Korean | English

pISSN : 1225-7184

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.51
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2011, Vol.20, No.3

  • 1.

    Monitoring Shoreline Changes at the Songdo Beach, Pohang, during 2003-2010, using Google Earth

    Choi, Jin Ho | Um, Jung Sup | 2011, 20(3) | pp.257~267 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the spatial and temporal variability in the shoreline boundary caused by artificial structures in Songdo Beach of South Korea. Quickbird Images of 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2010 extracted from Google Earth were used to identify changing trends of shoreline boundary. The most significant changes were observed in area where groins were extensively established,inducing the sand beach much narrower than before in almost 75% of the area(15070.72m^2 in 2003 to 3877.46m^2 in 2010). The Google Earth made it possible to identify area-wide patterns of shoreline change subject to many different type of artificial structures, which cannot be acquired by traditional field sampling. Groin heights, lengths and profiles can be modified during maintenance operations if the Google Earth monitoring indicates that the initial layout is not operating properly as a physical barrier to control sediment transport. It is anticipated that this research could be used as a valuable reference to confirm the outputs from past field researches for coastal processes to respond to storms in more visual and quantitative manner.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Implication of Sustainability and Environmental Assessment

    Hong Sangpyo | 2011, 20(3) | pp.269~279 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    Sustainability assessments tend to integrate ecological, social, and economic concerns. Sustainability assessment could be considered the highest rung in the assessment ladder. Broad strategies that seek to integrate individual SEA(Strategic Environmental Assessment) could be subjected to a sustainability assessment. Sustainability assessment could incorporate global and transboundary effects and priorities into SEA and project-level EIA(Environmental Impact Assessment). SEA could provide an environmental context and direction for project-level EIA. Procedural and substantive EIA requirements can be addressed through tiering such as sustainability assessment, SEA, project-level EIA. In Korea, PERS(Prior Environmental Review System) that has been utilized to evaluate administrative plans related with various kinds of development projects should be evolved not only to incorporate environmental impacts into early stage decision-making, but also to implicate sustainability assessments that include social equity and economic efficiency. Integration of SEA and sustainability assessment can be initiated through the application of DPSIR (Driving Force - Pressure - State - Impact - Response )framework that was developed by European Environmental Agency.
  • 3.

    The Phytoplankton community of Namdae-stream, Yeongok-stream and of Sacheon-stream in Gangwon-do

    김용진 | Ok Min Lee | 2011, 20(3) | pp.281~297 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    The specie composition, stranding crops and the dominant species of phytoplankton were studied in three streams, Namdae-stream, Yeongok-stream and Sacheon-stream from May 2008to February 2009. The water qualities of the three streams which run into estuary were also examined using phytoplankton indicators. As the result, the phytoplankton appeared 94 taxa in Namdae-stream, 79 taxa in Yeongok-stream and 73 taxa in Sacheon-stream, diatoms appeared the most in phytoplankton. Genus Navicula and Cymbella in diatoms appeared to be over 10taxa in each stream, N. cryptocephala, N. cryptotenella and N. gregaria, the pollution tolerance taxa,appeared more frequent in the downstream. Due to the separation of each substrate by the rapid water velocity in the upstream, Achnanthes minutissima, a known periphyton, was dominant in upstream site at Namdae and Yeongok-stream. Some construction areas and sites of downstream of Namdae-stream, Yeongok-stream and Sacheon-stream were shown to be polluted because pollution tolerance taxa, such as Cyclotella meneghiniana, Nitzschia palea and Oscillatoria limnetica, were dominant. The total of 20 taxa phytoplankton indicators were found,composed of 16 taxa of Water pollution algae including Oscillatoria limosa, 2 taxa of Clean water algae Meridion circulare and Staurastrum puntulatum, 1 taxa of Toxic algae Microcystis aeruginosa and 1 taxa of Taste and odor algae Fragilaria construens. Water pollution indicators were appeared frequently in polluted sites of biological water quality(DAIpo, TDI) and of sites containing high trophic state index(TSI). Therefore, using the phytoplankton indicators can assess water quality through relation of biological water quality and trophic state index.
  • 4.

