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2012, Vol.21, No.3

  • 1.

    Evaluation of Applicability for Nonpoint Discharge Coefficient using Watershed Model

    Lee Eun Jeong | Kim Tae Geun | 2012, 21(3) | pp.339~352 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Total maximum daily load have been implemented and indicated that nonpoint discharge coeffients in flow duration curve were 0.50 of Normal flow duration (Q185) and 0.15 of low flow duration(Q275). By using SWAT, nonpoint discharge coefficients are studied with the conditions of the instream flow and the rainfall in two study areas. The nonpoint discharge coefficient average of BOD and TP for normal flows duration in 3 years are 0.32~0.36 and 0.28~0.31. For the low flow duration, the nonpoint discharge coefficient avergae of BOD and TP were 0.10~0.12 and 0.10~0.11. These are lower than the coefficients of total maximum load regulation. There are big differences between one of regulation and one of SWAT for the normal flow duration. With the consideration of rainfall condition, the nonpoint discharge coefficient of flood flow duration are influenced on the amount of rainfalls. However, the nonpoint discharge coefficients of normal flow duration and low flow duration are not effected by the rainfall condition. Since the spatial distribution and geomorphological characteristics could be considered with SWAT, the estimation of nonpoint discharge coefficient in watershed model is better method than the use of the recommended number in the regulation.
  • 2.

    The Characteristic and Management of Odor Emitted from Foodwaste Treatment Facility

    유승성 | 김영두 | 이준연 and 6other persons | 2012, 21(3) | pp.353~365 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This study is understanding characteristics and analyzing contributions of the odor causing compounds of complex-odor & major specified odor materials, and contribution analysis,caused pre-treatment facilities(input and storage) and post-treatment facilities(heating and drying). The target of this study is feeds-production-facilities, located in Seoul. The averaged complex-odor compounds on the boundary line is 21 times higher, and it is 15times higher than emission standards. In cracking&collection(pre-treatment facilities), the concentration of compounds is 4,881 times, 2,080 times in drying, and 1,442 times in putting&storing facilities. Ammonia occupies the largest portion of the results of monitoring specified odor compounds in input&storage facilities, followed Acetaldehyde > Hydrogen sulfide > Methyl mercaptan. In cracking&collection, Ammonia also occupies most of odor compounds, followed Methyl mercaptan > Acetaldehyde > Dimethyl disulfide > Dimethyl sulfide > Hydrogen sulfide. Acetaldehyde > Methyl mercaptan in drying facilities. On the boundary line, however,the concentration of specified odor compounds stays below emission standards. The result of contribution analysis is that methyl mercaptan has the highest contribution in input & storage, as well as cracking&collection facilities, followed Acetaldehyde > Hydrogensulfide > Dimethyl sulfide > Dimethyl disulfide. In the drying facilities, the contribution shows Methyl mercaptan > Acetaldehyde > i-Valeraldehyde and Butyraldehyde. Therefore, to decrease odor in foodwaste treatment facilities, proper prevention facilities need to be installed and operated, according to characteristics of individual odor compounds, based on monitored data.
  • 3.

    Study on Algae Occurrence in Daecheong Reservoir

    조완희 | 염경택 | 김진수 and 2other persons | 2012, 21(3) | pp.367~380 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    There are many long and round shape shores due to terrain characteristics in Daecheong reservoir. Therefore it is indicated different spatial distribution of algae every year since the stream is being regulated by these terrain characteristics and reservoir operation about inflow and outflow discharge. Also oversupply of nutrient salt from tributaries of Daecheong reservoir where pollutants were concentrated generates massive growth of algae and depending on hydrological, reservoir operation condition, those proliferated algae at the stagnant tributaries moves to the mainstream of Daecheong reservoir which could create problems of water quality. In this study, it was analyzed the tendency of algae generation by examining algae occurring status for the last 4 years since 2008, and implemented hydraulic analysis at Daecheong reservoir through numerical tracer simulation by applying 3-dimensional hydrodynamic model, ELCOM. Also it was implemented a quantitative analysis of causal relationship based on the algae generation tendency and hydraulic behavior at Daecheong reservoir. Through numerical tracer simulation in this study, it could be noticed the degree of spread of inflow indicated similar trend to the algae occurring status at Daecheong reservoir and verified the different tendency of algae generation in 2011 unlike previous year caused by the rise of water temperature.
  • 4.

