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2011, Vol.20, No.6

  • 1.

    The Current Status and Future Prospective of Protected Areas in Korea - Case study in Protected Areas of Australia -

    Min Jeong Kim | Jong Kwan Choi | Lee, Sang-Don | 2011, 20(6) | pp.779~786 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aimed at comparing protected areas of Korea and Australia based on international conservation criteria by IUCN and analyzing what we need to improve for future management of protected areas of Korea. The registration status of protected areas of Korea listed on IUCN were 11 places in the Ia, 17 in II, 7 in IV, 7 in V; in total 42 places were recorded. However, the lists were missing many important areas. In Korea, we have only 4 protected area categories out of 6 indicating ecological diversity and management in its protected area system are insufficient. On the other hand, 9340 protected areas of Australia were listed on IUCN and evenly distributed in the total of six categories. Therefore, Korea should investigate measures for system establishment which ensures the diversity and indicative of our natural ecosystems and establish balanced system of protected areas including all IUCN categories I-VI through revaluation of natural, cultural, economic and social conditions and the needs.
  • 2.

    A study on the performance test and acoustic design of interference type noise reduction device for railway noise

    조준호 | Hyoin Koh | 2011, 20(6) | pp.787~795 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Noise barrier is generally used with welding of joint rail for railway noise reduction in our country. But the noise barrier for high speed railway has weak point in low frequencies about 315Hz band. In this study, For developing of Interference-type Noise Reduction Device(INRD),acoustic analysis were performed using commercial software. For verifying the improvement in the noise reduction, noise measurement before and after installing of INRD were performed in Anechoic Chamber. From these acoustic analysis and noise measurement, it was known that developed INRD has a good noise reduction performance and can be used efficiently with conventional noise barrier.
  • 3.

    Assessment for Characteristics of Flow According to Installing Hydraulic Structures by 2-D Numerical Model

    최승용 | 남기영 | Han Kun Yeun | 2011, 20(6) | pp.797~813 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Frequently occurring flood and drought due to abnormal climate and global warming have increased the necessity of an effective water resources control and management of river flows. The various hydraulic structures are constructed in river as part of an effective water resources management. It is very important to analyse characteristics of flow according to installing hydraulic structures in this situations. The objective of this study is to investigate the hydraulic behaviors of flow considering affections of hydraulic structures using 2-D numerical model. To do this, both RMA-2 model and developed RAM2 model are used to analyse flow phenomena before and after installation of hydraulic structures in Nakdong river. As a result of, the water surface elevation at upstream regions increased about 22cm~66cm and the velocity around the structures sharply increased after installation of structures. The measures for the rise of water surface at upstream and local scour due to high velocity around the structures must be established when the structures is constructed.
  • 4.

    Research on improvement of water purification efficiency by porous concrete using bio-film

    김태훈 | LI FENGQI | 안태웅 and 2other persons | 2011, 20(6) | pp.815~821 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to estimate the biological decomposition capacity of MPC(Microorganism Porous-Concrete). MPC has specific surface area formed by inside pores, and bio compound was added to those pores to reduce pollutants loading. To evaluate the water purification capacity of MPC, we carried out the comparative studies using different media types [GPC(General Porous-concrete), CPC(Compound porous-concrete), LPC(Lightweight aggregate porous-concrete)] under the condition of CFSTR, and different retention times (30, 60and 120 min). We also estimated the purification capacity of MPC under different concentrations of pollutant loadings. The MPC showed higher efficiency in water purification function than other conventional porous concretes with efficient decrease rates of SS, BOD,COD, and nutrient concentrations. In the comparison experiment for different retention times,MPC showed the highest removal efficiency for all tested pollutants in the longest retention time(120 min). In the long period test, the removal efficiencies of MPC concrete were high until 100 days after the set up of the operation, but began to decrease. Outflow flux was invariable compared with inflow flux so that extra detention time for media fouling such as back washing is not needed. But the results suggested that appropriate management is necessary for longterm operation of MPC. As the final outcome, MPC using bio organisms is considered to be efficient for stream water purification when they used as substrates for artificial river structure.
  • 5.

