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2011, Vol.20, No.5

  • 1.

    An Effectiveness Analysis of Climate Change Policy in South Korea

    Dai-Yeun Jeong | 2011, 20(5) | pp.585~600 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    South Korean central government has launched the first comprehensive climate change policies in 1999, and they have been renewed every three year. The third policies ended in 2007. However, it is quite rare to analyze whether the climate change policies are effective against climate change. In this context, this paper aims at analyzing the effectiveness of climate change policy which was launched for seven years from 1999 to 2007 in South Korea. The effectiveness analysis of policy can be done in terms of the individual policy and/or all policies being synthesized as a comprehensive unit. Employing the latter methodology, this paper analyzed the effectiveness on the basis of economic growth as independent variable,greenhouse gas emission as dependent variable, and energy use and its process as intervening variable. Seven analytic indicators covering the three variables were selected on the basis of two points in time before and after climate change policy having been launched. The seven indicators were analyzed in terms of three aspects. They were the change in the state of each indicator, the effectiveness of climate change policy from 1999 to 2007, and the effectiveness process from 1999 to 2007. The effectiveness process was analyzed in terms of the relational context and its flow processing path. Economic growth was advanced remarkably with increase in the total consumption of energy. As a result, greenhouse gas emission increased. However, energy efficiency increased with significant decrease in energy intensity, carbon intensity, and energy elasticity. The expansion of new and renewable energy over total energy supply was not effective significantly on the decrease in greenhouse gas emission. The processing path of climate change policy being effective advanced toward increase in energy efficiency through energy intensity rather than toward sustainable development. Such a way of the effectiveness of climate change policy implies that most policies focused on adaptation rather than on mitigation.
  • 2.

    Climate Data Qualification for Water Quality Impact Assessment

    이길하 | Hong-Yeon Cho | 2011, 20(5) | pp.601~613 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study is focused on a climate data integrity to improve water quality assessment due to the social development projects. The study is in an attempt to calculate both extreme ranges of weather data measurements and partly provide means to assess qualification of data which fall within the extremes at the 23 meteorological weather stations. Generally speaking, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, dew point temperature are in the range of reasonable accuracy. However, there found some outliers of the brightness sunshine hours in Cheonan station. Also some years in Gwangju, Seoul, Wonju, Busan, and Jeju never reach to their upper limit and perhaps the calibration of the equipment is doubtful. The users need to take cautions in using the brightness sunshine hour data in preparation of water resources planning and management by estimating evapotranspiration and river discharge, and/or growth rate of the algae (phytoplankton).
  • 3.

    Valuation of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Using National Forest Inventory Data

    Dajeong Jeong | Kang, Kyung Ho | JOON HEO and 2other persons | 2011, 20(5) | pp.615~625 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    As United Nation (UN) declared 2010 to be the International Year of Biodiversity, the biodiversity issue has gained much attention since the issue of climate changes. Also, related researches for protecting and conserving the biodiversity are accompanied in the world. In this study, National Ecology Information is obtained from Ministry of Environment and Korea Forest Service and is utilized to valuate biodiversity and ecosystem services in Pyeongchang,Kangwon-do in Korea. For this, they are categorized into direct- or indirect- use value and nonuse value. Research results show that the biodiversity and ecosystem services in Pyeongchang are assessed as 2 trillion and 460 billion won. From this research, we evaluate the economic value of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and also suggest the possibility to utilize them as basic information for a decision making to establish the biodiversity protection plan.
  • 4.

    Estimation of the Reference Evapotranspiration using Daily Sunshine Hour

    이길하 | Hong-Yeon Cho | 2011, 20(5) | pp.627~640 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    이 논문에서는 일사량과 일조시간에 관한 통상적인 선형관계식보다 정확한 비선형 관계식에 대한 적용검토를 수행한다. 일조시간을 이용한 일사량 추정에 이어서 Penman-Monteith 방정식을 이용하여 기준 증발산량을 추정하였다. 우리나라 20개 지점의 1997년부터 2006년까지의 일사량 및 일조시간 자료를 포함한 기상자료를 이용하여 선형 그리고 수정 비선형 Angstrom 방정식을 보정하고 기준 증발산량을 추정하였다. 일조시간과 일사량 사이의 선형과 비선형 관계식을 이용한 기준증발산량의 상대비교를 수행하였다. 선형 및 비선형 관계식을 이용한 방법 모두 RMS 오차는 5.96, NSC(Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient)는 0.95로 추정되었고, 그 차이는 매우 미미하였다. 그러나 상대적으로 일사량이 기준 증발산량에 크게 기여하는 하계에는 그 차이가 증가하기 때문에 보다 개선된 비선형 관계식을 이용하는 방법에 대한 엄밀한 검토가 필요하다.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Evaluation of Shock Vibration by a Medium Characteristics