    Analysis of Weight Factors for Siting the Electric Facilities utilizing Analytical Hierarchy Process

    구자건 | 김상호 | 윤고산 and 2other persons | 2012, 21(3) | pp.381~389 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study was conducted to analyze the weight factors for siting the electric facilities using Analytic Heirarchy Process technique participating the stakeholders. Siting the electric facilities has been a dispute of long standing because of landscape damage, geological deformation and various environmental problems such as electromagnetic effect to human health. For analyzing the weight factors by AHP technique, the questionnaire process was applied to the fifteen committee members including representatives of resident, academic experts, members of local assembly, officers of local government, journalists, etc. in Gangwondo, Korea. Weight factors for siting the electric facilities by AHP committee members resulted in residential areas 35.06%,cultural assets 16.68%, landscape conservation 13.11%, large-scale ecological corridor 10.17%,connectability of electric transmission line 8.32% respectively. The distance from residential areas was the most important factor preferred by committee members for siting the electric facilities.
  • 5.

    Measuring Connectivity in Heterogenous Landscapes: a Review and Application

    송원경 | Kim, Eunyoung | Lee, Dong Kun | 2012, 21(3) | pp.391~407 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    The loss of connectivity and fragmentation of forest landscapes are seriously hindering dispersal of many forest-dwelling species, which may be critical for their viability and conservation by decreasing habitat area and increasing distance among habitats. For understanding their environmental impacts, numerous spatial models exist to measure landscape connectivity. However, general relationships between functional connectivity and landscape structure are lacking, there is a need to develop landscape metrics that more accurately measure landscape connectivity in whole landscape and individual patches. We reviewed functional and structural definition of landscape connectivity, explained their mathematical connotations, and applied representative 13 indices in 3 districts of Seoul having fragmented forest patches with tits, the threshold distance was applied 500m by considering the dispersal of tits. Results of correlation and principal component analysis showed that connectivity indices could be divided by measurement methods whether they contain the area attribute with distance or not. Betweenness centrality(BC), a representative index measuring distance and distribution among patches, appreciated highly stepping stone forest patches, and difference of probability of connectivity(dPC), an index measuring including area information,estimated integrated connectivity of patches. Therefore, for evaluating landscape connectivity, it is need to consider not only general information of a region and species’ characteristics but also various measuring methods of landscape connectivity
  • 6.

    Estimation of GHG emission and potential reduction on the campus by LEAP Model

    우정호 | Choi, Kyoung-sik | 2012, 21(3) | pp.409~415 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Post-kyoto regime has been discussing with the GHG reduction commitment. GHG energy target management system also has been applied for the domestic measures in the country. Universities are major emission sources for GHG. It is very important for campus to built the GHG inventory system and estimate the potential GHG emission reduction. In general, GHG inventory on the campus was taken by the IPCC guidance with the classification of scope 1, 2,and 3. Electricity was the highest portion of GHG emission on the campus as 5,053.90tonsCO2eq/yr in 2009. Manufacturing sector was the second high emission and meant GHG in laboratory. Potential GHG reduction was planned by several assumptions such as installation of occupancy sensor, exchanging LED lamp and photovoltaic power generation. These reduction scenarios was simulated by LEAP model. In 2020, outlook of GHG emission was estimated by 17,435.98 tons of CO2 without any plans of reduction. If the reduction scenarios was applied in 2020, GHG emission would be 16,507.60 tons of CO2 as 5.3% potential reduction.
  • 7.

