Pursuing the fabric materials for military chemical warfare protective clothing with the improved detoxification properties, this study investigated the simple and effective cotton treatment method using pad-dry-cure process and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) solution for surface amination. Detoxification properties of the untreated and treated cotton fabrics were evaluated via decontamination of chemical warfare agent simulant, DFP (diisopropylfluorophosphate). The surface aminated cotton fabric increased the rate of the hydrolysis of DFP by the factor of 3 and the decontamination ratio reached 88.2% after 24h. Therefore, the surface amination of the cotton fabric with APTMS can be an effective pathway to prepare the material for protective clothing against chemical warfare agents.
Supercritical fluid dyeing is a new alternative to the conventional aqueous process because of its environmental benefits. In this study, dyeing properties of Nylon 6 fabrics were investigated depending on dyeing temperature and pressure in supercritical CO2 fluid dyeing system. In order to select the optimal condition for supercritical fluid dyeing of Nylon 6 fabrics, dyeing temperature and pressure were varied from 100, 110, 120℃, 200, 230, 260bar, respectively. The results of K/S values and levelling properties showed that the optimal dyeing condition for Nylon 6 fabrics was 110℃ and 230bar in the supercritical CO2 fluid dyeing system. The washing fastness ratings of the dyed Nylon 6 fabrics under supercritical medium were good for both fading and staining except for staining on nylon.
In this study, the efficacy of Amaranth(Amaranthus spp. L.) as a natural dye resource was investigated for wool fabrics. It is known that a large amount of flavonoid and anthocyanin colorant are contained in leaves and stems, as well as red flowers. The optimum condition of dyeing was 1.3% of dye concentration(o.w.b.) at 100°C for 60 minutes, resulting the K/S value, 23.43 and R Munsell color on the wool fabrics. Al, Fe, Zinc and Titanium were used as a mordant. The mordant improved the dye uptake, regardless of the mordant type and mordant method. The pre-mordanting method was more effective than the post-mordanting method. Al pre-mordanted fabric showed the highest K/S, 30.02. Light fastness and washing fastness were high in grades 4-5 and 5, and rubbing fastness was good in grades 4 and 4-5 in dry condition, but low in grades 2-3 and 3 in wet condition. The dry cleaning fastness was excellent in all 5 grades. However, the alkaline perspiration fastness ratings were low in grades 2-3 and 3. The results show Amaranthus spp. L.
colorant can be used as a functional natural dye for wool fabrics.
Recently, it was reported that chitosan or APTMS(3-aminopropyl- trimethoxysilane) treatment to cotton using the simple pad-dry-cure method has potential to prepare textile materials for military chemical warfare protective clothing. However, it is not confirmed which method is more efficient. Therefore, this study aims to quantitatively compare detoxification properties of chitosan treated cotton fabric with those of APTMS treated cotton fabric. Detoxification properties were evaluated using the well-known organic phosphorous nerve agent stimulant, diisopropylfluorophosphate(DFP). With the same amount of chitosan and APTMS on the surface of the cotton fabrics, APTMS treated cotton fabric exhibited 10% higher detoxification properties than chitosan treated cotton fabric based on the rate of DFP hydrolysis and half-live of DFP calculated from the DFP decontamination ratios of the treated cotton fabrics through time. Therefore, APTMS treatment can be more efficient method to prepare the textile materials for military protective clothing than chitosan treatment.
Super engineering plastic(SEP) are applied to high performance and high value industries due to their excellent mechanical properties and high continuous operating temperature. Among them, PES and PEI are amorphous SEPs, and have the advantages of high flexibility, mechanical properties, transparency, and thermal stability. In this study, polyethersulfone(PES) and polyetherimide(PEI) fibers were manufactured to produce flame retardant artificial hair. PES and PEI fibers prepared through a melt-spinning process at a high temperature of 360 to 420℃. They are compared with commercial artificial hair by thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA), linear density, tenacity, and limited oxygen index(LOI) analysis. PES and PEI fibers have similar linear density and tenacity to commercial artificial hair, while their thermal stability and flame retardant are excellent. In particular, flame retardant was analyzed through LOI value and PES was 35.1%, which is superior to commercial artificial hair PET/Br(28.2%) and PET/P(20.2%). Therefore, PES and PEI are suitable as artificial hair for flame retardant.
In this study, lignin/chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride)(CPVC) blended fibers have been produced for the development of low-cost carbon fiber. Carbon fiber manufacturing was accomplished through stabilization and carbonization process. The lignin/CPVC blended fibers were prepared by wet spinning method. Dimethylacetamide (DMAc) and cychlohexanone in a ratio of 5:1(wt%) was employed as co-solvent. The ratio of lignin/CPVC was prepared at 0/10, 1/9, 2/8, 3/7, 4/6, and 5/5(wt%). The spinning solution was extruded at a rate of 0.1 to 0.4ml/min according to the blending ratio. The speed of the rollers was the same for all ratios(draw ratio=1). Analysis of fiber cross-section by scanning eletron microscopy(SEM) showed that as the lignin ratio increased in the same coagulation bath and distilled water, the pore size of the spinning fiber decreased. Therefore, the highest tensile strength of the blending fibers was 6.3±1.2MPa at the 5/5 ratio. The carbon fiber also showed the best tensile strength of 120.78±2.43MPa at 5/5 ratio.