    송정언 | 홍웅기 | Kim,Seung-Gon | 2011, 20(5) | pp.641~649 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The ground vibration has effect on the human body and the nearby structure. However, it was very difficult to estimate the damage of structure caused by the vibration. Especially,ground vibration must be estimated on the bottom of structure because it was made up of several mediums. In this study, it was considered about the shock vibration on medium characteristics as calculating the peak particle velocity and analysing the vibration waveform. The results are as follows : Firstly, the correlation coefficient of PPV(Peak Particle Velocity) and SD(Scaled Distance) was very high at the vertical component, which was represented to 0.991 in general ground medium and each 0.989, 0.961, 0.925 in concrete medium. And also, the vibration waveform at the vertical component was very good in all mediums. Secondly, the vibration waveform at the longitudinal component was represented to a great amplitude and phase difference in all mediums. It was considered that the vibration waveform occurred the damping when particle velocity by shock vibration was propagated through other medium. Thirdly, the vibration waveform in concrete medium was represented to variation of amplitude in the order of RC medium, NC=H medium, NC=S medium at the vertical component. It was considered that the particle velocity propagated fast when a medium have a big strength and density.
  • 6.

    The characteristics of discharged non-point pollutants on Hwa-sung lake inflow streams on precipitation

    이상은 | 최이송 | 이인호 and 2other persons | 2011, 20(5) | pp.651~661 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to estimate the characteristics and pollutant loadings of nonpoint pollutants that flowed in the streams on precipitation for pollutant loading reduction of Hwa-sung lake inflow streams. Although it has been made an effort to improve the water quality of Hwa-sung basin through the strategies for the preservation of water quality, it is shown that the water quality is not greatly improved. Because it has been industrialized and urbanized near Hwa-sung basin so that it is difficult to reduce the water pollution due to the increase in pollutant loadings of point and non-point sources. In this study, it is investigated the outflow characteristics of non-point pollutants that discharged with storm runoff and estimated the effect of runoff on Hwa-sung basin. The final goal of this study is to utilize the basic information for proper management and strategies of non-point sources on Hwa-sung basin. At the result of inflow streams, Ja-an stream that has the greatest pollutant loadings on precipitation is strongly influenced on the water quantity of Hwa-sung basin. On the other hand, it is shown that Nam-yang stream is strongly influenced on the SS concentration of Hwasung basin among them. Also, all streams; Nam-yang, Ja-ahn, Ah-eun stream; has the degree of slope more than or near 1 in the correlation results so that they have strong pollutant loading impact and the concentration of SS is the highest among other pollutants. So, specific studies on initial rain phenomena are more necessary to manage the pollutants economically. Also, the proper control of SS concentration is required to manage the effluent pollutants effectively on precipitation. So, it is necessary to consider the strategies for non-point pollutants as well as point pollutants when the new management is imposed to reduce the pollutant load for improvement of Hwa-sung basin.
  • 7.

    Mapping Biodiversity throughoptimized selection of input variables in decision tree models

    김도연 | JOON HEO | Kim, Chang Jae | 2011, 20(5) | pp.663~673 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the face of accelerating biodiversity loss and its significance in our coexistence with nature,biodiversity is becoming more crucial in sustainable development perspective. To estimate biodiversity in the future which provides valuable information for decision making system especially in the national level, a quantitative approach must be studied forehand as a baseline of the present status. In this study, we developed a large-scale map of Plant Species Richness (PSR, typical indicator of biodiversity) for Young-dong and Pyung-chang provinces. Due to the accessibility of appropriate data and advance of modelling techniques, reduction of variables without deteriorating the predictive power is considered by applying Genetic algorithm. In addition, a number of Correctly Classified Instances (CCI) with 10-fold cross validation which indicates the predictive power, was carried out for evaluation. This study, as a fundamental baseline, will be beneficial in future land work as well as ecosystem restoration business or other relevant decision making agenda.
  • 8.

