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2012, Vol.21, No.5

  • 1.

    Comparison of the Vibration Principal Stress by Experimental and Numerical Waveform

    홍웅기 | 송정언 | Park Young Min | 2012, 21(5) | pp.609~615 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In recent years, the development of computer technique was possible to the simulation analysis of the structure caused by ground vibration. Generally, finite element method(FEM) has been used in these structural analysis. In this study, it was calculated to the vibration energy as measuring vibration waveform, and estimated about principal stress due to medium characteristics of the ground as processing dynamic analysis by the vibration energy. The results are as follows : Firstly, the principal stress distribution in all mediums was different due to a medium condition, and the principal stress at concrete medium was represented to difference due to physical characteristics. Secondly, the principal stress by time increasing was represented to maximum amplitude within 0.03 second. And also, the principal stress after maximum amplitude was very large at concrete medium, which was considered to be formed compression or tension range at a medium boundary. Thirdly, the variation of principal stress at concrete medium was represented in the order of RC medium, NC=H medium, NC=S medium. It was considered that the vibration energy propagated fast when a medium have a big elasticity and density.
  • 2.

    A Study on Selection and Measures of the Apprehensive Areas of Soil Loss in the So-ok Stream Watershed

    Dong-Hwan Jeong | Kim Hae Jung | 이영준 and 4other persons | 2012, 21(5) | pp.617~629 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to find out critical areas of a soil loss and propose feasible measures to reduce the water quality deterioration by a soil lose. As a study area, the So-ok stream catchment locating at the upper area of Daecheong Reservoir is selected and intensive field observation was carried out. RUSLE model is applied to assess the impact of the pollution migration by a soil ross from the critical areas during storms on the water quality of Chusori embayment. As results, total amount of the soil ross assessed against to the critical area on which major type of land use is a orchard for fruits is 54.3 ton/ha/yr and that of an abandoned mine site is about 200 ton/ha/year. In particular as effective measures, a plantation of an appropriate species of fruit trees and an application of ecologic restoration schemes are proposed against to the orchard and the abandoned mine site, respectively.
  • 3.

    Environmental Impact Assessments along with Construction of Residential and Commercial Complex

    Kwang Guk An | JEONGHO HAN | 이재훈 | 2012, 21(5) | pp.631~648 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The integrative ecological approaches of chemical assessments, physical habitat modelling, and multi-metric biological health modelling were applied to Gwanpyeong Stream within Gap-Stream watersheds to evaluate environmental impacts on the constructions of residential and commercial complex. For the analysis, the surveys conducted from 45 sites of reference streams within the Gap-Stream watershed and 3 regular sites during 2009 - 2010. Physical habitat health, based on the habitat model of Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index(QHEI) declined from the headwaters(good - fair condition) to the downstream(poor condition). Chemical water quality, based turbidity and electric conductivity(EC), was degraded toward to the downstream, and especially showed abrupt increases, compared to the values of control streams(CS). Also, concentrations of chlorophyll-a in the downstreams were greater compared to the control stream(CS), indicating an eutrophication. Biological health conditions, based on the Index of Biological Integrity(IBI) using fish assemblages, averaged 19.3 which is judged as a fair condition by the biological criteria of the Ministry of Environment, Korea. The comparisons of model metric values in sensitive species and riffle-benthic species on the Maximum Species Richness Line(MSRL) of 45 reference streams indicated a massive disturbances in all sampling locations. Also, tolerance guild and trophic guild analyses suggest that dominances of tolerant species and omnivores were evident, indicating a biological degradation by habitat disturbances and organic matter pollutions. There was no distinct longitudinal variations of IBI model values from the headwater to the downstream in spite of slight chemical and habitat health gradients among the sampling sites. Overall, integrative ecological health(IEH) scores, based on the chemical, physical, and biological parameters, were low compared to the 45 reference streams due to physical and chemical disturbances of massive constructions of the residential and commercial complex. This stream, thus showed a tendency of typical urban streams which are disturbed in the chemical water quality, habitat structures, and biological integrity. Effective stream management plans and restoration strategies are required in this urban stream for improving integrative stream health.
  • 4.