    An Analysis of Local Wind Field by Location of Industrial Complex using CALMET and ENVI-MET

    Song Dong Woong | 2012, 21(3) | pp.417~429 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, a diagnostic wind model, CALMET and a micrometeorological numerical model, ENVI-MET were used to analyze the wind field in and out of the site designated for the industrial complex around Buron-myeon, Wonju, Gangwon-do. The results of modeling with CALMET showed that the air flow in industrial complex was little affected by the surrounding terrain. And the result of wind field analysis with ENVI-MET showed there are turbulent air flows such as cavity and wake around structures in the industrial complex, which can cause high-air pollution. Therefore, it is necessary to design the industrial complex considering the wind path according to wind directions.
  • 8.

    Spatial Distributional Characteristics of Wind-Hole and Governance Strategy

    KONG Wooseok | 윤광희 | Kim In Tae and 2other persons | 2012, 21(3) | pp.431~443 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Wind holes or air holes, from which cool air blows out during the summer, but mild air comes out during the winter, have provided the phytogeographically important refugia for cryophilous or cold-loving boreal flora during the Holocene period. At present, wind holes are serving as a faraway disjunctive habitat for Pleistocene relict glacial floristic elements, and present an invaluable information to reconstruct the natural history. Present work aims to collate the nationwide distribution and relevant DB on the potential wind holes of Korea based upon media and literature sources, along with geographical informations, such as place name, topographic map, environmental geographical information,flora, monitoring data of Korea National Arboretum, and field survey data. Geographical information on sixty nine wind hole sites have compiled and analyzed on the basis of flora and presence of fossilized periglacial landforms, such as talus, block field, and block stream, and sixteen sites have thereafter carefully selected and scrutinized through field surveys. To maintain a sustainability of wind hole ecosystem, including their original landform,micro-meteorological phenomena and plant community therein as a refugia or habitat for relict plant species of Pleistocene glacial period, appropriate restrictions and preservation measures are required.
  • 9.

    Water Quality Modeling and Response Assessment in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    Dae-In Lee | 2012, 21(3) | pp.445~460 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In order to evaluate and predict the environmental impact of the low-trophic-level ecosystem to environmental changes in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, an ecological modelling study was undertaken. Simulation results of average distribution patterns and concentrations of water quality factors during the summer by the model were acceptable. Phytoplankton and remineralization rate of organic matter were very important parameters by a sensitivity analysis. Water quality factors showed high values in the estuary of the Yangtze River and in the West and South Sea of Korea and low values in the central area of the Yellow Sea. There is a plume of high values, especially nutrients, off the mouth of the Yangtze that expands or contracts with changes in the discharge strength. Characteristics of responses of water quality factors vary for different scenarios of environmental change, such as land-based pollution sources and atmospheric forcing. It is suggested that changes of light intensity, discharges of input sources, and wind play an important role in the marine ecosystem.
  • 10.

    Preliminary Diagnosis for Pulsing Simulation of Low Trophic Ecosystem by Environmental Changes in Coastal Area

    Dae-In Lee | 2012, 21(3) | pp.461~468 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In general, long-term changes of ecological factors take a pulse form in which they interact with other factors and go through a repeated increasing and decreasing cycle. The coupling of the two approaches the grid model and the box model in ecological modeling can lead to an indepth understanding of the environment. The study analyzes temporal variations of major storages with an energy system model that formulizes effectively the relationships among nutrients, phytoplankton, and zooplankton in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. An increase of light intensity and standing stock of nutrient increase the magnitude and frequency of pulsing. Also, an immense reduction of nutrient concentration can cause extinction of the pulsing and bring about a steady state. It is concluded that the nutrient loads in freshwater discharge from the Yangtze affect the cycles of major ecological components as well as water quality variables and play an important role in the marine ecosystem.
  • 11.