    Comparative Analysis of EIA System between Paraguay and South Korea

    Hugo Cesar Martinez | Hong Sangpyo | 2011, 20(6) | pp.823~831 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    파라과이와 한국의 환경영향평가에 관련된 제도와 법률은 환경영향평가 대상사업, 실행방법 및사후감시 등에서 상이하다. 양국의 환경영향평가 제도 중에는 전혀 관련 없는 것도 있는데, 경제적,사회적, 문화적, 역사적 그리고 지연조건이 상이하여 양국의 환경영향평가 제도에 영향을 주는 것으로 분석된다. 파라과이에서는 스코핑이 Term of References (TOR)가 준비되는 단계이다. TOR은환경부에 의해 준비된 특정의 환경영향평가의 요구조건을 포함한다. 파라과이에서는 스코핑 단계에서 환경부의 주도로 주민참여가 진행된다. Environmental Impact Relatorio (RIMA)가 개발사업으로 인해 영향을 받는 지역사회에 시행되고, 간결하고 이해하기 쉬운 표현으로 작성된다. 파라과이에서는 EIS가 승인되기 전에 RIMA를 지역사회에 공개한다.
  • 6.

    A Stochastic Analysis of the Water Quality with Discharge Variation in Upper Nakdong River Basin

    최현구 | Han Kun Yeun | 최승용 | 2011, 20(6) | pp.833~843 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to analysis pollutant loading of upper Nakdong River basin according to the variation of discharge. The correlation between discharge and pollutant concentration and between discharge and pollutant loading were analyzed by statistical method, respectively. Regression equation of pollutant loading and discharge was represented as L = _aQ^b in which L = pollutant loading(kg/day), and b = regression coefficients, and Q =discharge(m^3/day). The correlation coefficient of study area was in range of 0.8428 to 0.9935. The SS was the highest b value 1.2856~1.7730 among water quality parameters because the pollutant loading of SS was much affected by flow. Additionally, the applicability of the regression equations was verified by comparing predicted results with observed value. The correlation coefficient of verification was in range of 0.8983 to 0.9987 and NSEC was in range of 0.7018 to 0.9960. Therefore the pollutant loading was good correlated with discharge. The main result will be used as basic data for water quality management and design of environment fundamental facilities.
  • 7.

    Assessment of Inhabitation and Species Diversity of Fish to Substrate Size in the Geum River Basin

    Hur, Jun Wook | 인동수 | 장민호 and 2other persons | 2011, 20(6) | pp.845~856 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    In order to establish fundamental data for stream restoration and environmental flow, we investigated inhabitation and species diversity of fish to substrate size in the typical streams of Geum River Basin. Field monitoring including fish sampling was conducted from October 2007to October 2009. Substrate size was determined according to six different : silt (Si), sand (Sa),fine gravel (Fg), coarse gravel (Cg), cobbles (Co) and boulders (Bo). A total number of fish caught in the 18 sites was 7,649 representing 10 families 50 species, and Si, Sa, Fg, Cg, Co and Bo stations occupied 30, 29, 38, 30, 27 and 17 species, respectively. The most frequently found species in number was pale chum (Zacco platypus, 29.7%, n=2,275) followed by Z. koreanus (22.5%, n=1,720) in total stations. Biological diversity with increase of substrate size from the dominance of part species showed higher values as dominance index, lower and diversity,richness and evenness index. Index of biological integrity (IBI) and qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI) scores decreased with increase of substrate size. Therefore, it is necessary to make an effort on stream rehabilitation with evaluation of physical habitat condition by indicator species in order to maintain biodiversity and perform ecological restoration.
  • 8.

