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2010, Vol.19, No.3

  • 1.

    Impact of the Geochemical Characteristics and Potential Contaminants Source of Surrounding Soil on Contamination of a Reservoir in an Island (II) - Appraisal of flow categorized by Incursion Using Rainfall-Runoff Model -

    박선환 | 박완섭 | 전영봉 and 6other persons | 2010, 19(3) | pp.215~222 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This research aims to gain the result of assessment of inflow categorized by runoff path using DIROM (Daily Irrigation Reservoir Operation Model) for Baengnyeong-myeon reservior which was built for residents of Baengnyeong island to solve the shortage of drinking water and stable supply of domestic water. The simulation results of DIROM and actual hydrograph of the reservoir show very low correlation with geological characteristics. The simulation results by DIROM after adjusting with modified Tank III model which considers all outflow from Tank II model as interflow among 3 level tanks show good correlation of its regional runoff and inflow characteristics with R2=0.9058. In the study area, diffluence of 37% of rain fall of the study year has been simulated, which shows low result compared to the average river runoff of national water resource. In addition,34.5% of total inflow to the study reservoir is mainly interflow and baseflow among expected several channels.
  • 2.

    Comparison of Model Results for Variation and Resolution of Meteorological Field Using HY-SPLIT

    Chongbum Lee | 김재철 | 박상진 and 1other persons | 2010, 19(3) | pp.223~230 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Trajectory dispersion models are used for the dispersion calculations in air quality assessments, Yellow-sand modeling, environmental planning and the emergency response. Meso-scale forcing and coastal circulations are calculated by trajectory model in the East Asia region. In this study the meteorological fields (GDAS and MM5) coupled to the trajectory model (HY-SPLIT) are applied to simulate the transport and the dispersion. Seoul is selected as a starting point of the HY-SPLIT. The sensitivity studies are performed by conducting an ensemble of simulations using the GDAS and the MM5 model for the same dispersion cases. The results in this study show a significant difference depending on the resolution of meteorological models. Additionally, in most cases of the compared tionally,results from MM5and GDAS, the absolute and relative distance, shows significant difference and the difference increased with the increasing distance of HY-SPLIT. Therefore, for the case of small domai for twi d field distefbution over complex terrai , should be used only high model temporal or spatial resolution to improve the HY-SPLIT model results.
  • 3.

    Restoration Plan and Ecological Characteristics of Vegetation in the Area Adjacent to GeumJeong Mountain Fortress

    김석규 | 2010, 19(3) | pp.231~245 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The the purpose of this study was to analyze of the vegetation structure and phytosociological changes in the area adjacent to GeumJeong Mountain Fortress for fifteen years. The result of this study was as follows;Of the 8 quadrates, site of the North Gate 2 was having a highest in the number of extinct trees, 15 kinds. This is probably due to trampling effect caused by climbers’steps. Site of the West Gate 1 and South gate 1 each had 8 kinds of extinct trees, respectively. The number of newly appeared trees was highest at site of the North Gate 1, (8 kinds) followed by the sites of South gate 1 and South gate 2, respectively (5 kinds). The highest decrease in number of tree species was observed in North Gate 1, therefore, there is a strong relationship between vegetation diversity and the number of users of the available spaces. In order to revitalize the unstable vegetation structure of the Area Adjacent to GeumJeong Mountain Fortress, Robinia pseudo-acacia has to be well maintained in the shrub tree layer, and vines, such as Smilax china, Humulus japonicus, and Pueraria thungergiana, should be removed. To recover natural vegetation, dead leaf layer should be protected, and more shrub trees need to be planted. In the understory and shrub tree layer, multi layer tree planting is highly recommended to recover natural vegetation and increase tree diversity. In order to improve bad soil condition caused by trampling effect of recreational users,special treatments to the soil structure are required, such as mulching and raking soil. Also,depending on its soil damage from users trampling, the areas in the park should be divided into usable areas and user limited areas by the sabbatical year system. To improve the soil acidity due to acidic rain, soil buffering ability should be improved by activating microorganisms in the soil by using lime and organic material.
  • 4.