    The Classification of Spatial Patterns Considering Formation Parameters of Urban Climate - The case of Changwon city, South Korea -

    bonggeun song | Kyunghun Park | 2011, 20(3) | pp.299~311 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of this paper is to present a methodology for the classification of spatial patterns considering the parameters of urban form which play a significant role in the formation of the urban climate. The urban morphological parameters, i.e. building coverage,impervious pavement, vegetation, water, farmland and landuse types were used to classify the spatial patterns by a K-means cluster analysis. And the presented methodology was applied on Changwon city, South Korea. According to the results of cluster analysis, the total spatial patterns were classified as 24 patterns. First of all, The spatial patterns(A-1, A-2, A-3, B-1, B-2, B-3, C-1, C-2, C-3, D-1, D-2, D-3, E-1, E-2, E-3, F-1, F-2, F-3, G-1, G-2, G-3), which distributed in the rural area and the suburban area, can have the positive impacts of cold air generation and wind corridor on an urban climate environment, were distributed in the rural area. On the other hand, the spatial patterns of the downtown area including A-4, B-4, C-4 and D-4 are expected to have the negative impacts on urban climate owing to the of artificial heat emission or the wind flow obstruction. Finally, it will require the future research to analysis the climatic properties according to the same spatial patterns by the field survey.
  • 5.

    Risk Assessment of Soil Erosion in Gyeongju Using RUSLE Method

    Jeonghak Oh | You Ju Han | Kim Kyung Tae and 1other persons | 2011, 20(3) | pp.313~324 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to present the raw data for establishing the plan of top soil conservation in soil environment and preventing the soil loss by establishing the potential amount of soil loss using RUSLE. The results are as follows. To apply the RUSLE model, we calculated the potential amount of soil loss by using 5 factors; rainfall erosion factor(R),topographical factor(LS), soil erosion factor(K), land cover factor(C) and erosion control factor(P). The assessment map of soil loss was drawn up by classifying 5 grades. According to the soil loss estimation by the RUSLE, it showed that approximately 83.9% of the study area had relatively lower possibility of soil loss which was the 1 ton/㏊ in annual soil loss. Whereas,the 7.0% of the study area was defined as high risk area which was the 10 ton/㏊ in annual. Therefore, this area was needed that there was environment-friendly construction of farm land,improvement of cultivation environment and so forth. In future, if we will analyze the amount of soil loss of Gyeongju national park and Hyeongsan river watershed, we will offer the help to establishing the conservation plan of soil environment in Gyeongsangbuk-do.
  • 6.

    Analysis of Saltwater Intrusion by Flushing Discharge in the Seomjin River Estuary

    노준우 | 이진영 | 신재기 | 2011, 20(3) | pp.325~335 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Estuary is a transitional zone between river and ocean environment that receives the maritime and riverine influence simultaneously. Estuaries are the most productive habitats because their incoming water provides large quantities of nutrients. The Seomjin River estuary,located in the middle south of Korea, has no barrage and shows natural characteristic of estuary. However, due to dredging and reclamation the environment of the estuary has been changed significantly in the river mouth. In addition, increased freshwater intake in midstream of the Seomjin River results in salinity intrusion. In this paper salinity variation in downstream estuary of the Seomjin River has been simulated and tested using EFDC model. The results of simulation were compared with measured data collected at three points, Culture & Art Center,Sumjin Iron Bridge, and Mokdori, located at 9Km, 14Km, and 15.5Km respectively from downstream estuary. Based on the simulated results, the contribution of the flushing discharge has been evaluated in preventing the salinity intrusion by increasing the discharge flowrates released from the Juam dam.
  • 7.

    An Environmental Impact Assessment System for Microscale Winds Based on a Computational Fluid Dynamics Model

