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2012, Vol.21, No.1

  • 1.

    Improvement for Marine Environmental Impact Assessment on the Development of Offshore Wind Power

    Gui Young Kim | 이대인 | Kyeong-Am Jeon and 2other persons | 2012, 21(1) | pp.1~13 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    We diagnosed on status and problems of environmental assessment regarding development of offshore wind power, and also on reasonable core assessment items. Most of the coastal wind power are located on the western coastline of Korea and Jeju Island. In the selections of the site for the offshore wind farms, a previous investigations should be conducted with regard to distances from the land, stabilities from external forces (tide, wave, etc.) and topographical changes, and characteristics of the surroundings (distributions of protected area, fishing ground, artificial seagrasses, and shipping traffic). It is needed to assess dispersion of suspended solids, changes of the sea bottom, and impacts on fisheries resources and fishing activities under construction of offshore wind power. Furthermore, the responses of marine organisms to noise and vibration, impacts by electromagnetic fields, impacts on sea birds, hindrances to sea lane routes, and damaged scenery and marine protection areas are thoroughly assessed during operation processes. The consultation criteria in case of development of offshore wind farm is adjusted by focusing marine environmental impact assessment.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Improvement Scheme of Environmental Impact Assessment in Social Environment

    신경희 | Hyosook Yim | Kong-jang Cho | 2012, 21(1) | pp.15~24 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to understand the process and characteristics of social impact caused by development projects through research and analysis on issues presented during development projects carried out in Korea. Furthermore, on the basis this analysis, this study proposes possible improvement measure environmental impact assessment for minimizing social impact of development projects in the future. Issues related to development projects are generated mainly by the following three causes. Initial social impact can occur when a development project directly causes certain changes in natural, living and social environment. Operational problems related to assessment are another cause of social impact, and it can also occur when changes in natural and living environment work in tandem with social environment sphere. Social impact of development projects is not brought about solely by changes in social environment, but is the result of interaction of factors such as changes in social, natural, living environment and problems related to assessment or operation /management. As to why the current environmental impact assessment could not provide satisfactory solution to the issues mentioned above, this study suggests the following reasons:limitations of assessment method used in social environment category, difficulties in defining assessment criteria, limitations inherent in criterion referenced assessment method, insufficient issue-making in local community, and lack of participation on the part of local residents. Possible solutions for these limitations are as follows: 1) To identify local issues in social environment category through participation of local experts in scoping stage, 2) To adopt deliberative method for local participation, 3) To utilize social survey technique.
  • 3.

    Analysis the Effects of Physical Blocking Weirs on the Water Quality in Daechung Reservoir

    이흥수 | Chung, Se-woong | 박형석 and 1other persons | 2012, 21(1) | pp.25~39 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study was aimed to assess the effects of additional installation of two different types of weirs, one is a curtain-type weir and another is a submerged-type weir, on the control of algal growth in Daechung Reservoir. A two-dimensional(2D) coupled hydrodynamic and eutrophication model that can accommodate vertical movement of the curtain weir following the water surface variations was verified using field data obtained in two distinctive hydrological years; dry(2008) and wet(2010). The model adequately simulated the temporal and spatial variations of water temperature, nutrients and algal(Chl-a) concentrations during the periods. The effectiveness of curtain weir on the control of algal bloom was evaluated by applying the model to 2001(dry year) and 2010 assuming 6 different scenarios according to installation locations. The curtain weirs that already installed at 3, 5, 7 sites(scenario C-2)showed significant effect on the control of algal growth in the reservoir; the reduction rates of algal concentration were placed in the range of 7.5~31.5% and 9.1~44.9% for 2001 and 2010,respectively. However the simulation results revealed that additional installation of curtain weirs(scenario C-3~C-6) in the bay area (choosori) have marginal effect. The effectiveness of submerged weir was evaluated against 2010 assuming 7 different scenarios according to installation locations, but all scenarios(S-1~S-7) showed neglectable or negative effect on the control of algal growth.
  • 4.