    A Study for selecting the Highway Sites’ Best Management Practice for Nonpoint Source Pollution

    이용복 | SANG-IL CHOI | 박계수 and 2other persons | 2011, 20(6) | pp.857~866 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This research categorized EIA target highways into following three types in order to minimize non-point source pollution from highway runoff. 1. Big drainage basin. 2. Small drainage basin. 3. Bridge section. The Natural, Filter and Swirl-Type devices were evaluated in terms of removal efficiency of TSS, BOD, COD, T-N, T-P, compatibility of site selection,economic feasibility, and maintenance convenience through which the final BMP was selected. According to the removal efficiency result, the area of Big and Small Drainage basin and bridge section had higher removal efficiency with natural facility than that of the Filter or Swirl-Type device. To make appropriate selection of highways’BMP for non-point source pollution, this study will aim to contribute to building more environmentally friendly highways by proposing the selection process that is made of 5 stages. 1. Selecting the target drainage basin. 2. Selecting the land for the mitigation facility. 3. Analysing the ease of maintenance. 4. Technically evaluating each installation. 5. Evaluating the effective implementation methods.
  • 9.

    An Assessment of Landscape Ecological Value of Greenbelt Areas in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    OH KYU SHIK | Park, Ji-Hye | 이동우 | 2011, 20(6) | pp.867~878 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Development restriction areas (greenbelt areas) of Korea were recognized in 1970 as a means to control urban sprawl and conserve the natural environment. Although there have been some achievements, for a long time many planners and residents have requested a redefining of the green belt due to individual property rights restrictions and urban management problems. In fact, a lot of the greenbelt area is being destroyed by urban development. Therefore,conservation of ecological spaces in the green belt is needed to maintain urban naturalness. In this regard, this study suggests efficient methods to manage the greenbelt through the adoption of a landscape ecological value assessment. The greenbelt of the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) is represented as the case study because there has been mounting pressure to develop the area in Korea. In this study, the assessment of the landscape ecology in the greenbelt area focuses on landscape structure and function. The assessment consists of the following steps: First, patches were derived by NDVI analysis using landsat remote sensing data. Second, characteristics of the patches were quantified by analyzing the landscape structure, such as patch size and shape index. Lastly, the gravity model and least cost path analysis to assess connectivity were applied to evaluate the landscape function in the green belt areas. The assessment result showed that 48.45% of green belt area should be conserved to maintain ecological stability and function. Moreover, major ecological networks were identified near the large patches in the northern and southern areas. However, relative low ecological values were identified in the western part of the green belt area due to the lack of green spaces. Furthermore,some development plans in the green belt were also identified near the conservation area. Based on these results, the restoration needed areas to enhance ecological value in green belt were displayed. This study suggests efficient management of the greenbelt area, which is disappearing as a result of urban development. The area for conservation chosen in this study should be managed carefully in urban planning. Finally, the results of this study can be used in green belt polices and plans for the promotion of ecological naturalness and stability.
  • 10.

    Comparative Evaluation among Different Kriging Techniques applied to GOSAT CO_2 Map for North East Asia

    Choi, Jin Ho | Um, Jung Sup | 2011, 20(6) | pp.879~890 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) data provide new opportunities the most regionally complete and up-to-date assessment of CO_2. However, in practice, GOSAT records often suffer from missing data values mainly due to unfavorable meteorological condition in specific time periods of data acquisition. The aim of this research was to identify optimal spatial interpolation techniques to ensure the continuity of CO_2 from samples taken in the North East Asia. The accuracy among ordinary kriging (OK), universal kriging (UK) and simple kriging (SK) was compared based on the combined consideration of R^2 values, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Error (ME) for variogram models. Cross validation for 1312random sampling points indicate that the (UK) kriging is the best geostatistical method for spatial predictions of CO_2 in the East Asia region. The results from this study can be useful for selecting optimal kriging algorithm to produce CO_2 map of various landscapes. Also, data users may benefit from a statistical approach that would allow them to better understand the uncertainty and limitations of the GOSAT sample data.
  • 11.