    김규랑 | 구해정 | 권태헌 and 1other persons | 2011, 20(3) | pp.337~348 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Urban environmental problem became one of major issues during its urbanization processes. Environmental impacts are assessed during recent urban planning and development. Though the environmental impact assessment considers meteorological impact as a minor component,changes in wind environment during development can largely affect the distribution pattern of air temperature, humidity, and pollutants. Impact assessment of local wind is, therefore, a major element for impact assessment prior to any other meteorological impact assessment. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are utilized in various fields such as in wind field assessment during a construction of a new building and in post analysis of a fire event over a mountain. CFD models require specially formatted input data and produce specific output files, which can be analyzed using special programs. CFD’s huge requirement in computing power is another hurdle in practical use. In this study, a CFD model and related software processors were automated and integrated as a microscale wind environmental impact assessment system. A supercomputer system was used to reduce the running hours of the model. Input data processor ingests development plans in CAD or GIS formatted files and produces input data files for the CFD model. Output data processor produces various analytical graphs upon user requests. The system was used in assessing the impacts of a new building near an observatory on wind fields and showed the changes by the construction visually and quantitatively. The microscale wind assessment system will evolve, of course, incorporating new improvement of the models and processors. Nevertheless the framework suggested here can be utilized as a basic system for the assessment.
  • 8.

    The Analysis of Temporal and Spatial Variation on the Vegetation Area of the Siwha Tidat Flat

    Jeong, Jong Chul | 2011, 20(3) | pp.349~356 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This research is aim to analyze of changing landscape and according to phenological cycle from image information of coastal environment obtained by multi-media were analyzed by camera and satellite image. The digital camera and satellite image were used for tidal flat vegetation monitoring during the construction of Sihwa lake. The vegetation type and phenological cycle of Sihwa tidal flat have been changed with the Sihwa lake ecosystem. The environment changes of Sihwa tidal flat area and ecological change were analyzed by field work digital camera images and satellite images. The airborne, UAV and satellite images were classified with the changed elements of coastal ecological environment and tidal flat vegetation monitoring carried out the changed area and shape of vegetation distribution with time series images.
  • 9.

    Application of the QUAL2Kw model to a Polluted River for Automatic Calibration and Sensitivity Analysis of Genetic Algorithm Parameters

    CHO JAE HEON | 2011, 20(3) | pp.357~365 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The QUAL2K has the same basic characteristics as the QUAL2E model, which has been widely used in stream water quality modeling; in QUAL2K, however, various functions are supplemented. The QUAL2Kw model uses a genetic algorithm(GA) for automatic calibration of QUAL2K, and it can search for optimum water quality parameters efficiently using the calculation results of the model. The QUAL2Kw model was applied to the Gangneung Namdaecheon River on the east side of the Korean Peninsula. Because of the effluents from the urban area, the middle and lower parts of the river are more polluted than the upper parts. Moreover, the hydraulic characteristics differ between the lower and upper parts of rivers. Thus, the river reaches were divided into seven parts, auto-calibration for the multiple reaches was performed using the function of the user-defined automatic calibration of the rates worksheets. Because GA parameters affect the optimal solution of the model, the impact of the GA parameters used in QUAL2Kw on the fitness of the model was analyzed. Sensitivity analysis of various factors, such as population size, crossover probability, crossover mode,strategy for mutation and elitism, mutation rate, and reproduction plan, were performed. Using the results of this sensitivity analysis, the optimum GA parameters were selected to achieve the best fitness value.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Development of an Ecological Park Planning Model to Enhance the Functions of Habitats and Ecological Corridors in Green Belt Areas

    김대희 | 최희선 | 김현애 and 1other persons | 2011, 20(3) | pp.367~379 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study was conducted to develop an ecological park planning model to enhance the functions of habitats and ecological corridors in Green Belt Areas, because changing policies have resulted in the degredation of the Green Belts due to progressive fragmentation of ecosystems. The principal outcome of the study is to plan an ecological park model through the restoration of habitats. In order to evaluate the capacity of the model to enhance the ecological functions of habitats and ecological corridors in Green Belt Areas, a simulation of habitats was carried out in the Sungnam-Yusoo region. The model was developed via following steps: 1. Selection of candidate sites and selection of the study site by analyzing development factors; 2. Selection of target species that can represent the habitat at the site; 3. Analysis of the site’s suitability index for the target species; 4. Establishment of a conceptual plan to enhance and expand the currently produced suitability index; 5. Creation of a master plan based on the conceptual plan; and 6. Evaluation of the enhanced and expanded suitability index of the site. The study showed that the Habitat Unit (HU) of Rana coreana, which was selected as the target species of the study, increased from 28,044 m^2(3.6%) to 224,352 m^2(28.8%), and the HU of the site as the ecological corridor for wild animals increased from 4,674 m^2(0.6%) to 152,684 m^2(19.6%). The study results show that the ecological deficits of the Green Belt Area can be overcome by enhancing the ecological functions of the region, which should be beneficial. The model could be utilized for effective enhancement and management of other Green Belt Areas.
  • 11.