    “Ecoturism Networks 10”around the Areas Bordering National Rivers in South Korea

    Gwan-Gyu Lee | 이상혁 | 2012, 21(1) | pp.41~51 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    To select 10 representatives for the ecotourism networks around the areas bordering national rivers in Korea, the spatial ranges for ecotourism have been established, the ecotourism potential analyzed, and the ecotourism resources information collected by the Regional Environmental Offices and the Korea National Park Service has undergone reviews,amendments, supplements, and verification processes through familiarization tour previews,and the following main results have been derived. First, the spatial ranges of the eco-tourism networks have been set as the watershed areas that include areas around the four major rivers and the rivers. Second, the areas with high potential value for ecotourism were selected through the analysis of ecotourism potential. Since EGIS was used for the analysis, it was inevitable that insufficient amount of localized information was reflected, and the use of the results as reference for the potential would be feasible. Third, it was possible, by reviewing, amending and complementing the results of ecological resource information collected by the Regional Environmental Offices and the Korea National Park Service, to select 50 representative ecological resources around the national rivers. The selected resources were considered for the adjacency, attractiveness of ecological resources, and uniqueness of the national rivers, and they were derived by screening expert advice, official opinion, and geographical analysis information. Fourth, 10 representative ecotourism networks based on watershed areas were selected, and suitable themes were given based on the resource characteristics. Fifth, the appropriateness for ecotourism has been confirmed, with the familiarization tour previews andsurvey results, preservation of the future ecotourism resources, and the establishment of the foundation as the basis. In the future, the remaining 9 ecotourism networks would also need to undergo a verification process such as familiarization tours. It is deemed that, through future ecotourism contests, if the programs that select locally-pioneered tourism programs resulting from the capacities of local entities and residents, then it would be more effective in discovering resources that are more localized and of higher regional value.
  • 5.

    A Comparative Study on the Ecology-Friendly Effects of Eco-Festivals: A Case Study of Ham-Pyung Butterfly Festival and Mu-Ju Firefly Festival

    Myung Gyu,SONG | 2012, 21(1) | pp.53~61 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This study makes an attempt to appraise how much successful both (Ham-Pyung) Butterfly Festival and (Mu-Ju) Firefly Festival are in the view point of ecology-friendly effects, and based on this appraisal, searches for desirable and developmental directions of other eco-festivals. The empirical analysis of the study shows that even if the Butterfly Festival turns out to be more famous than the Firefly Festival, the latter is confirmed to be more eco-friendly than the former. The fact that the latter is more eco-friendly seems to be due to the fact that the subject matter,that is the theme, of the festival is the fireflies which are not only natural monuments but also peculiar in-site-resources specific to Mu-Ju. This fact suggests that the other eco-festivals, newly emerging ones in particular, need to find and designate in-site-resources inherent in their regions as the theme, as far as possible.
  • 6.

    The Evaluation on Solidification of Dredged Sediment for Recycle from Stagnant Water Area

    김상현 | 안태웅 | 최이송 and 1other persons | 2012, 21(1) | pp.63~69 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Sediment has been increasingly acknowledged as a carrier in water system and an available contamination. For this reason, dredging of sediment in reservoir to remediate water quality and secure storage capacity is conducted annually. However, disposal of numerous dredged sediment is necessary as a secondary problem. Currently, in Korea, dredged sediment is classified as waste to be reclamated or recycled into sandy soil, however, they are still in trouble because of spacial and environmental problem. Therefore, rather than simple disposal or reuse into sandy soil, it is necessary to research on method to manage main cause of pollution and increase the value as a resource. In this study, we intend to develop a recycle technology for numerous dredged sediment produced by dredging in deteriorated reservoirs using solidificator (stabilizer). To achieve this, we will consider utilization of dredged sediment and evaluation of use possibility as natural recycle by analysis the characteristics of soil-solidificator mixture in terms of physicochemical properties and the mixing ratio between sediment and solidificator.
  • 7.