    Grid Cell Analysis using Species Diversity Index of Birds in the Northern Area of Yeongjong Island, Incheon, Korea

    강종현 | Hangsoo Cho | 이윤경 and 4other persons | 2012, 21(5) | pp.649~664 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The grid cell analysis is used to select good sites as habitats at the region. The northern area of Yeongjong Island, Incheon has been disturbing by habitat loss due to human activities such as residential development, deforestation.In order to determine significant places as bird habitats and to select conservation areas at this island, the study area was divided into 70 grid cells(500×500m each grid) and then each grid was ranked by spatial analysis using the species diversity index. Fieldwork was carried out in Spring and Autumn of 2010. To examine grid cells which were ranked high in both seasons in common, we used the average ranking value, combined data from two seasons. This area consists of mainly agricultural areas and forests(more than 68%) among eight habitat types: the agricultural land, forest, coast, lake, meadow, stream, city and other things. A total of 110 species was recorded: 4,183 birds of 102 species in Spring and 3,326 birds of 58 species in Autumn. In other words, the number of individuals and species was higher in Spring than in Autumn. Species diversity index presented the highest value at M8 grid cell in Spring(3.380) and at A4 gird cell in Autumn(2.736). In 18 of 22 grid cells where the average ranking value was higher than 3, the forest was distributed and in 4 grid cells, the coast and wetland were widely distributed, in which theses were located apart from humanassociated disturbances such as construction works for a leisure complex. Our results present a new estimate method not only to minimize loss of bird habitats but also to conserve important habitats when the large-scale development takes place at particular region.
  • 5.

    Impacts of anthropogenic heating on urban boundary layer in the Gyeong-In region

    구해정 | Young-Hee Ryu | 2012, 21(5) | pp.665~681 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigates the influence of anthropogenic heat (AH) release on urban boundary layer in the Gyeong-In region using the Weather Research and Forecasting model that includes the Seoul National University Urban Canopy Model (SNUUCM). The gridded AH emission data, which is estimated in the Gyeong-In region in 2002 based on the energy consumption statistics data, are implemented into the SNUUCM. The simulated air temperature and wind speed show good agreement with the observed ones particularly in terms of phase for 11 urban sites, but they are overestimated in the nighttime. It is found that the influence of AH release on air temperature is larger in the nighttime than in the daytime even though the AH intensity is larger in the daytime. As compared with the results with AH release and without AH release, the contribution of AH release on urban heat island intensity is large in the nighttime and in the morning. As the AH intensity increases, the water vapor mixing ratio decreases in the daytime but increases in the nighttime. The atmospheric boundary layer height increases greatly in the morning (0800-1100 LST) and midnight (0000 LST). These results indicate that AH release can have an impact on weather and air quality in urban areas.
  • 6.

    Development of a method for calculating weights of evaluation criteria for proper selection of urban waterfronts

    김성만 | 이재춘 | 박민정 and 2other persons | 2012, 21(5) | pp.683~693 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The urban waterfront well created, could provide mental stability and comfort and also foster personality. In addition it could provide the calmness and rest of mind. Especially, recently the urban waterfronts are restored here and there and are created whenever developing a new town The purpose of this study is to develop a method of calculating the weight of each evaluation criterion for deciding the priority of restoration among for deciding the priority of restoration among the urban waterfronts. The method includes the analytic hierarchy process that can calculate the reasonable weight of each evaluation criterion, because the importance (weights) of evaluation criteria appears to be different among the evaluators; the results of this study can be summarized as that this method can be useful for calculating the weights of evaluation criteria, and also that the superiority of ecological resources is the most important factor (highest weight) in selecting the best waterfront, followed by accessibility, tourism vacation, and proximity to parks. And then the lowest factor in importance is the scale of reservoir.
  • 7.

    Prediction of Malodorous Landfill Substances Effect on Ambient Air Quality - A Case Study on Cheongju·Cheongwon Metropolitan Landfill -

    이상우 | 2012, 21(5) | pp.695~705 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to investigate concentration level and characteristics of malodour substances generated from landfill site in C city. Also, it is tried to predict distribution of concentration level using ISCST3 model around landfill site. From the results, it can be confirmed that twelfth-class malodour substances such as ammonia, methyl mercaptan, hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl sulfate, dimethyl disulfate, toluene, acetaldehyde, styrene, propionaldehyde, butylaldehyde, n-Valeraldehyde, xylene were generated from landfill site. The levels of the malodour substances were lower than that of permeable concentration regulated by odor control law in Korea. However, the concentration of malodour substances including methyl mercaptan, hydrogen sulfide, acetaldehyde, and propionaldehyde exceeded threshold limit value(TLV). It was seemed that these substances caused the problem of offensive odor around circumstance of landfill. The concentration of malodour substances was higher in slant than in upper part of landfill. The concentrations of malodour substances measured at night time were shown higher level than those at night time because atmospheric condition was stable at night time. It showed that the concentration of malodour substances were higher in spring. The results of atmospheric diffusion model predicted that tolerance limit level of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan was detected within nearly 5km from the boundary of landfill.
  • 8.