    Environmental Characteristics of Wind-Hole and Phytogeographical Values

    KONG Wooseok | 이슬기 | 윤광희 and 1other persons | 2011, 20(3) | pp.381~395 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    Present work aims to establish an integrated management system of environmental data base for nine typical wind holes or air holes in Korea. It basically deals with definition, geographical distribution, morphological pattern, physical characteristics and anthropogenic environments of wind hole to propose systematic preservation strategy of their periglacial landscape and flora, which are known to be sensitive to global warming. Wind hole, in which cool air blows out during the summer, but mild air comes out during the winter from a cave or hole, is frequently found on northwest- and north-facing slopes on the terminal point of steep talus, block field, and block stream, and can be categorized into three types, i.e., talus, cave and sink types. Environmental characteristics of nine wind holes are analyzed on the basis of their geology,landform, climate, soil, hydrology, vegetation, road, footpath, land-use, and management system, and relevant DB are prepared. Wind hole areas with unique landscape and ecological values need to be designated as a nature reserve, and zoning of core, buffer, and transitional zones are required for the multi-dimensional preservation of periglacial landscape and ecosystem. Phytogeographical values of glacial relict plants, including mountain cranberry(Vaccinium vitis-idaea) at its global southernmost limit at Bangnaeri wind hole, Hongchon County, Gangwon Province of Korea are discussed in detail as a floristic refugia in connection with climate change during the Pleistocene Epoch and potential in-situ and ex-situ preservation sites in the future.
  • 12.

    Reformation Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment in Water Resources Development Project by Examining Local Resident Opinions

    양기현 | 박재충 | 류영한 and 3other persons | 2011, 20(3) | pp.397~409 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study was carried out for improving the effectiveness of water resources development project through local resident opinions in the environmental impact assessment(EIA). The EIA reports of seven dams were examined. Four dams -Youngju Dam, Seongduck Dam, Buhang Dam and Hantangang Dam- which included many local opinions including 470 opinions of 341local residents were selected to be analyzed. Local residents submitted their opinions in the six fields which are meteorological phenomena, water quality, land use, fauna and flora, noise and vibration, and residence, and the major opinions of those opinions came from the atmosphere environment field which is 32% of total opinions and social and economic field which is 38% of total opinions, respectively. In submerged area, opinions of the measure for migration and compensation were 91% and in non-submerged area, opinions of the measure for meteorological phenomena was 86%. Those percentages were maximum in each area. Opinions concerned meteorological phenomena were 86% and 53% in Youngju Dam and Seongduck Dam where area is surrounded by existing dam, but there was only 9% and 0% of opinions in Buhang Dam and Hantangang Dam where area is without existing dam nearby. The reformation methods which reflected the resident’s opinions were suggested on EIA in dam development projects. First of all, reliability and objectivity of the field of meteorological phenoma should be enhanced by scientific prediction of the phenomenon days. Secondly, techniques reducing uncertainty of various water quality prediction models ought to be developed and effectiveness of the reduction strategies in environmental impact should be quantified. Finally, the draft of EIA report should involve the detailed plans of migration and compensation’s procedures, criteria and measures to support.
  • 13.

    Study on the Improvement of the Environmental Assessment system -Comparison of Environmental Impact Assessment System among Different Countries-

    ImSoon Kim | 송철우 | 한상욱 and 4other persons | 2011, 20(3) | pp.411~424 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Over the past three decades, Korea has undertaken a series of reforms to improve development policy, plans and programs, including measures to mainstream the environment across all major sectors. Despite of these efforts, there has been still the lack of capacity to fully assess the environmental impacts as well as sustainable implications of development projects and strategies. At the level of regional and sectoral development plans, the development of strategic environmental assessment SEA systems continues to remain at a relatively early stage in the region with fewer examples of fully operational processes or effective practice. This study shows a further information to our understanding of the EIA and SEA systems and their implementation in Korea. It affords a number of insights into strengths and weaknesses of the current action in different countries, and identifies an agenda of needs and options for capacity building for implementing the EIA enactment.