    Local Adaptation Plan to Climate Change Impact in Seoul: Focused on Heat Wave Effects

    Kim, Eunyoung | Jeon, Sung-Woo | Lee, Jung-Won and 2other persons | 2012, 21(1) | pp.71~80 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Against the backdrop of the clear impact of climate change, it has become essential to analyze the influence of climate change and relevant vulnerabilities. This research involved evaluating the impact of heat waves in Seoul, from among many local autonomous bodies that are responsible for implementing measures on adapting to climate change. To carry out the evaluation, the A1B scenario was used to forecast future temperature levels. Future climate scenario results were downscaled to 1km×1km to result in the incorporation of regional characteristics. In assessing the influence of heat waves on people-especially the excess mortality-we analyzed critical temperature levels that affect excess mortality and came up with the excess mortality. Results of this evaluation on the impact of climate change and vulnerabilities indicate that the number of days on which the daily average temperature reaches 28.1˚C-the critical temperature for excess mortality-in Seoul will sharply increase in the 2050s and 2090s. The highest level of impact will be in the month of August. The most affected areas in the summer will be Songpa-gu, Gangnam-gu, and Yeongdeungpo-gu. These areas have a high concentration of residences which means that heat island effects are one of the reasons for the high level of impact. The excess mortality from heat waves is expected to be at least five times the current figure in 2090. Adaptation plan needs to be made on drawing up long-term adaptation measures as well as implementing short-term measures to minimize or adapt the impact of climate change.
  • 8.

    The evaluation of pollution level and release characteristics by inner productivity in the sediment of lake

    이상은 | 최이송 | Lee, Sang keun and 2other persons | 2012, 21(1) | pp.81~91 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, it is grasped the status of nutrients through an investigation of release characteristics and physicochemical properties of sediments on reservoir. And then the effect of sediments is evaluated on the water quality in reservoir. In the results of physicochemical analysis, the pollution level of midstream is the highest, which shows the traits that the water is more deeper and takes place a deposition consistently. Then, the pollution level of upstream is higher than downstream’s because inflow has influence on the upstream directly. The downstream is located near tidal gate so that the soil particles can be moved easily and are difficult to be deposited due to the distribution of seawater by control of tidal gate. Therefore,the downstream is showed the lowest pollution level than the others. Also, the concentration of SOD(Sediment Oxygen Demand) in the upstream which is influenced on the effect of inflow is highest than the others. When it analyzes under anaerobic and aerobic condition to understand the release characteristic of sediment, it shows that the release rate is low or negative under the aerobic condition. Whereas the release rate is usually positive under the unaerobic condition relatively. According to these results, it is necessary to maintain the proper environmental factors of water body for decreasing the release rate of sediment. Because the release rate is changeable under the different condition of water body. Therefore, proper strategies are required for increasing the self-purification of water as well as keeping the aerobic condition of sediment and managing a sediment layer directly to control the inner-pollution by the sediment of reservoir.
  • 9.

    A Method of River Environmental Impact Assessment using LCA

    김성준 | 김명희 | 전용태 and 3other persons | 2012, 21(1) | pp.93~104 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this research LCA methodology was adapted and analyzed in quantifying estimation of estuarine environment. The analysed objects of estuarine environment were construction methods, facility, and input material into water, and estuarine ecosystem. In this research the function of LCA of estuarine environment was river with the view of controling water, utilizing water, and hydrophilic function. According to the result of research, environmental damage indicator of facility was decreased 346 Pt from 453 Pt at pre-maintenance to 107 pt at postmaintenance. Among raw and subsidiary materials, remicon, stone-netting bag, and pebbles were showing heavy environmental load in the order. Evironmental impact of input material into water system was analyzed from 1,827 Pt environmental load before construction to 1,080Pt of post-maintenance, and damage indicator was improved at 747 Pt. Water quality was improved from 1,827 Pt (before construction) to 1,080 Pt(after construction), and ecosystem was improved after maintenance. Environmental indicator in ecosystem was analyzed 427 Pt(before construction) to 348 Pt(after construction), and damage indicator of Sumnjingang riverine system was improved as much as 79 Pt. In the conclusion, estuarine environmental monitoring through LCA in the area of facility, input material into water and ecosystem showed that closeto-nature stream was 1,172 Pt better than artificial stream in environmental aspects.
  • 10.

