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2009, Vol.18, No.6

  • 1.

    Spatiotemporal Changes of the Thermal Environment by the Restoration of an Inner-city Stream

    권태헌 | Kyu Rang Kim | 변재영 and 1other persons | 2009, 18(6) | pp.321~330 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Spatiotemporal changes in the thermal environment in a large city, Seoul, Korea were analyzed using a thermal index, perceived temperature (PT), to standardize the weather conditions. PT is a standard index for the thermal balance of human beings in thermophysiological environment. For the analysis of PT, the data from long-term monitoring and intensive observations in and around the inner-city stream called ‘Cheonggye’ in Seoul, were compared with a reference data from the Seoul weather station. Long-term data were monitored by installing two automatic weather stations at 66m (S1) and 173m (S2) away from the center of the stream. Through the analysis of the data during the summer of 2006 and intensive observation periods, it was revealed that the stream’s effects on the PT extended up to the distance of the S1 site. In winter, the increase of the PT between pre- and post-restoration was stronger at S1, which was nearer than S2 from the stream. These results suggest that PT can be used as an effective model in analyzing the changes of the thermal environment in relation with the changes of water surface areas.
  • 2.

    Parameter Assessment for the Simulation of Drying/Wetting in Finite Element Analysis in River and Wetland

    최승용 | Han Kun Yeun | 김병현 and 1other persons | 2009, 18(6) | pp.331~346 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The serious problem facing two-dimensional finite element hydraulic model is the treatment of wet and dry areas. This situation is encountered in most practical river and coastal engineering problems, such as flood propagation, dam break analysis and so on. Especially, dry areas result in mathematical complications and require special treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the wet and dry parameters that have direct relevance to model performance in situations where inundation of initially dry areas occurs. Several numerical simulations were carried out, which examined the performance of the marsh porosity method of RMA-2 model to investigate for application of parameters. Experimental channel with partly dry side slopes, straight channel with irregular geometry and Han river were performed for tests. As a result of this study, effectively applied marsh porosity method provide a reliable results for flow distribution of wet and dry area, it could be further developed to basis for extending to water quality and sediment transport analysis.
  • 3.

    Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change of the Physical Infrastructure in Korea Through a Survey of Professionals

    Soojeong Myeong | Donggyu Yi | 2009, 18(6) | pp.347~357 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This study conducted a vulnerability assessment on Korea’s physical infrastructure to provide base data for developing strategies to strengthen Korea’s ability to adapt to climate change. The assessment was conducted by surveying professionals in the field of infrastructure and climate change science. A vulnerability assessment was carried out for seven climate change events: average temperature increases, sea level rise, typhoons and storm surges, floods and heavy rain, drought, severe cold, and heat waves. The survey asked respondents questions with respect to the consequences of each climate change event, the urgency of adaptation to climate change, and the scale of investment for adaptation to each climate change event. Thereafter, management priorities for infrastructure were devised and implications for policy development were suggested. The results showed that respondents expected the possibility of “typhoons and storm surges” and “floods and heavy rain” to be the most high. Respondents indicated that infrastructure related to water, transportation, and the built environment were more vulnerable to climate change. The most vulnerable facilities included river related facilities such as dams and riverbanks in the “water” category and seaports and roads in the “transport and communication” category. The results found were consistent with the history of natural disasters in Korea.
  • 4.

    Fault Tree Analysis for Risk Assessment of CO2 Leakage from Geologic Storage

    Sang-Il Lee | 이상기 | 황진환 | 2009, 18(6) | pp.359~366 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) is considered as the most promising interim solution to deal with the greenhouse gas such as CO2 responsible for global warming. Even though carefully chosen geologic formations are known to contain stored gas for a long time period, there are potential risks of leakage. Up to now, applicable risk assessment procedures for the leakage of CO2 are not available. This study presents a basis for risk analysis applicable to a complex geologic storage system. It starts with the classification of potential leakage pathways. Receptors and the leakage effect on them are identified and quantified. Then, a fault tree is constructed, which yields the minimum cut set (i.e., the most vulnerable leakage pathway) and quantifies the probability of the leakage risk through the cut set. The methodology will provide a tool for risk assessment in a CCS project. The outcomes of the assessment will not only ensure the safety of the CCS system but also offer a reliable and efficient monitoring plan.
  • 5.

    Decision Making of Improvement Priority by Deterioration Risk Assessment of Water Supply Infrastructures

    Chae,Soo-Kwon | DaeJong Lee | Juhwan Kim | 2009, 18(6) | pp.367~376 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper proposes an application methodology of AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process) based decision making theory for improvement priority by assessment of various risk factors affecting on deterioration of water supply systems, as major social infrastructure. AHP method is organized with three level of hierarchy which is introduced for multi-criteria decision making in this study. In the first level, assessment outputs are calculated by AHP for each affecting factor. In the second level, criteria are estimated by using assessment results with respect to structural and environmental factors. Consequently, ranking decision is performed in the third level. In order to present the effectiveness, a proposed method is compared with FCP(Fuzzy Composite Programming) for decision making. Since the results of the proposed method show better performance with consistent results, it can be applied as an efficient information for the determination for improvement priority of the study infrastructure.
  • 6.

