperature wool reactive dyeing to hair dyeing is sufficiently feasible in terms of dyeability and color fastness to shampooing.
To overcome the harmful effects caused by conventional oxidative hair dyes, natural colorants becomes more popular in the hair dyeing. By extracting Sagassum fusiforme powders with aqueous alkaline solution as a solvent at 130oC for 60 minutes, a fucoxanthin concentration of up to 216㎍/ml can be obtained. UV/Vis analysis was used to prove the presence of fucoxanthin in the extract powder. A K/S value of 23.8 can be obtained when wool fabrics were dyed with the extract at 120oC for 60 minutes under pH 2. The color fastness properties of the dyed wool fabrics were very good as indicated by rating 4 for laundering(color change), rating 3 or higher for rubbing, and rating 5 for light irradiation. The dyed wool fabric was found to have antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the Sagassum fusiforme extract can be an effective functional hair colorant. Hair dyeing with the extract formulation at 45oC for 40 minutes under pH 5 accomplished a K/S value of 8.9. The color fastness of the dyed hair showed rating 3 against light irradiation, which increased to rating 5 with after-mordanting of tannin acid.
In this study, pre-treatment was performed on kapok, a hydrophobic fiber, to compare dyeability by hydrophilization. The pretreatment conditions of kapok fiber were used with different amounts of sodium oleate (NaO), a fatty acid-based anionic surfactant, and xanthan gum (XG) as a natural thickener. At this time, NaO and XG were separately or mixed treated with 0.01%, 0.1%, 1% aqueous solution at 80℃ for 30 min. Hydrophilicity through dyeing was confirmed using Sappan wood extract. Therefore, SEM observation was performed to investigate the surface change of kapok fiber according to the conditions. The surface color difference was also analyzed. Pretreated kapok fibers were made from nonwoven fabrics and the contact angles were measured to determine their hydrophilization. The surface of the fiber after pretreatment was found to be cracked when NaO and NaO were mixed with XG. The surface color was the highest in a* and K/S values after the simultaneous treatment of NaO and XG, followed by NaO pretreatment and XG pretreatment. The contact angle of kapok fiber made of nonwoven fabric was slightly lower at 300 g/m2 than the fabric weight of 150 g/m2. Such hydrophilized nonwoven kapok fiber are expected to be used in various fields.
This study aims to pursue the multi-functional textile finishing method to detoxify chemical warfare agent by simply treating the well-known antimicrobial agent, chitosan, to cotton fabric. For this purpose, DFP(diisopropylfluorophosphate) was selected as a chemical warfare agent simulant and cotton fabric was treated with 0.5, 1.0, and 2wt% chitosan solution in 1wt% acetic acid. DFP decontamination properties of the chitosan treated cotton fabrics were evaluated and compared with the untreated cotton fabric. The chitosan treated cotton fabrics showed better DFP decontamination than the untreated cotton. Decontamination properties of the chitosan treated cotton fabrics improved with the increased chitosan solution used. Especially, the cotton fabrics treated with 2wt% chitosan solution showed 5 times more DFP decontamination than the untreated cotton fabrics. This suggested that the chitosan treated fabric has potential to be used as a material for protective clothing with chemical warfare agent detoxifying and antimicrobial properties.
In this study, alginate-gelatin/silk wet-laid nonwoven fabrics were prepared by using alginate gelatin fiber and silk fiber, as the main fiber, and PVA fiber as binder fiber. The characterization of pore size and mechanical property was carried out on the various weight ratios of alginate gelatin fiber and silk fibers, or the adding binder fibers. As the content of silk or binder fiber increases, the tensile strength increases from 0.70 kgf/cm2 to 5.08 kgf/cm2 and the pore size decreases 111.6 ㎛ to 51.00 ㎛. As the weight of the silk increased, the density increased, and binder fiber was added to enhance the cohesion between fibers, thereby increasing the wet-laid nonwoven fabric strength. We studied on wet-laid nonwoven fabrics that can be applied to mask sheet with adjustable pore size.
Electrical energy is used for heating and cooling because electric cars do not have engines and cooling water. The downside is that when the heating and cooling system is applied to electric vehicles, about 40 percent of the energy is spent on heating and cooling, which is less efficient in winter. This has increased demand for electric vehicle battery efficiency. In this study, the condensation and dispersion of carbon nanotubes were controlled, and carbon fibers and composite slurry were manufactured without binders to manufacture paper. Manufactured by content showed the highest heat generation characteristic at 143°C with a carbon fiber content ratio of 20wt% and confirmed that the heat temperature rises with increasing pressure. The plane heaters made through this study can be applied to a variety of products other than electric vehicles because they can be simplified by process and high temperature.