Colorants were extracted from the heartwood of sappan lin. with MeOH under reflux, and the concentrate or the powder of dye was prepared by low pressure concentration method using suitable organic solvent. Various components were isolated from sappan wood, and the chemical structure and mechanism of compound having the excellent antibacterial and deodorization properties were analyzed. The results obtained are as follows；The seventeen components of sappan wood were seperated by HPLC chromatography, and the five components among them were existed more than 6% and the other components were existed lower than 0.6%.The resolving powers of the non-polar solvent and polar solvent systems were evaluated by their ability to resolve the samples. It showed that chloroform-methanol-water(800:150:10) system has the best resolving power. Although the seperation rate is very slow, polyamide C-100 column chromatography gives a clear seperation of sappan wood.On the basis of the spectrometric data such as IR, UV, GC-Mass, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 1H-13C-NMR, the chemical structure of compound having the excellent antibacterial and deodorization properties was established as brazilin containing the functional groups such as two quaternary carbon, one benzyl carbon, methylene contiguous to oxygen and methylene caused by oxygen atom.