    Simulation of Turbid Water According to Watershed Runoff and Withdrawal Type in a Constructing Reservoir

    Jae Chung Park | 최재훈 | Youngil Song and 3other persons | 2010, 19(3) | pp.247~257 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Watershed runoff and turbid water dynamics were simulated in the Youngju Dam, being constructed. The runoff flow and suspended solids were simulated and then thermal stratification and turbid water current in the reservoir were predicted by HSPF and CE-QUALW2model, respectively. Considering selective withdrawal, we hypothesized 3 withdrawal types from the dam, i.e. surface layer, middle layer and the lowest layer. The maximum concentration of SS was 400mg/L in reservoir and it was decreased by the withdrawal. The inflowed turbid water fell to 30 NTU after 12 days regardless of the withdrawal types, but the surface layer withdrawal was a better type at turbid water discharge than the others. In current environmental impact assessment(EIA), we concluded that runoff and reservoir water quality predicted by HSPF and CE-QUAL-W2 was desirable, and appropriate parameters were selected by continous monitoring after EIA.
  • 5.

    A Case Study on Health Impact Assessment from Petroleum Refinery Plant Operation - Human Risk Assessment due to Chemicals Inhalation -

    명노일 | 이영수 | Daeyewn Shin | 2010, 19(3) | pp.259~270 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    We conducted human risk assessment for exposure to inhalation of chemical substances emitted from the storage tanks of petroleum refineries. To assess human risk, this study calculated chemical emissions from the external floating roofs on storage tank at petroleum refineries, as well as concentrations thereof in the ambient air using the K-SCREEN model, and then determined risk in accordance with the Reference Concentration (RfC) values and Inhalation Unit Risk criteria developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results indicated that non-carcinogenic chemicals have a hazard quotient of less than 1,meaning they have an insignificant effect on human health for residential areas near the storage tanks. Among the known carcinogens, the hazard risk for benzene slightly exceeded 10-6,indicating the need for corrective reduction measures. The methodology for health impact assessment devised herein provides findings useful in decision making for policy makers and the general public with respect to construction of industrial complexes. However, the methodology proposed herein does have limitations,including discrepancy in results induced by use of U.S. data (due to the lack of usable domestic data). More systematic studies from related researchers will be needed to address these issues and produce more reliable outcomes.
  • 6.

    A Case Study on Health Impact Assessment from Incinerator Operation in New Towns - Human Risk Assessment due to Heavy Metals Inhalation -

    명노일 | 이영수 | Daeyewn Shin | 2010, 19(3) | pp.271~279 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    We conducted a quantitative human health risk assessment with respect to inhalation of heavy metals for residents of housing developments in “new towns” where an incinerator will be operated within the area scheduled for construction thereof. To assess potential human health risk we calculated the amount of heavy metals emitted from the incinerator, and then forecasted the potential health impact on adjoining areas where new housing is to be developed (i.e. “new towns”) at different altitudes by a using SCREEN-3 model. We assessed Cancer Risk (CR) caused by known carcinogens using the Inhalation Unit Risk criteria developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Notably, we assessed risk by determining concentrations of heavy metals on a floor by floor basis, as apartment buildings are to be constructed near the incinerator according to a pre-devised plan. Results indicated that cancer risk for most carcinogens exceeded US EPA standards for the highest locations at each collection point. This result indicates that construction of high buildings in areas adjoining incinerators is undesirable, and that measures to lower carcinogens are needed. The results of this study,which assessed health risk from exposure to heavy metals emitted from a nearby incinerator,can be useful in land use planning with respect to the location of housing developments in new towns, as well as the heights of any buildings constructed. Furthermore, the methodology deployed herein with respect to risk assessment can be helpful for policy makers and the general public in the event of conflicts regarding incinerator projects in the future. The results herein may also be of merit in determining priorities when establishing harm reduction measures for carcinogens at incinerators. However, the study does contain several limitations. The SCREEN-3 model, a kind of screening model that provides conservative results, can provide higher forecasted concentrations of air pollutants than other models. Moreover,although the incinerator in question is set to be a thermoselect type, domestic data for emissions from these incinerators is not available, and assumptions were based on a stoker type incinerator. Insufficient domestic data likewise compelled the use of data of USA, resulting in possible errors in results. Continued research will thus be required to develop systematic methodologies that address the foregoing factors and produce more reliable outcomes.
  • 7.

    Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Northern Bangladesh for Irrigation, Drinking and Industrial Uses

    Jahidul Mohammad Islam | Tarek Nasirullah | Nuruddin Mohammad Miah and 3other persons | 2010, 19(3) | pp.281~296 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    방그라데시 북부에 위치한 풀바리 우파질라 지역의 지하수에서 pH, EC, 주요 양이온 (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Fe3+, and As3+), 주요 음이온 (CO3 2-, HCO3-, NO3-, SO4 2- and Cl-) 그리고 total dissolved solids (TDS) 등의 용존물질 함량을 측정하였다. 또한 sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), 경도 등의 지표도 계산하였다. 전체적으로 지하수의 pH는 약알칼리성 (6.24 - 8.10)을 띄었으며, 주요 양이온은 Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ 이었고, 주요 음이온은 HCO3 - and Cl- 으로서 전형적인 담수의 이온조성을 보였다. Cu2+, Mn2+ and Fe3+ 의 최대 농도는 각각 1.71, 0.606, 0.125 mg/L 이었다. 방글라데시의 여러 지역에서는 비소에 의한 지하수의 오염이 흔히 나타나고 있으나 이지역에서 비소의 최대농도가 0.41 mg/L로서 기준치인 0.05 mg/L 보다 낮은 오염도를 보였다. TDS와 SAR, SSP 등으로 볼 때 이 지역의 지하수는 대부분 양호한 수질을 가지는 담수인 것으로 평가된다. As3+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Fe3+, SO4 2-, NO3 - and Cl- 등의 농도는 음용수로적합한 수준이었으나 일부 항목은 특정 산업용도로는 부적합한 농도를 보였다. 현재로서는 이지역의 지하수는 대부분 음용이 가능하고 일부 산업용에 대해서만 부적합성을 보였다. 그러나 앞으로 지하수의 이용과 산업활동이 증가하면 방글라데시의 많은 다른 지역의 지하수에서 발생한 사례와 같이 용존물질의 농도가 증가하여 물의 용도에 제한을 받게 될 우려가 있다.
  • 8.

    Calibration of NDVI Error at Shadow Areas with GRABS :Focused on Cheong City

    Ban, Yong-un | Sang Il Na | 이태호 | 2010, 19(3) | pp.297~305 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study has intended to analyze the nature of the errors that occur as a result of shadows during the process of NDVI calculation using high-resolution satellite images of Cheongju City,in order to calibrate such errors, and to verify the results. This study has calibrated the shadow errors by utilizing the relationship between the Greenness above Bare Soil (GRABS) calculated through Tasseled-Cap transformation and the original NDVI. To verify the accuracy of the results, this study has compared the shadow area extracted by the difference between before and after calibration of NDVI, with the original shadow area. The NDVI value converged on the value of -1.0, representing water, because shadow areas could not accept the reflection value from each band. However, after performing Tasseled-Cap transformation, the NDVI of shadow areas that had converged on -1.0 prior to calibration had increased to a level similar to the NDVI of neighboring areas. In addition, the average NDVI in general had increased from -0.08 to -0.01. Finally, the shadow area drawn out was almost matched to the original one, meaning that the NDVI calibration method employed turned out to be highly accurate in extracting shadow areas.
  • 9.

    A Comparison Study on Water Network Models

    Kim Joon Hyun | 나탈리아 야꾸니나 | 2010, 19(3) | pp.307~314 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Brebbia’s model has been analyzed to develop the appropriate waterworks management system in Korea, and compared with the conventional models such as EPANET, WaterCad,and InfoWorks. The hydraulic theory of the models was analyzed. Each model’s numerical techniques, required parameters, input data and operational methodologies, restrictions,practical applicability and other aspects were investigated. In order to check the validity of Brebbia model, the comparative analysis with EPANET, WaterCAD, and InfoWorks models was performed for linear and nonlinear cases. To find out advantages and disadvantages of each model, the modeling was performed for a simple network and for more complicated A city waterworks system, and the three models applicability was examined. Finally, optimal modeling technique and a model suitable for the use in Korea was suggested, and the problems related to present projects of waterworks management system in Korea were analyzed.
  • 10.

    A Study on Water Network Modeling System Based Upon GIS

    Kim Joon Hyun | 나탈리아 야꾸니나 | 2010, 19(3) | pp.315~321 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    ArcView and water network models have been integrated to develop the water network modeling system based upon GIS. To develop this system, pre, main, and post processing systems are required. GIS programming technique was adopted by using the ArcView’s script language Avenue. The input data of models have been prepared by using the AutoCAD Map3D through the conversion of modeling input data to GIS data for A city. The modeling has been implemented by using EPANET, WaterCAD, InfoWorks. To develop the post processing system, the modeling results of the water network models have been analyzed by using GIS. During the application process of the developed system to B city with 300,000population, main problems were found in the constructed GIS DB of that city. Thus, pilot study area of B city has been constructed, and pre-, main, and post-processing techniques were invented based upon GIS. Finally, the problems related to waterworks GIS projects in Korea were discussed and solutions were suggested.
  • 11.

