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2010, Vol.19, No.1

  • 1.

    Estimation of Ammonia Flux and Emission Factor from the Cattle Housing of Fall and Winter

    JaeHwan Sa | Jeon,Eui-chan | 2010, 19(1) | pp.1~13 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Ammonia (NH3) is an important pollutant that plays a key role in several air pollution problems. It can create odors and have negative impacts on animal and human health. The largest source contributing to Ammonia emission is the agricultural production, in particular animal operation, in Korea. The present study evaluated flux profiles of Ammonia emitted from the cattle housing using a dynamic flux chamber. We have developed the emission factor of Ammonia from the cow housing. Analysis of Ammonia flux variation was made with respect to manure surface temperature, pH, and ammonium concentration. Ammonia has been measured from calf and cattle housing between October and December in 2007. In the fall, average Ammonia flux from calf and cattle housing was estimated 1.342(±0.728) and 1.323(±0.655)mg/m2/min, respectively. In the winter, average Ammonia flux was estimated 0.889(±0.362)mg/m2/min from the calf housing and 0.925(±0.511)mg/m2/min from the cattle housing. The correlation coefficient between Ammonia flux and ammonium concentration showed stronger relationship than the relationship between manure pH and temperature. In the fall,Ammonia emission factor from calf and cattle housing was estimated 4.46(±2.39) and 6.03(±3.27)kg-NH3/animal/yr, respectively. In the winter, average Ammonia flux was estimated 2.88(±1.53) from the calf housing and 4.24(±1.63)kg-NH3/animal/yr from the cattle housing.
  • 2.

    A Study about the Impact of Atmospheric Environmental Changes by Urban Development on Human Health

    김재철 | Chongbum Lee | 천태훈 and 1other persons | 2010, 19(1) | pp.15~28 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Because deterioration of air quality and urban heat island directly harm health of citizens,Health Impact Assessment (HIA) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for urban development projects needs to conduct analysis of their impacts objectively. This study aims to review appropriate methods for assessment of air quality used at each stage of urban development and to investigate prediction and assessment methods of urban heat island. In addition, by evaluating impacts of climate change following supposed urban construction performed in the central area of Korea on public health, it examines usefulness of HIA for urban construction. When urban heat island prediction and HIA method suggested in this study are applied to an imaginary city, they predict urban heat island properly and the impacts of climate changes on public health inside the city could be determined clearly by calculating life-climate index and bio-climate index related with thermal environment from the model.
  • 3.

    Assessment of Odor Characterization and Odor Unit from Livestock Facilities by animals

    Young-Kee Jang | Jung, Bongjin | 김정 and 3other persons | 2010, 19(1) | pp.29~38 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    At recent the number of livestock is increased and the size of farm has changed to large facilities in Korea. So the livestock facilities have become one of major sources of odor emission. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concentration and assessment of odor unit from livestock facilities for cow, dairy, swine and poultry. The eleven odor pollutants such as H2S,(CH3)SH, (CH3)2S, (CH3)2S2, CH3N, NH3, (CH3)2N, (CH3)3N, butyric acid, valeric acid and isovaleric acid, measured for assessment of the odor concentrations from livestock facility. As the results, it is found that the major matters of odor from livestock facilities were NH3and H2S. The highest concentration of NH3 is measured as 15 ppm at henhouse and H2S is measured as 858 ppb at penpig facilities. In the comparison of the average odor unit from livestocks, it is found that the highest odor unit was from swine and the lowest odor unit was from cow facility. So odor unit from swine facilities was 12 to 30 times higher than the odor unit from cow facilities.
  • 4.

    The Effect of Impermeable Surface and Rainwater Infiltration Facilities on the Runoff pH of Housing Complexes

    현경학 | 최정주 | CHOUNG YOUN KYOO | 2010, 19(1) | pp.39~47 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In order to examine the effect of impermeable surface (rooftop, outdoor parking lot) and rainwater infiltration facilities on runoff pH, pH was measured. pH measurement spots were splash blocks accepted roof runoff of 3 sites, infiltration boxes and trenches accepted parking lot runoff and plastic rainwater harvesting facility accepted roof runoff. These measurements were operated at 3 housing complexes from 2006 to 2009. The rainwater runoff pH was influenced by the quality of the runoff surface material (concrete), the age of the building, waterproofing methods according to each housing site,antecedent rainfall conditions and others. Rain garden, infiltration boxes and trenches decreased the alkalinity of runoff by detention and infiltrating the roof and outdoor parking lot runoff. These results mean that decentralized rainwater management facilities of housing complexes can reduce effect on the outskirt aquatic ecosystem by the accumulation of substances causing pH rising in the infiltration facilities and rain garden.
  • 5.