    A Simulation Study on Future Climate Change Considering Potential Forest Distribution Change in Landcover

    김재철 | Chong Bum Lee | 최성호 | 2012, 21(1) | pp.105~117 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Future climate according to land-use change was simulated by regional climate model. The goal of study was to predict the distribution of meteorological elements using the Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF). The KME (Korea Ministry of Environment) mediumcategory land-use classification was used as dominant vegetation types. Meteorological modeling requires higher and more sophisticated land-use and initialization data. The WRF model simulations with HyTAG land-use indicated certain change in potential vegetation distribution in the future (2086-2088). Compared to the past (1986-1988) distribution, coniferous forest area was decreased in metropolitan and areas with complex terrain. The research shows a possibility to simulate regional climate with high resolution. As a result, the future climate was predicted to 4.5°which was 0.5°higher than prediction by Meteorological Administration. To improve future prediction of regional area, regional climate model with HyTAG as well as high resolution initial values such as urban growth and CO2 flux simulation would be desirable.
  • 11.

    A Study on the National and International Research Trend of Biodiversity Assessment method and Its Application of Environmental Impact Assessment

    구미현 | 이동근 | 2012, 21(1) | pp.119~132 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Biodiversity is a key element of ecosystem of which function provides essential product and service in human life. In the course since development projects often causes damages to biodiversity, environmental impact assessment technique must be capable of accurately assessing potential impact from flora and fauna and to entire ecosystem. Korea needs improvement of its assessment technique that is compatible with Korean environmental regulatory standard that is generally stricter than that of most countries. This study attempts to explore both domestic and overseas biodiversity assessment techniques and analyze each stage of environmental impact assessment. The data is collected from numbers of literatures selected by navigating both domestic and overseas literature database with certain keywords. Among the 44 selected papers, overseas publications outnumber those of domestics, and there are more researches on assessment methodology of biodiversity than assessment tool and model. In terms of environmental impact assessment, the number of papers on environmental impact forecast exceeds the numbers of papers on current state of environment and the impact minimizing solution. Therefore, contents and trends of those researches in the different stages of environmental impact assessment discussed in this paper not only suggest potential impact on biodiversity and minimization solutions in detail, but is also a valuable resource particularly for biodiversity relevant environmental assessment technique improvement in Korea. Proposing of a new direction of improvement in biodiversity assessment techniques makes this study significant, and further research for preservation of biodiversity should follow up to provide an improvement scheme for biodiversity assessment techniques in the future
  • 12.

    Design of convection current circulation system in reservoir using CFD simulation

    이요상 | 2012, 21(1) | pp.133~142 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Convection Current Circulation System(CCCS) in stratified reservoir controls development of anaerobic condition and algal bloom during summer. In order to increase the CCCS effectiveness, we analyze diverse design parameters to make optimize the flow pattern in reservoir. In this study, we interpret the internal flow with installation and operation condition of CCCS based on CFD in reservoir. Design variables of CCCS is reservoir depth, stratification strength, distance of between CCCS and so on. Since reservoir depth and stratification strength in variables is depending on natural phenomenon, we evaluated current circulation effect by distance of CCCS and proposed the optimal design condition using CFD simulation. Flow and diffusion changes in water body was assessed by temperature and dye test. Changes in water floor temperature at 40m intervals was slowly descending over 37 hours. Dye diffusion simulation at 60m intervals, the radius of the spread between two devices were overlapped after 12 hours.
  • 13.

    The Community of Cryophilic and Mountain Periphyton at High Altitude Streams in the Han-river System