    Simulation of Turbid Water in the Stratified Daecheong Reservoir during Gate Operation

    Jae Il Lee | 서세덕 | 이규성 and 1other persons | 2009, 18(6) | pp.377~386 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Due to severe flooding, the long-term residence of turbidity flows within the stratified Daecheong Reservoir have lengthened. A long-term residence of turbidity flows within the stratified Daecheong Reservoir after floods has been major environmental issue. The objective of this study was to assess the impact to water supply from the hydrodynamics and turbidity outflow. Two gate operation scenarios were investigated. Scenario A refers to gate operations according to rainfall events, and scenario B refers to gate operations according to inflow. From the results of secenario A, the SS concentrations decreased from 0.44mg/l to 0.54mg/l at the front of the dam, whereas SS concentrations increased from 0.24mg/l to 1.24mg/l at the intake points at Munhi and Daejeon. From the results of scenario B, the SS concentrations decreased from 0.61mg/l to 0.83mg/l at the front of Dam; howeve, SS concentrations also decreased from 0.16mg/l to 0.48mg/l at the intake points at Munhi and Daejeon. It seems that it may be more efficient to control turbidity by creating additional outflows of generated discharge after intensive rainfalls than not.
  • 7.

    Accuracy Improvement of Vegetation Classification Using High Resolution Imagery and OOC Technique

    Chang-Hee Hong | Chong-Hwa Park | 2009, 18(6) | pp.387~392 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    As Our society’s environmental awareness and concern the significant increases, the importance of the legal system for environmental conservation such as the Prior Environmental Review System, Environmental Impact Assessment is growing increasingly. but, still critical issues are present such as reliability. Though there could be various causes such as the system or procedures etc. Above all, basically the environmental data problem is the critical cause. Therefore, this study was trying to improve the environmental data accuracy using the highresolution color aerial photography, LiDAR data and Object Oriented Classification method. And in this study, classification based on coverage percentage of a particular species was attempted through the multi-resolution segmentation and multi-level classification method. The classification result was verified by comparison with 11 points local survey data. All 11 points were classified correctly. And even though the exact coverage percentage of the particular species did not be measured, It was confirmed that the species was occupied similar portion. It is important that the environmental data which can be used for the conservation value assessment could be acquired.
  • 8.

    Determination of EMC and Washoff Characteristics of Stormwater Runoff from Broad-Leaved Forest Areas

    강창국 | Soyoung Lee | 조안 and 2other persons | 2009, 18(6) | pp.393~399 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The water of rivers and lakes are affecting by point and nonpoint source pollutions. The point source pollution can be controlled by establishing the treatment plants. However, nonpoint source pollution by various human activities is not easy to be controlled because it is difficult to determine the exits of the water flow and have many exit points. Due to contribution of nonpoint source pollution, the achievement ratio of water quality in rivers and lakes is not high. TMDL is the outstanding water quality control policy because all of the pollutant loadings from the watershed area are counting on the input loads. Our aqua-ecosystem has selfpurification process by biological, physical and ecological processes. The self-purification process can remove the pollutant load from background concentrations. Usually forest area is main source of background concentrations. In Korea, about 70% of the national boundary area consists of mountains. This study is conducting as part of long-term monitoring to determine the Event Mean Concentration during a storm. The monitoring was performed on a broadleaved tree area.
  • 9.

    A Study on Measuring the Similarity Among Sampling Sites in Lake Yongdam with Water Quality Data Using Multivariate Techniques

    이요상 | Sehyug Kwon | 2009, 18(6) | pp.401~409 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Multivariate statistical approaches to classify sampling sites with measuring their similarity by water quality data and understand the characteristics of classified clusters have been discussed for the optimal water quality monitering network. For empirical study, data of two years (2005, 2006) at the 9 sampling sites with the combination of 2 depth levels and 7 important variables related to water quality is collected in Yongdam reservoir. The similarity among sampling sites is measured with Euclidean distances of water quality related variables and they are classified by hierarchical clustering method. The clustered sites are discussed with principal component variables in the view of the geographical characteristics of them and reducing the number of measuring sites. Nine sampling sites are clustered as follows; One cluster of 5, 6, and 7 sampling sites shows the characteristic of low water depth and main stream of water. The sites of 2 and 4 are clustered into the same group by characteristics of hydraulics which come from that of main stream. But their changing pattern of water quality looks like different since the site of 2 is near to dam. The sampling sites of 3, 8, and 9 are individually positioned due to the different tributary.
  • 10.