    The Analysis of Runoff Characteristics by Alterations of SCS-CN Value using LID Method

    권준희 | 박인혁 | Ha, Sungryong | 2010, 19(1) | pp.49~57 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of the research is to analyze changing trend of water discharge in precipitation,according to changing land use, through an environment-friendly urban development method called LID. The study chose S1 basin (Separated Sewer districts) in Cheongju region for survey. Among LID methods, relatively more applicable methods of green rooftop space and parking lot with permeable material were selected to construct plausible scenarios. Curve Number (CN)value was calculated due to land use patterns in each scenario, and SWMM model simulation were conducted during 2008 for comparative analysis. For Case 1, only parking lot with permeable material was applied to the scenario. Green rooftop space I and II were applied to Case 2 and 3 respectively. For Case 4 and 5, green rooftop space I and II were applied, in addition to parking lot with permeable material, Calculation of CN value showed that for S1basin, the value was 88.1 (prior to scenario application), 86.5 (Case 1), 81.9 (Case 2), 68.5 (Case 3), 80.4 (Case 4) and 67.2 (Case 5). Changing pattern of rain water discharge was analyzed for each scenario. For Case 1, the change was not remarkable before and after application of scenario. In Case 2 and 4, the impact of rain water discharge as source of pollutant fell to 20~30%. The rate dropped to 30~50% in Case 3 and 5 respectively. The result demonstrates that the amount of rain water discharge, amount and frequency of sewer overflow, frequency of rain water discharge, and pollution load decreased in accordance with declining CN value in each scenario. In installing green rooftop space, the effect was twice greater when rain water discharge was directly infiltrated into soil
  • 6.

    Analysis of the trend of atmospheric PM10 concentration over the Seoul Metropolitan Area between 1999 and 2008

    Yong Pyo Kim | 2010, 19(1) | pp.59~74 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    The trend of the PM10 concentrations in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) is reviewed and relative contributions of major contributors (paved road emissions and long-range transport from outside the SMA) are discussed. It was shown that the PM10 concentrations in the SMA have generally decreased except Incheon between 1999 and 2005. Further, it was identified that the difference of the PM10 mass concentration between the roadside stations and urban ambient stations has decreased between 2004 and 2008. Based on the emission estimates, it was suggested that the reduction of resuspension of aerosols on the road is the major reason for that. Based on the modeling results, it was identified that outside effects be about 30% of the ambient PM10 concentration in the SMA. Further research and policy issues to identify major sources of PM10 in the SMA are discussed.
  • 7.

    Air Temperature Decreasing Effects by Restored Urban Stream

    Kyoo-seock Lee | 신동훈 | 김재철 and 4other persons | 2010, 19(1) | pp.75~81 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    자연형 하천으로 복원된 도시하천의 기온저감 효과를 파악하고자 2007년 6월 1일부터 2008년 5월 31일까지 10분 간격으로 서울시 강남구의 양재천 및 그 주변지역의 기온을 관측하였다. 관측 값은 관측지점의 일중 기온변화와 관측 자료들 중에서 연 평균 기온이 가장 높은 숙명여고 (SM) 와 양재천 주변 두 지역(YW와 YT)의 기온차를 비교 분석하였다. 그 결과 2007년 6월 15일 22:50에 숙명여고와 양재천 두 지점의 기온차가 7.7℃로 가장 크게 관측되었으며 이때 기상상태는 바람이 없고맑고 개인 날씨이었다. 또한 일 중 기온 저감효과는 낮보다는 밤에 뚜렷하였으며 관측 기간 중 숙명여고 (SM)에서 열대야 현상이 13일로 가장 많이 나타난데 비해 양재천 (YW와 YT)은 4일로서 열대야의 특성인 도심지 최저기온 상승을 하천이 억제함으로써 하천의 기온저감효과가 확인되었다.
  • 8.

    Application of Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland for Treating the Agricultural Runoff

    강창국 | Soyoung Lee | 말라 and 1other persons | 2010, 19(1) | pp.83~89 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The areas for agricultural purposes in Korea are decreasing every year because of urbanization. However, it is still 17.6% of the total national boundary on 2008. Most of the rice paddy fields are located near the waterbodies which require lots of water during rainy season from May to September. Also lots of nitrate and phosphate chemical fertilizers are spread on the fields every year in order to supply the nutrients for vegetation. The excess nutrients is impairs the water quality of rivers and lakes when it is washed out from the fields. The Korean Ministry of Environment (MOE) adapted the new water quality improvement program, which is the Total Daily Maximum Load, to improve the water quality and to protect the aquaecosystems. The constructed wetland is one of the possible ways to treat the agricultural runoff. The constructed wetland on this study area was constructed by MOE in 2007 to evaluate the application of the constructed wetlands. Plant growth continues to increase during the summer until it reaches its highest biomass of 6,032 g/m2 in August and September. More researches about sedimentation, vegetation, water balance, etc. were performed to evaluate the removal efficiency, to find the removal mechanisms and to make the guidelines for design and maintenance.
  • 9.

    An Analysis of Changing River Sections Using GIS Spatial Analysis - Nonsan River -

    Jae Il Lee | 이규성 | Ha, Sungryong | 2010, 19(1) | pp.91~97 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The systematic data management system in the area of river flow analysis has not yet constructed, even though the need is evident due to the complicated process of tremendous input/output data in the modeling study and the importance of visualization of spatial flow variation. The objectives of this study are to suggest the method for analysis of changing river sections affecting ecological habitat characteristics. The effects of ecological habitat characteristics are assessed with respect to changing river sections. A GIS special analysis is created representing in the past section of Nonsan-river using historical data. Topographic surfaces are subject to erosional and depositional forces that a specific set of surface characteristics unique to elevation data. GIS spatial analyst is used to generate surface grids from historical point data. Using the GIS spatial analyst can be constructed sections for anywhere of river. The change of depth between 1979 and 1988, the left bank elevations of a river are increased about 1.5m. But the right bank elevations of a river are decreased about 2.3m caused by erosion. In addition, the change of spatial between 1988 and 2002, the regions of a river from upper stream to midstream are decreased the elevation. But the downstream regions are increased the elevation. These changes are analyzed in GIS program to assess methods for affecting ecological habitat.