    김용진 | Dong Soo Kong | Ok Min Lee | 2012, 21(1) | pp.143~160 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The community of periphyton was studied at high altitude streams of the Han-river System,including Buk-stream and Hangae-stream from October to November 2010. The study had special emphasis on the distribution of the cryophilic and mountain periphyton. In this research, 117 taxa of periphyton appeared and 80 taxa of diatom were included within these periphytons. Saproxenous taxa, such as Achnanthes convergens and Hannaea arcus var. subarcus were appeared in most sites, 7 sites were dominant by filamentous taxa in green and blue green algae. The DAIpo value was from 48.8 to 92.5 for the water system of this research. Most sites showed a good water quality, receiving a B class or above except the Woljeong-stream and the Daeki-stream. Cryophilic and mountain periphyton appeared 9 taxa which composed by diatoms Cymbella affinis, Cymbella tumida, Diatoma mesodon, Diatoma vulgare, Eunotia pectinalis,Hannaea arcus, Hannaea arcus var. subarcus and Synedra inaequalis and green algae Ulothrix zonata. Among these taxa, Hannaea arcus var. subarcus, found in 29 out of 33 sites, had the highest frequency of apperance. The relative frequency of Hannaea arcus var. subarcus was positively correlated with altitude(r2=0.539) and negatively correlated with water temperature(r2=0.338). As a result, Hannaea arcus var. subarcus showed the characteristics of cryophilic and mountain periphyton in the research site.
  • 14.

    Application of BASIN 4.0 and WinHSPF to a Small Stream in Total Water Pollution Load Management Area and Calibration of Model Parameter using Genetic Algorithm

    CHO JAE HEON | 윤승진 | 2012, 21(1) | pp.161~169 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Recently various attempts have been made to apply HSPF model to calculate runoff and diffuse pollution loads of stream and reservoir watersheds. Because the role of standard flow is very important in the water quality modelling of Total Water Pollution Load Management,HSPF was used as a means of estimating standard flow. In this study, BASINS 4.0 and WinHSPF was applied to the Gomakwoncheon watershed, genetic algorithm(GA) and influence coefficient algorithm were used to calibrate the runoff parameters of the WinHSPF. The objective function is the sum of the squares of the normalized residuals of the observed and calculated flow and it is optimized using GA. Estimates of the optimum runoff parameters are made at each iteration of the influence coefficient algorithm. The calibration results showed a relatively good correspondence between the observed and the calculated values. The standard flow(Q275) of the Gomakwoncheon watershed was estimated using the ten years of weather data.
  • 15.

    Stream Corridor Ecological Restoration by Small Dam Removal - Removals of Gongreung2 & Gotan Small Dams in Korea -

    Ahn Hong-Kyu | Si-Nae Kim | Hyo Seop Woo | 2012, 21(1) | pp.171~184 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    하천 수위를 유지하거나 농업용수를 취수 할 목적으로 조성되는 크고 작은 보는 용수공급 시설로이용되고 있으나, 하천 생물이동의 차단, 보 상류부의 수질악화, 수변 생물서식처의 변화, 하천경관훼손과 같은 환경적 문제를 초래하고 있다. 더욱이 도시화가 진행됨에 따라 토지이용의 변화, 시설의 노후화 등으로 매년 50~150개 정도의 보가 폐기되고 있는 현실이다. 본 연구는 하천에 설치되었으나 용도와 기능이 상실된 보를 철거하여 생태적 연속성을 확보하고 하천 본래의 모습으로 되돌려주며, 하천의 생태적 건강성을 회복 및 향상 시키고자 하였다. 보 철거 시범사업으로 공릉천에 설치된 길이 76m, 높이 1.5m의 공릉2보와, 한탄강에 설치된 길이 190m, 높이 2.8m의 고탄보를 철거하였고, 각 시범사업 대상지의 물리/화학/생태특성 모니터링 분석을 수행하였다. 그 결과 철거 직후보의 직 상류부에 전체적으로 침식이 발생하고, 보 하류부는 여울, 하중도, 사주, 침식 등 다양한 지형으로 변모되었다. 본 연구를 통하여 하천복원의 취지에 맞는 하천 본래의 모습에 가까운 하천으로복원하기 위해서는 기능 및 용도가 상실된 보의 경우는 기존의 보체를 개량하거나 어도를 설치하여주는 것 보다 구조물 자체의 완전철거를 통한 생물 이동통로 조성이 바람직하다고 판단된다.
  • 16.