    Evaluation of the Effect of High Salinity RO Concentrate on the Microbial Acclimation/Cultivation Characteristics in Biological Wastewater Treatment Process

    김연권 | 강석형 | 2012, 21(5) | pp.707~713 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    There are a lot of parameters affecting microbial acclimation/cultivation characteristics such as dynamic conditions, F/M ratio and substrate affinity. From the process control point of view, the effect of high salinity on the removal efficiencies of BOD and SS have been documented by few researchers. In this research, lab-scale CAS(Conventional Activated Sludge) process and modified A2O(Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic) process were operated and monitored to evaluate the characteristics of microbial acclimation and cultivation under high salinity wastewater during the period of three weeks. As a result of acute microbial activity test(6hr) at various Clconcentration,the appropriate Cl- concentration for microbial growth and acclimation ranged under 3,100 mg/ℓ. As a result of acclimation/cultivation test, the trend of COD removal efficiency reduced gradually as time elapsed. It is considered that NH4-N removal phenomenon of the conventional pollutants removal mechanisms gave little effect to the microbial acclimation/cultivation under high salinity wastewater.
  • 9.

    Simulation of Water Temperature in the Downstream According to Withdrawal Types of Dam using EFDC Model

    박재충 | 윤진혁 | 정용문 and 2other persons | 2012, 21(5) | pp.715~724 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we simulated water temperature in the downstream according to withdrawal types of dam using EFDC model. Three scenarios were assumed as water was released from the surface layer, the middle layer, and the bottom layer at intervals of 10m depth. In case of the surface layer withdrawal, the water temperature rose from March and lowered gradually after it reached a peak in August. The middle and the bottom layers effluence temperatures were lower than the surface layer temperature by maximum 15.9℃(in July), but after September, temperature inversion appeared. It was advantageous for the surface layer withdrawal to decrease cold damage and fog in downstream area and was possible to the middle and the bottom layers withdrawal from August to September. However, the reliability of model should be improved by accumulating the real-time information of water temperature.
  • 10.

    A Study on Treatment Measures of Carcass Disposal Site Leachate into the Livestock Manure and Sewage Treatment Facilities using NIER-MASS program

    Dong-Hwan Jeong | Chulgu Lee | 신진수 and 5other persons | 2012, 21(5) | pp.725~734 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The outbreak of foot and mouth disease in November 2010 raised many social, economic and environmental issues and water contaminations by leachate from carcass disposal sites particularly emerged as a serious concern. In oder to efficiently handle these problems, a critical method is required to transport leachate to livestock manure and sewage treatment plants and purify it. This study aims to present the best applicable method to transport leachate from carcass disposal sites into livestock manure and sewage treatment facilities. We investigated the biological and chemical characteristics such as BOD, COD, SS, TN, TP and Total coliforms. Current conjugated treatments in livestock manure and sewage treatment plants was studied by surveying the operations of those facilities. The NIER-MASS(National Institute of Environmental Research - Mass Balance Evaluation System of Sewage Treatment Facilities) program was applied to present the best conjugated treatment method through estimating the maximum daily load to meet the water quality standards in effluent.
  • 11.

    A Study on Distribution Characteristics of Corylopsis coreana Using SDM

    권혁수 | 류지은 | 서창완 and 3other persons | 2012, 21(5) | pp.735~743 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    Since the CBD(Conservation on Biological Diversity)’s 10th Conference of the Parties adopted the protocol on access to genetic resources and benefit sharing in Nagoya 2010, the importance of endangered species studies such as habitat distribution, protection and management have been more emerged. Corylopsis coreana, an endangered species in Korea, was isolated nationally and has been damaged by anthropogenic factors. In this paper, we identified the factors affecting C. coreana habitat at the national scale and regional scale using National Survey of Natural Environment and predicted the distribution of C. coreana. Annual precipitation, precipitation of wettest quarter, temperature seasonality and Digital Elevation Model(DEM) were derived as important factors at the national scale, and precipitation of wettest quarter, DEM and solar radiation on spring were identified as important factors at regional scale. Colylopsis distribution was affected by an effect of climate significantly at the national scale, and by additionally the microclimate and topography at regional scale. These findings will be used as the basis on habitat conservation and restoration plan and climate change.
  • 12.