    Public Awareness and Acceptance of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage

    Sang-Il Lee | 성주식 | Jin Hwan Hwang | 2012, 21(3) | pp.469~481 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    CCS(Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage) is considered as the most effective counterplan in the mitigation of climate change. Even though the risk of leakage of CO2 stored in the geologic formation is very low, the public is expected to disagree with the initiation of a CCS project without proper management plans ensuring the safety. In this study, recognition of laypeople were surveyed about CCS, climate change, characteristics of carbon dioxide, storage concepts,ground pressure, the impact of carbon dioxide, and carbon dioxide for leakage. Thereafter the factors that could affect to recognition of CCS were analyzed by regression analysis. A survey was carried out to find out the public understanding and awareness about climate change and CCS. It is the purpose of this study to propose appropriate risk management strategies based on the findings from the survey.
  • 12.

    The Applications of a Multi-metric LEHA Model for an Environmental Impact Assessments of Lake Ecosystems and the Ecological Health Assessments

    JEONGHO HAN | Kwang Guk An | 2012, 21(3) | pp.483~501 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to apply a multi-metric model of Lentic Ecosystem Health Assessments(LEHA) for environmental impact assessments of Cheongpyung Reservoir during 2005 - 2006 and assessed the ecological model values. The ecosystem model of LEHA was composed of eleven metrics such as biological parameters(Bp), physical parameters(Pp), and chemical parameters(Cp), and determined the rank of ecological health by the criteria. The variables of Bp were metrics of % sensitive species(M2, NMS) and insectivore species(M5, % In),which decrease as the water quality degradates, and these metric values were low as 1.5% and 32.4%, respectively. In contrast, the proportions of tolerant species and omnivore species as the other Bp parameters were 43% and 62%, respectively, which indicate a degradation and disturbance of the ecosystem. Riparian vegetation coverage(M9, % Vc) as a variable of Pp, were higher in the 2nd than 1st survey, and decreased toward the dam site from the headwaters. This was due to a habitat simplification(modifications) by frequent bottom dredging of sand and rocks. The variables of Cp were two metrics of specific conductivity(M10, CI) as an indicator of ionic contents(cations and anions) and the Trophic State Index(TSI) based on chlorophyll-a(M11,TSICHL) as an indicator of trophic state. These metric values of Cp had high temporal variations,but low spatial variations on the main axis of the reservoir along with the ecological health of a good condition. The environmental impact assessments using the LEHA multi-metric model indicated that the model values of LEHA averaged 30.7 in 1st survey(fair - poor condition) vs. 28in 2nd survey(poor condition), indicating a temporal variation of the ecological health. The model values of LEHA showed a minimum(28) in the lacustrine zone(S5) and ranged from 29 to 30 in the other locations sampled, indicating a low longitudinal variation. Overall,environmental impact assessments, based on LEHA model, suggest that chemical water quality conditions were in good, but biological conditions were disturbed due to habitat modifications by frequent dredgings in the system.
  • 13.

    Localizing Agenda 21 Program in Vietnam and Its Implementations in Local Government

    Lee, Sang-Don | 2012, 21(3) | pp.503~508 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    베트남은 1991년 이래로 지속가능한 개발을 국가계획에 반영하여 온 최초의 몇 안 되는 실행국가이다. 2004년 4월에는 베트남의 수상이 베트남 아젠다 21의 지속가능성과 연계한 전략적 접근에 대한 결정을 문서화하고 있다. 아젠다 21의 제28장에서 언급된 바와 같이 지역 자치단체장은 지역 아젠다 21을 실행하기 위한 과정에 참여하고 있으며 이는 지역사회, 지역의 정책 및 프로그램이 국가계획과 연계되어야 하며 지역의 단체들은 이 부분에 준비 및 참여를 수행하였다. 본 논문은 이러한국가계획하에 아젠다 21을 수행한 2개의 지방자치단체에 대한 참여프로그램 분석을 수행한 연구이다. 랑손시의 대중위생관리 및 미칸마을의 녹색성장에 대한 참여프로그램을 분석하였다.