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2010, Vol.19, No.4

  • 1.

    Long Term Chlorophyll-a Prediction Based on the Rise in Sea-Water Temperature Using the Eco-Hydrodynamic Model in the Yellow Sea

    Chul-Hui Kwoun | 권민선 | In-Seong Han and 4other persons | 2010, 19(4) | pp.367~380 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    수산·해양환경적 측면에서 중요한 위치에 있는 황해(Yellow Sea)의 해양 생태계 변화과정에 대한 체계적이고 심층적인 연구을 위하여 기후 변화와 관련된 생태 및 환경변화에 대한 황해 해역의반응성 연구가 필요한 실정이다. 본 연구는 황해해역에서 수온 상승에 따른 클로로필의 변화를 살펴보고, 지구온난화가 해양환경과 생태계에 미칠 영향을 예측하고자 하였다. 황해해역에서 해수유동모델의 결과를 기초 입력자료로 활용하여 클로로필과 상호작용을 하는 육상유입부하량, 저질 영양염용출량 및 생물학적 파라메타 등을 입력하여 현재상태를 재현하였다. 우리나라 주변 해수의 온도가 지난 10년간 약 0.75℃ 상승했다고 가정하였을 때, 본 실험에서는 수온이 선형적으로 연간0.075℃ 씩 상승한다고 가정하여 10년 후까지의 Chlorophyll-a 농도 변화를 예측하였다. 예측 결과, 연구해역의 중앙부에서는 전체적으로 농도가 높아지고, 우리나라 연안해역에서 Chlorophyll-a 의 농도가 낮아지는 것으로 예측되었다. 본 연구의 결과를 기초로하여 10년 이상의 장기적인 예측실험을 한다면 기후변화가 황해해역의 생태계 변화에 미치는 영향을 파악할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.
  • 2.

    Development of Strategic Environment Assessment Model in Urban Development Plan - In case of Metropolitan Plan -

    최희선 | Youngil Song | 2010, 19(4) | pp.381~396 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    It is essential to consider strategies, spatial planning, and reflection of sustainability for the creation of sound urban spaces. To this end, there is a need for plans that can secure better sustainability through strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of plans. This study examined the literature and available precedent to develop a SEA model for administrative plans for urban development including metropolitan plans, urban master plans and urban management plans. In the course of development of the model, environmental issues associated with the urban plans were analyzed by classifying them into ten categories, including “spatial planning,” “conservation planning,” “greenbelt systems,” “habitats.” and etc. according to their rank. Furthermore, those issues were reflected on the development of environmental evaluation indices for the plans. Overall and detailed environmental indices that can be applied to the administrative plans for urban development including metropolitan plans, urban master plans and urban management plans were devised for five stages: ① Establishment of development goals and strategy, ② Analysis of current status and characteristics, ③ Conceptualization of spatial structure, ④ Planning for each department, and ⑤ Execution and management. Sub plans are more detailed and concrete. Criteria based on the evaluation indices, when performing evaluations on plans based on each environmental assessment index in reference to experts and the literature, were used to forecast their effects, i.e. whether they had a positive, negative, or no effect or relationship, or whether their effects was uncertain. Based on the forecasts, this study then presents means to establish more improvable plans. Furthermore, by synthesis of the effects according to each index and integration of the process, plans were analyzed overall. This study reflects the characteristics of the present time period based on issues in the SEA process and techniques in upper level administrative plans being newly established, and presents them according to the stage of each plan. Furthermore, by forecasting the effect of plans by stage, this study presents proposals for improvement, and in this aspect, can be meaningful in promoting plan improvements through SEA.
  • 3.

    Analysis of the Land Surface Temperature by the Anthropogenic Heat in the Urban Area of Seoul: An Example in Application of Satellite Images

    Kon Joon Bhang | SeokSoonPark | 2010, 19(4) | pp.397~407 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The increase of the solar reradiation from urban areas relative to suburban due to urbanization heats up the air temperature in urban areas and this is called the urban heat island (UHI) effect. This UHI effect has a positive relationship with the degree of urbanization. Through the studies on UHI using the satellite imagery, the effect of the surface heat radiation was observed by verifying the relationship between the air temperature and the land cover types (surface materials such as urban, vegetation, etc.). In this study, however, the surface temperature distribution was studied in terms of land use types for Seoul. Using land use types,the surface temperature in urban areas such as residential, industrial, and commercial areas in Yeongdeungpo, highly packed with industrial and residential buildings, was maximum 6 ˚C higher than in the bare ground, which indicated that the surface temperature reflected the pattern of the human-consumed energy on the areas and showed that one of the important causes influencing the air temperature except the surface heat reradiation by the sun is the anthropogenic heat. Also, the effect due to the restoration of the Chunggae stream on UHI was investigated. The average surface temperature for the Chunggae stream was reduced about 0.4˚C after restoration. Considering that each satellite image pixel includes mixture of several materials such as concrete and asphalt, the average surface temperature might be much lower locally reducing UHI near the stream.
  • 4.