    A Review of the Master Plan for Four Major Rivers Restoration Project

    Park, Chang-kun | 2009, 18(6) | pp.411~417 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Lately the master plan for the Four Major Rivers Restoration Project has been released by the Ministry of Land and Maritime Affairs and relevant ministries. According to the master plan compared with the interim report made on 15 December 2008, the number of weirs for irrigation has increased from 5 to 16, the amount of dredging has increased from 220 million cubic metres to 570 million cubic metres, and the total cost estimated has increased from 14 trillion won to 22 trillion won. A critical review of the master plan by some research group will be summarized focused upon budget, objectives, securing water resource, dredging, and flood control etc. After various experts’ forums and field surveys, it is concluded that the government should implement a joint-research program on assessing the impact of the project together with experts and citizens’ groups as co-partners, in order to truly save or restore the four major rivers.
  • 11.

    Strategic Environmental Assessment for the Master Plan of Tonkin Gulf Coastal Economic Belt Development: Lesson Learnt

    Le Trinh | 2009, 18(6) | pp.419~427 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Methodology and application of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for policies, plans, and programs are still new approach in Vietnam. With a support from Vietnam-Swedish Project (SEMLA) and Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE), SEA for the Tonkin Gulf Coastal Economic Belt Development Plan was conducted in 2008. Lessons obtained from this SEA may contribute to improving methods and practicing SEAs for regional development. The main lessons summarized in this paper are: (i) close cooperation between the planning and environmental teams from the beginning phase of a master plan; (ii) SEA should focus not only on impacts to the natural environment but also on main issues of socio-economic aspects; (iii) approaches and methods used in SEA should be appropriate to properly predict the impacts at regional-levels and cumulative impacts; (iv) a good SEA study may be achieved when detailed data on the environment and socio-economy of the study area are available and have active engagement of stakeholders, including project affected sectors, ecologists, planners, policy makers, etc. This paper is useful for whom, those work in SEA in regional development.
  • 12.

    Environmental Specimen Bank and Ecosystem Assessment

    김명진 | 김지연 | 조용주 and 1other persons | 2009, 18(6) | pp.429~434 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Environmental specimen bank (ESB) is a new tool to assess ecosystem in environmental impact assessment (EIA). ESB looks at changes in the concentration of pollutants in human and environmental specimens over long periods of time through retrospective analysis of archived samples. Korea started to design its National Environmental Specimen Bank (NESB) in 2007 and planned to launch an operational pilot project by 2010. NESB prepares five Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) of shoots of Red and Korean pine, leaves of Mongolian oak, Pigeon’s egg, and Common carp’s muscle out of 14 planned specimens in 2009. ESB contributes to monitoring the effectiveness of EIA projects and policies by providing a time capsule through ecosystem assessment of representative species. This study reviews ecosystem assessment in EIA and the ESB establishment in Korea and probes NESB applications in ecosystem assessment.
  • 13.

    Environmental Impacts of Port and Industrial Development Along the Thi Vai River

    Tran Ha Phuong | Nguyen Tho | Nguyen Thanh Hung | 2009, 18(6) | pp.435~443 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Ba Ria - Vung Tau province in Southern Vietnam is one of the fastest economic growing areas in the country, characterized by the rapid port and industrial development along the Thi Vai river. The socio-economic situation of the area has generally been improved; however, its part of the local inhabitants has not gained benefits from the changes. 35 surface water samples and 25 sediment samples were analysed with the interpretation of the SPOT images for 1995 and 2005. The data showed that rapid port and industrial development have resulted in significant losses of mangroves and agriculture land. The surface water was seriously polluted, particularly in terms of organic materials and suspended solids. It contained high and increasing oil concentrations. The river sediment was saline and slightly alkaline. It was heavily reduced, organic-rich, and contaminated with oil and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Cr).
  • 14.

    Evaluatinon of the Surface Water in Southwest Area of Vietnam

    Thai Thanh Luom | 2009, 18(6) | pp.445~452 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study surveys the surface water environment in Southwest sea areas of Vietnam in order to evaluate the current environment. It collects and analyzes experimental results of programs, scientific subjects, and international projects relevant to ecological areas and coastlines of Kien Giang province. The methods analyzed and discussed by specialists are evaluated according to pollution coefficients established by the World Health Organization (WHO), sampling methods, and case study analyses. Comparison between the scale of pollution levels and the surface water quality in experimental areas of Long Xuyen Quadrangle shows a light-moderate pollution level. In Ca Mau Peninsula, the surface water source is only slightly polluted. Sea areas and islands are also light-moderately polluted. Computing results from water quality indices (WQI) show the level of pollution in experimental sites. Activities such as constructing infrastructures for tourism, exploiting minerals, and increasing population accelerate environmental pollution by deteriorating inherently sensitive ecosystems like corals, sea grass, mangrove swamps, and Melaleuca forests. Surveying and evaluating the present situation of surface water are fundamental solutions for environmental protection in the Southwest sea areas of Vietnam.