    Analysis of Climate Characteristics Observed over the Korean Peninsula for the Estimation of Climate Change Vulnerability Index

    Kipyo Nam | 강정언 | Cheol-Hee Kim | 2011, 20(6) | pp.891~905 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Climate vulnerability index is usually defined as a function of the climate exposure,sensitivity, and adaptive capacity, which requires adequate selection of proxy variables of each variable. We selected and used 9 proxy variables related to climate exposure in the literature,and diagnosed the adequacy of them for application in Korean peninsula. The selected proxy variables are: four variables from temperature, three from precipitation, one from wind speed,and one from relative humidity. We collected climate data over both previous year (1981~2010) and future climate scenario (A1B scenario of IPCC SERES) for 2020, 2050, and 2100. We introduced the spatial and temporal diagnostic statistical parameters, and evaluated both spatial and time variabilities in the relative scale. Of 9 proxy variables, effective humidity indicated the most sensitive to climate change temporally with the biggest spatial variability,implying a good proxy variable in diagnostics of climate change vulnerability in Korea. The second most sensitive variable is the frequency of strong wind speed with a decreasing trend,suggesting that it should be used carefully or may not be of broad utility as a proxy variable in Korea. The A1B scenario of future climate in 2020, 2050 and 2100 matches well with the extension of linear trend of observed variables during 1981~2010, indicating that, except for strong wind speed, the selected proxy variables can be effectively used in calculating the Climate vulnerability index is usually defined as a function of the climate exposure,sensitivity, and adaptive capacity, which requires adequate selection of proxy variables of each variable. We selected and used 9 proxy variables related to climate exposure in the literature,and diagnosed the adequacy of them for application in Korean peninsula. The selected proxy variables are: four variables from temperature, three from precipitation, one from wind speed,and one from relative humidity. We collected climate data over both previous year (1981~2010) and future climate scenario (A1B scenario of IPCC SERES) for 2020, 2050, and 2100. We introduced the spatial and temporal diagnostic statistical parameters, and evaluated both spatial and time variabilities in the relative scale. Of 9 proxy variables, effective humidity indicated the most sensitive to climate change temporally with the biggest spatial variability,implying a good proxy variable in diagnostics of climate change vulnerability in Korea. The second most sensitive variable is the frequency of strong wind speed with a decreasing trend,suggesting that it should be used carefully or may not be of broad utility as a proxy variable in Korea. The A1B scenario of future climate in 2020, 2050 and 2100 matches well with the extension of linear trend of observed variables during 1981~2010, indicating that, except for strong wind speed, the selected proxy variables can be effectively used in calculating the vulnerability index for both past and future climate over Korea. Other local variabilities for the past and future climate in association with climate exposure variables are also discussed here.
  • 12.

    Monitoring and restoration plan after construction of Wildlife Corridor at Mt. Galmachi of Sungnam City

    Seung-Hoon Chun | Lee, Sang-Don | Chae,Soo-Kwon | 2011, 20(6) | pp.907~914 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims at monitoring the efficiency of wildlife corridor in the city of Sungnam,Gyunggi Province. During 2008-2010 for 13 months the CCTV in the city office followed number and population density using the wildlife corridor. Based on the monitoring Korean raccoon dog(Nyctereutes procyonoides) and water deer(Hydropotes inermis), Korean hare(Lepus coreanus), Korean yellow-weasel(Mustela sibirica), Korean squirrels(Sciurus vulgaris) used most often and counting 884 individuals.. This counts over 73% of targeted species and also verifies the project objectives. In future the monitoring should be increased and identify behavioral patterns focusing on ecological networks of previously fragmented habitats.
  • 13.