    Development of Assessment Indicators and System for Ecotourism Designation

    Hee-Sun Choi | 김현애 | 2012, 21(1) | pp.185~199 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Ecotourism has been attracting much attention as an example industry that can vitalize local economy markets and preserve natural resources. Implementation of ‘Ecotourism Designation System’ is under consideration to provide ecotourism products that can both emphasize the original meanings of ecotourism and ensure stronger trust from customers than ever before. This research introduced the direction, principles, subjects, and assessment indicators by subjects in terms of implementing the system and proposed fundamentals for both designation assignment and score calculation. In the face of implementing such a system in Korea, the investigation sought subjects whose target areas and programs are in need of examination. For assessment criteria by subjects, six assessment indicators were selected in the end for ecotourism sites, including: ① the value of natural/ecological preservation ② facility’s ecological design ③ understanding both the environment and local culture ④ systems connecting local communities for cooperation ⑤ long/short term preservation and maintenance strategies/plans ⑥ willingness to further develop ecotourism and cooperative platform. In addition, seven assessment indicators were selected for program assignments,including: ① the value of natural/ecological preservation ② minimization of environmental effects ③ expansion of environmental understanding ④ sharing the local culture ⑤ vitalizing local connections and economical activities among communities ⑥ securing and maintaining professionality among human resources ⑦ odds of continuation, creativity, and aptness to improve programs. After considering the pros and cons of both categorizing system and yes/no system, implementation of categorizing system for the short term and yes/no for the long term were suggested, followed by additional suggestions of a score calculation system for each system. The official implementation of the ‘Ecotourism Designation System’ is scheduled for launch in 2013 after the trial operation in 2012. The assessment indicators and fundamentals suggested in this research, considering judgment, must be improved via systematic and practical methods through the trial operation.
  • 17.

    Wind Characteristics at Urban Stream - Case of Yangjae Stream at Gangnam-gu in Seoul -

    이상정 | 이원보 | 김문성 and 1other persons | 2012, 21(1) | pp.201~208 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Global warming due to the climate change causes environmental problems such as urban heat island (UHI), air pollutant deposition, urban heavy rainfall, etc. Urban stream plays an important role on mitigating UHI as open space as well as an ecological corridor in urban area. In order to investigate the wind characteristics of urban stream in the case of Yangjae Stream at Daechi-dong, Gangnam-gu in Seoul, the wind direction and wind speed data were observed and analyzed using a propellor type RM-Young wind monitor. The results show that the prevailing wind direction was southwest. However, easterly wind is the prevailing one between 8:00 and 12:00. Strong wind whose Beaufort scale is four or more blew frequently from 12:00 to 18:00. In terms of seasonal frequency, the spring shows the highest frequency, then winter was the next.
  • 18.

    The Suitable Types and Measures of Wildlife Crossing Structures for Mammals of Korea

    최태영 | Yang, Byeong Gug | Woo, Dong Geol | 2012, 21(1) | pp.209~218 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, suitable types and measures of Wildlife Crossing Structures (WCS) for mammals of Korea were analyzed to suggest basic information for design guidelines of WCS. In order to find the types and measures, we conducted field surveys on 79 WCS and literature reviews on 159 WCS. The results of our study were as follows; Small-medium sized carnivores usually use all measures of wildlife underpass, meanwhile large sized herbivores as water deer need lager measures than 0.7 Openness Index(OI). Furthermore, we found that wildlife overpasses were usually used at the measure of 6.8 m width by every mammal. Therefore, we concluded that the proper measures should be lager than 0.7 OI for underpass and 7 m width for overpass
  • 19.

    Estimation of Daily Solar Radiation at the Missing Point for Water Quality Impact Assessment in Nakdong River Watershed: Comparison of Modified Angstrom Model and Transmittance interpolation Model

    LEE, KHIL-HA | 2012, 21(1) | pp.219~227 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Daily solar radiation is essential for water resources planning and environmental impact assessment. However, radiation data is not commonly available in Korea other than in big cities, and there has been no direct measurement for rural areas where water resources planning and environmental impact assessment is usually most needed. In general, missing radiation data is estimated from nearby regional stations within a certain distance, and this study compared two dominant methods (modified Angstrom equation and transmittance interpolation method) at six stations in Nakdong River watershed area. Two methods shows a similar level of accuracy but the transmittance interpolation method is likely to be superior in that there is no need for any measurement element since the modified Angstrom equation require the sunshine hour measurement. This study will contribute to improve water resource and water quality management in Nakdong River watershed.