    Characteristics of Metallic and Ionic Concentration in PM10 at Inland and Seashore in Busan

    Jeon, Byung-Il | 오광중 | 황용식 | 2010, 19(3) | pp.323~333 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    PM10 mass were measured in Gwaebeopdong (inland) and Dongsamdong (seashore) of Busan in summer and fall, 2007 and the 24-hour averaged samples were analyzed to investigate temporal and spatial variability of metallic elements and water-soluble ions in PM10. Overall average concentrations of PM10 mass during the study period were 72.7 mg/m3 and 64.3 mg/m3in Gwaebeopdong and Dongsamdong, respectively. As for metal elements, averaged concentrations of crustal components, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, and Ti, in Gwaebeopdong exhibited enhancement relative to Dongsamdong. Non-crustal elements, Pb and Cu, displayed elevated levels in Gwaebeopdong while Ni and Zn were observed to be high in Dongsamdong. Averaged nitrate concentration in Gwaebeopdong (6.36 mg/m3) was greater than in Dongsamdong(5.68mg/m3) and both areas had higher level of nitrate in summer than in fall. Averaged sulfate concentrations in Dongsamdong (25.4%) exhibited elevated level relative to Gwaebeopdong (19.4%). Overall average contribution of water-soluble ions to PM10 in Dongsamdong (47.5%)was higher than in Gwaebeopdong (37.8%). The average mass fractions of secondary ions in PM10 were elevated in Dongsamdong (37.1%) as compared to Gwaebeopdong (31.4%). Equivalent ratio of [SO42-/ NO3-] was seen to be lower in Gwaebeopdong (1.39) than that in Dongsamdong (1.79) and consistently higher in summer than in fall for both areas.
  • 12.

    Scoping for Environmental Impact and System Improvement of Marine Sand Mining in Korea

    Dae-In Lee | Eom ki-hyuk | Gui-Young Kim and 1other persons | 2010, 19(3) | pp.335~345 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This paper assessed environmental impacts of marine sand mining on coastal areas and Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of Korea, and diagnosed problems of the related assessment statements for suggesting key assessment items (scoping) and system improvement. To mitigate conflicts and environmental impacts caused by large-scale, concentrated sand mining,we suggest it is critical to promote sustainable and eco-friendly utilization of marine resources while listening opinions from various stakeholders and analyzing alternative plans. Especially,it should be mandatory as a scoping item to provide verifiable data on the amount of sand,potential and accumulative impacts by mining, and key assessment items (e.g. erosion and sedimentation by submarine topography, benthic change, spreading of suspended solids, water pollution, grain-size change, and impact on fisheries resources). We also suggest that postassessment and monitoring should be improved to enable tracking of environmental impacts caused by sand mining through seasonal monitoring together with intermittent short-term surveys. In addition, effective measures to mitigate the impacts is also essential. As repeated sand mining at large-scale can damage marine ecosystems by long-term accumulated impacts,we suggest that assessment systems and regulatory policies should be developed and established, especially for ensuring reliability of assessment and review on selected major sandmining projects.
  • 13.

    Impact Assessment Model of Bird Species for Land Developments

    Lee, Dong Kun | 김은영 | Eun-Jae, Lee and 1other persons | 2010, 19(3) | pp.347~356 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Forests are being seriously fragmented as a result of land development. Land development with disregard to its subsequent environmental impacts is a primary threat to biodiversity by incurring massive habitat losses and changes in structure and composition of forests. The purpose of this study was to develop the impact assessment model for quantitative distance or degree of disturbance by land developments. This study conducted a survey about structure and composition of forest species to determine degree of impact from land development. The edge effect of forest fragmentation on the number of bird species, population size, and bird diversity was obvious. In particular, the bird diversity sharply declines around the forest edge where intensive land development projects take place. To assess the disturbance of forest species, the factors selected were the bird diversity and the rate of edge species. The impact assessment model about bird diversity was explained by type of forest fragmentation and type of vegetation (R2=0.23, p<0.005). The other model about edge species explained by a distance,type of forest fragmentation, type of vegetation, and width of road (R2=0.34, p<0.001). In order to test the applicability of the model developed in this study, the models was applied to the Samsong housing development in Goyang-si, Gyunggi-do. The impacts of land development on the bird species were reasonably quantified to suggest effective mitigation measure. The impact assessment model developed in this study is useful to assess the magnitude of disturbance of bird species. Particularly, the model could be applied to the current Environmental Impact Assessment practices to predict and quantify the impacts of land developments projects on forest bird species.