    Ecological study on effects of heavy metal accumulation on pillbugs

    Lee, Sang-Don | 2011, 20(5) | pp.675~684 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In nature, the overall effect of heavy metals on the biota can be influenced by a number of environmental factors like soil characteristics and air pollution by elevated CO_2. Pillbugs (Isopoda, Armadillium vulgare) take up heavy metals with their food and store them mainly in the vesicles of hepatopancreas. They accumulate certain metals, occur in relatively large numbers, are easily collected and identified, and provide sufficient material for analysis. The species are decomposing litter well and soil impurities into N and P. Therefore, it has been suggested that total body concentration of metals in pillbugs could be positively correlated to the levels of environmental exposure and that pillbugs could be used as biological indicators of metal pollution and global change by CO_2. The aim of the study is to determine effects of heavy metal concentrations in soil and elevated CO_2 on pillbugs’ body accumulation of heavy metal and growth rate. In this study, the concentrations of six metals (Fe, Mg Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) have been determined. Pillbugs (N=287) were collected at five sites during Jul-Aug, 2006. Cu and Zn concentrations in the body were much higher than in the soils(1.39-41.70 times). This indicated that bioaccumulation of some of the heavy metals were increasing in the food-chain. The high bioconcentration of lead in Sangam may be partly associated with reclaimed land uses.
  • 9.

    Distributional Characteristics and Improvements for Wildlife Protection Areas in South Korea

    Lee Gwan Gye | 2011, 20(5) | pp.685~695 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Through the analyses of the distribution characteristics and management practices of the wildlife protection areas, this study intends to present basic data for improving the management of protected areas. 1) Based on the aggregate results of the protected areas, the average ratio of the metro-city and provincial areas to the designated protected areas was 1.49%; except for Chungcheongbuk-do (8.83%) and Gyeongsangnam-do (3.43%), most regions showed specified percentages of about 1%, whereby the analysis suggested that the designated protected areas were too small. 2) Considering the fact that most (86.16%) of the wildlife protection areas are in the regions that are of ecological nature level of grade 1, green nature level of grade 8 or better, and of legal conservation regions and districts, it was shown that these reserves are distributed in regions with excellent natural environmental conditions. 3)Designation of protected areas for the protection of wildlife and fish is deemed to be necessary. Although there are 588 wildlife & plant reserves, there are absolutely no designated areas for protecting plant and fish species. 4) Based on the results of an analysis of the current distribution by types, 92.47% of protected areas were concentrated in the mountains, 0.24% in the agricultural lands, and 7.29% distributed in the lakes/rivers/costal areas. 5) As major improvement projects, proposed were: advancement of management systems for protected areas, expanded designation of protected areas, overhaul of managed areas, designation of protected areas for the protection of wild plants and fish, need for management measures for private property and the surrounding areas, need to secure appropriate management personnel and collaboration, locally-adapted management, eco-information-based management, total management of protected areas, etc.
  • 10.

    Spatial Analysis for the Assessment of Optimum Place of Eco-bridge

    Jeong, Jong Chul | 2011, 20(5) | pp.697~703 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study aims to preserve biodiversity in increasingly fragmented green patches for spatial analysis of planting on the eco-corridors and to optimize the target species,the location, width, cross section of the eco-corridors. It was suggested that eco-corridors should have to planned at early stages of road planning so that the number and locations of ecocorridors in advance. Ecological corridor is the facility to connect two habitats fragmented by road, dam, housing and industrial area. And, everyone agree that ecological corridor is important useful structural component that help animal movement in fragmented landscapes. However , ecological corridors have many problems of the recorded the size of corridor,planting species to nearby exiting vegetation species and structure. The most important facts that there are no consideration for location of animal migration and behavior using ecocorridors. This study was carried out to spatial analysis of eco-corridors location, satellite data and GIS were used to analyze for searching optimum location of the eco-corridors.
  • 11.