    A study on the management and improvement of alert system according to algal bloom in the Daecheong Reservoir

    Dong-Hwan Jeong | 이재정 | 김교영 and 5other persons | 2011, 20(6) | pp.915~925 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Following the industrialization and urbanization in Korea, algal bloom causes aesthetic displeasure and many other problems such as taste and odor, coloration, scum, increase in pH,filter-bed blockage. There were some cases involving human death by microcystins during summertime in foreign countries. In Korea, Harmful cyanobacteria such as Microcystis and Anabaena develop in summer in the Daecheong reservoir, one of the main water resources, with the retention time of above 200 days. To better control algal bloom, the Ministry of Environment has been running algal bloom alert system from 1998 for the Daecheong reservoir, which needs to be improved to reflect the characteristics of river-type lakes. For this reason, we try to find new measures to improve an algal bloom alert system for each water zone considering the characteristics of harmful cyanobacteria in this study.
  • 14.

    Comparative Analysis of EIA Systems of Algeria and Korea

    Nawel Ladj | Hong Sangpyo | 2011, 20(6) | pp.927~936 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    환경영향평가(Environmental Impact Assessment : EIA)는 대규모 개발사업에 관련된 의사결정의 효과성을 향상시킬 수 있는 제도이다. 알제리와 한국의 EIA 제도를 비교분석하여 특징 및장단점을 파악하여 다른 계획관련 정부기관과 환경관련 기관과의 조정 및 협조 수준의 차이점을 연구하였다. 알제리와 한국의 EIA 제도는 의사결정 절차에 관련된 규정에서는 유사하지만 주민참여수준에서는 한국이 발달되어 있다. 스크리닝 제도에서는 프랑스의 영향을 받은 알제리의 제도가 비교적 잘 발달되어 있다.
  • 15.

    Urban Planning responding to Climate Change and Strategic Environmental Assessment in Korea

    Lee, Jong-Ho | 2011, 20(6) | pp.937~952 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    정부는 지구온난화로 인해 기후변화에 대응하고 세계적 경제위기를 극복하기 위해, 저탄소녹색성장기본법(2010년 1월)을 제정하여 저탄소 녹색성장을 추진하고 있다. 저탄소 녹색성장은 신재생에너지, 탄소배출권 거래제도, 5+2 광역권개발정책, 저탄소 녹색도시 등으로 요약할 수 있다. 본 연구의 목적은 저탄소 녹색도시계획 및 이에 대한 전략환경평가의 동향을 고찰하고, 저탄소 녹색도시계획에 대한 전략환경평가의 방향을 제시하는 데 있다. 저탄소 녹색도시 조성 관련 연구를 고찰한 후, 환경부의 사전환경성검토 업무매뉴얼의 도시계획의 환경성제고 방안과 국토해양부의 전략환경평가 업무처리규정, 도시계획수립지침, 저탄소 녹색도시 조성을 위한 도시계획수립지침(2009), 저탄소 녹색도시계획 표준모델(2010), 녹색도시개발계획등을 포함하면서 개정된 도시개발업무지침(2011)이 도시계획에 제대로 반영되는지를 검토하고, 외국의 기후변화에 대응하는 전략환경평가를 고찰한 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 기후변화 대응 도시계획의 내용은 저감방안과 적응방안 두 가지로 나눌 수 있는 데, 저감방안은 경제적 및 기술적으로 한계가 있으므로, 향후 전략환경평가는 저감방안과 함께 적응방안을 강조할 필요가 있다. 둘째, 기후변화 대응(저감과 적응)을 위해 전략환경평가의 목표와 지표를 설정한다. 셋째, 국토해양부의 상위계획(광역도시계획과 도시기본계획)에 대한 전략환경평가와 환경부의 하위계획(도시관리계획)에 대한 전략환경평가의 긴밀한 연계가 필수적이다. 넷째, 전략환경평가는 도시기본계획 수립 후에 이뤄지는 독립된 과정이라기보다는 도시기본계획수립과정에서 중요한 부분으로 인식하는 것이 중요하다. 장기적으로는 도시기본계획과 도시환경계획을 연계시키는 것이 바람직하다.