    Evaluation of Conservation and Use Values of Heritage Tourism Resources - Focused on Sustainable Use -

    Yi Young kyoung | 이병인 | 2010, 19(4) | pp.409~420 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Heritage resources have become important social assets as the global interests in heritage tourism increased. Utilization of heritage as unique tourist destination has positive effects on regional economy, which in turn plays an important role in heritage conservation. However, it was found that the essential quality of heritage resources has been degraded and even destroyed when excessive use was permitted. This undesirable side-effects of heritage tourism have led to the growing concern for sustainable tourism that can contribute to both utilization and conservation of heritage. In order for sustainable tourism to be effectively implemented, it is crucial for visitors to be aware of the need for heritage conservation because they are the most important consumers of the heritage. The purpose of this study was to suggest some basic information for sustainable tourism by investigating visitors’ evaluation of conservation and use values of heritage resources. The study sites were the two Korean traditional temples(Sokrisan Bubjusa and Naejangsan Naejangsa) and contingent valuation method was used. 390 visitors in Bubjusa and 308 visitors in Naejangsa participated in the questionnaire survey. From the results, sustainable tourism is possible in such heritage areas as traditional temples because the participants had relatively balanced values for heritage conservation and use. The WTP for natural conservation value was found to be highest in both temples; visitors may be more agreeable with the heritage conservation plan if the sustainability of natural resource is emphasized. Also, the use value of heritage could be influenced by the tourism utilization of the area where the heritage was located. If there are no other famous tourist destinations except the heritage in the area, additional plans to develop alternative destinations should be prepared in order to formulate the agreement on the need to protect the heritage among visitors, local communities, and government.
  • 5.

    Comparison of the PM10 Concentration in Different Measurement Methods at Gosan Site in Jeju Island

    신소은 | Yong Pyo Kim | Chang Hee Kang | 2010, 19(4) | pp.421~429 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The reliability of the measurement of ambient trace species is an important issue, especially,in background area such as Gosan in Jeju Island. In a previous episodic study, it was suggested that the PM10 measurement result by the gravimetric method(GMM) was not in agreement with the result by the b-ray absorption method(BAM). In this study, a systematic comparison was carried out for the data between 2001 and 2008 at Gosan(GMM and BAM) and Jeju city (BAM) which is near to Gosan. It was found that at Gosan the PM10 concentration by BAM was higher than GMM and the correlation between them was low. The BAM results at Gosan and Jeju city showed similar trend implying the discrepancy at Gosan was not caused by instrumental problem of the BAM at Gosan. Based on the previous studies two probable reasons for the discrepancy are identified; (1) negative measurement error by the evaporation of volatile ambient species at the filter in GMM such as nitrate and ammonium and (2) positive error by the absorption of water vapor during measurement in BAM. There was no heater at the inlet of BAM at Gosan during the sampling period. Based on the size-segregated measurement data, it was identified that the evaporation error was minor, if any. The relationship between the two methods did not vary with the ambient relative humidity. Thus,at present, it is not clear why the discrepancy had been occurring and when using the PM10data at Gosan, one should be aware the possible errors.
  • 6.

    Analysis of Measurement Error for PM-2.5 Mass Concentration by Inter-Comparison Study

    Chang Hoon Jung | 박진희 | 황승만 | 2010, 19(4) | pp.431~441 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, inter-comparison for PM-2.5 was undertaken. The PM-2.5 mass concentrations using the gravimetric and beta-attenuation methods were compared during the winter in 2007. Two different types of conventional filter-based measurements (Cyclone type and Impactor type) were also collocated and the measurement data was compared with each other. As a result, continuous PM-2.5 data using beta attenuation method show a comparable mass concentration with gravimetric measurement when the inlet of beta-gauge sampler is heated. The results also showed that the cyclone type shows a little high PM-2.5 concentration than Impactor type. In all the sampling cases, the correlations between measurement methods are high. Subsequently, this study suggests that highly correlated relationship between PM-2.5measurement instruments can be obtained through the inter-comparison results based on filterbased gravimetric method and more intensive measurement and theoretical studies are needed in order to clarify the measurement errors for different sampler types.
  • 7.

    Removal of Zinc by Vortex Flow Separator as BMPs in Residential Area

    이승철 | Ha, Sungryong | 2010, 19(4) | pp.443~452 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    본 연구에서는 도시지역의 하나인 주거지역에서 배출되는 강우유출수 내에 중금속이 장치형 비점오염저감시설 중에 하나인 와류형시설에서 제거되는 특성을 파악하고자, 대상 중금속을 Zn으로 삼고 2007년 4월부터 2008년 11월까지 모니터링을 수행하였다. 유출수 모니터링은 와류형 시설의 유입부와 유출부에서 유량과 수질을 각각 시간변화에 따라 측정하였으며, 시설유입부와 유출부, 그리고 시설하부에 쌓인 침전물을 채취하여 침전물 모니터링도 수행하였다. 그 결과, 높은 강우강도에서발생된 강우유출수는 와류형 시설내에 HRT를 감소시켜 Zn의 제거효율이 낮게 관측되었으며, 특히HRT가 20분이내의 조건이 될 경우에는 처리효과가 없는 것으로 확인되었다. Zn는 입자성물질과밀접한 관계를 맺으며 제거되는 특성을 보였으며, 입자성물질이 스크린에 의한 여과 및 침전작용이일어날 때 입자성물질에 부착되어 거동하는 특성을 보였다. 그 중에 0.075mm 이하의 미세한 입자에 부착된 고농도의 Zn는 제거되지 못하였고, 와류형 시설 후단에 후처리시설로서 저류시설을 두어충분한 HRT를 제공한 결과, 와류형 시설만을 운전하였을 때와 비교하여 높은 제거특성을 보이게되었다.