    Evaluation of Water Quality Prediction Models at Intake Station by Data Mining Techniques

    Juhwan Kim | Chae,Soo-Kwon | 김병식 | 2011, 20(5) | pp.705~716 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    For the efficient discovery of knowledge and information from the observed systems, data mining techniques can be an useful tool for the prediction of water quality at intake station in rivers. Deterioration of water quality can be caused at intake station in dry season due to insufficient flow. This demands additional outflow from dam since some extent of deterioration can be attenuated by dam reservoir operation to control outflow considering predicted water quality. A seasonal occurrence of high ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations has hampered chemical treatment processes of a water plant in Geum river. Monthly flow allocation from upstream dam is important for downstream NH3-N control. In this study, prediction models of water quality based on multiple regression (MR), artificial neural network and data mining methods were developed to understand water quality variation and to support dam operations through providing predicted NH3-N concentrations at intake station. The models were calibrated with eight years of monthly data and verified with another two years of independent data. In those models, the NH3-N concentration for next time step is dependent on dam outflow, river water quality such as alkalinity, temperature, and NH3-N of previous time step. The model performances are compared and evaluated by error analysis and statistical characteristics like correlation and determination coefficients between the observed and the predicted water quality. It is expected that these data mining techniques can present more efficient data-driven tools in modelling stage and it is found that those models can be applied well to predict water quality in stream river systems.
  • 12.

    A Study on Empirical Method Analysis of Impervious Surface Using KOMPSAT-2 Image

    배다혜 | Jae Il Lee | 고창환 and 1other persons | 2011, 20(5) | pp.717~727 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Impervious surface affects urban climate, flood, and water pollution and has important role as basic data for urban planning and environmental and resources management uses. With a high paved rate, increased quantity of the outflown water and brings urban flooding during a heavy rain. Moreover, these non-point source pollution is getting increased the water pollution. In this regard, it is definitely important to research and keep monitoring the current situation of paved surface, which influences urban ecosystem, disaster and pollution. In this study, we suggest a method to utilize high resolution satellite image data for efficient survey on the current condition of paved surface. We analysed the paved surface condition of Dae-jeon metropolitan city area using KOMPSAT-2 image and validate its practicalness and limitation of this method.
  • 13.

    The Externality of an Unwelcomed Facility on the Nearby Multi-family Houses: A Case Study of Dangin-Ri Power Plant

    김철중 | Myung Gyu,SONG | 2011, 20(5) | pp.729~745 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the external diseconomies of an unwelcomed facility on the nearby houses. The facility and the area studied are Dangin-Ri power plant in Mapo-Gu,Seoul and the residential district surrounding it respectively. The nearby housing prices have been changed according to the time and circumstances of the public announcements about the reconstruction or removal plans of the plant. These price changes are regarded as the capitalized values of the external diseconomies due to the plant. This study is based on the hedonic price theory in order to estimate the diseconomies in monetary value. The tools for the estimation are four models of multiple regression with the transaction price as the dependant variable and various housing characteristics including the external effects of the plant as the independent variables. The sample analyzed is 833 house transactions for the past 5 years in the research area. The facts found are as follows; First, the most suitable functional form for the estimation is confirmed to be the linear model. Second, there are significant differences in influence on the housing values among the independent variables, that is, locational characteristics, physical features, and environmental changes with time. Third, the external diseconomy is estimated as ₩80,137,807 in case that the plant would be reconstructed in the underground of the present site, whereon a substitutional public park would be constructed and as ₩59,142,248 in case that the plant would move away.
  • 14.

    Association between Cold Temperature and Mortality of the Elderly in Seoul, Korea, 1992-2007

    이정원 | 전형진 | Yong Sung Cho and 3other persons | 2011, 20(5) | pp.747~755 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study was investigated the relationship between the temperature and the mortality of aged (≥65 yr) during the winter seasons from 1992 to 2007 in Seoul, Korea by utilizing climate data and death records. The study also estimated the future risks by employing the projections of the population in Seoul, Korea and climate change scenario of Korea from 2011 to 2030. The limitation of this study was the impossibility in the prediction of daily mortality counts. Therefore, daily death numbers could be predicted based on the future population projection for Korea and the death records of 2005. The result indicated that risks increased by 0.27%,0.52%, 0.32% and 0.41% in association with the 1˚C decrease in daily minimum temperature from the mortality counts of total, respiratory, cardiovascular, and cardiorespiratory in the past date while 0.31%, 0.42%, 0.59% and 0.66% in the future. Based on the results obtained from this study, it is concluded that the risk in the future will be higher than the past date although there is an uncertainty in estimating death counts in the future.