    The Estimation of Contribution Ratio for Sub Stream in Nam River Basin

    Jae-Woon Lee | Hun-Gak Kwon | Insoo Kwak and 2other persons | 2012, 21(5) | pp.745~755 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The relations between tributaries and mainstream were identified with the water qualities measurements in the field. Parameters of water qualities were BOD, T-N, T-P and measurements were performed by 4 events of rainfalls for 2011. The precipitation data influenced on pollutants loads. Pollutants loads were fluctuations with the seasonal variation. Gajoacheon contributed in 18.39% of BOD, 23.79% of T-N, 15.23% of T-P and Nabulcheon contributed in 13.54% of BOD, 13.05% of T-N and 13.66% of T-P in the region from Nam River_C to Nam River_D. In case of the region from Nam River_C to Nam River_D, Yongacheon river inflowed to main stream as 23.65% of BOD, 20.74% of T-N, and 15.05% of T-P.
  • 13.

    Estimation of Spatial-Temporal Net Primary Productivity and Soil Carbon Storage Change in the Capital area of South Korea under Climate Change

    권선순 | 최선희 | Lee, Sang-Don | 2012, 21(5) | pp.757~765 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to estimate the spatial-temporal NPP(Net Primary Productivity) and SCS(Soil Carbon Storage) of forest ecosystem under climate change in the capital area of South Korea using Mapss-Century1 (MC1), one of Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs). The characteristics of the NPP and SCS changes were simulated based on a biogeochemical module in this model. As results of the simulation, the NPP varies from 2.02 to 7.43 tC ha-1 yr-1 and the SCS varies from 34.55 to 84.81 tC ha-1 during 1971~2000 respectively. Spatial mean NPP showed a little decreasing tendency in near future (2021~2050) and then increased in far future (2071~2100) under the condition of increasing air temperature and precipitation which were simulated by the A1B climate change scenario of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). But it was estimated that the temporal change of spatial mean NPP indicates 4.62% increasing tendency in which elevation is over 150m in this area. However,spatial mean SCS was decreased in the two future periods under same climate condition.
  • 14.

    A Study on Determinations of Survey Station in Marine Ecosystems Based by Impact Prediction of Environment Impact Assessment in Coastal Development Projects

    조범준 | Junho Maeng | 2012, 21(5) | pp.767~779 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In case of executing surveys in marine ecosystems, the most important things are scientific selection measures of survey stations that can represent various ecosystems characteristics in subjected areas. The situations show a lot of differences that understand characteristics of marine ecosystems in targeted areas according to selection methods and positions in survey stations. Investigation ranges and station numbers in marine ecosystems are classified according to project characteristics and scales. But, currently a clear divisions or objective standards are not. Therefore, this study tried to provide selection measures of survey station in scientific and objective marine ecosystems through precise analysis among environmental impact statements of coastal development projects until now. In this study, impact scopes of marine ecosystems correspond to physical impact predictions by undertaking projects. Impact ranges were divided into three(physical impact ranges) coastal waters. In case of proposing numbers of survey stations according to this survey ranges, numbers of investigation stations due to minimum survey scopes in targeted projects applied 20∼30% of all numbers in survey stations. Number of survey stations due to average investigation scopes within physical impact ranges applied 60∼70% of all numbers in investigation stations. Numbers of survey stations due to maximum survey ranges within physical impact scopes applied 10∼20% of all numbers in survey stations. So, improvement measures were deducted. Finally, according to prediction ranges in impact of various coastal development projects, several kinds of conclusions are suggested. And, it is thought to be able to use as fundamental database to select investigation stations in marine organisms through this study.
  • 15.

    A Study of the Landscape Analysis at Su-ji/Gi-heung in Young-in city using the FRAGSTATS Model

    권선순 | 최선희 | Lee, Sang-Don | 2012, 21(5) | pp.781~787 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to analyze the landscape changes at Su-ji and Gi-heung in Young-in city using FRAGSTATS Model. Landscape Indices obtained by this model can explain the structural change of urban green zone and fragmentation resulting from development. As results of this study, Gi-heung showed worse quality of landscape in 2007, comparing 2000. However, in Su-ji, there were several better landscape indices in the same 2007/2000 comparison, even though the little shrinking of green zone and separation of core area. It could assume that the reason was caused by conservation policy of urban green zone. This study could provide the useful methods for finding the problems and searching the alternatives considering the development of urban green zone.
  • 16.

    Reducing Plan of Environmental and Social Conflicts for Tidal Power Plant through the Analysis of Environmental Impact

    Ahn Se-Woong | Hi Sun Lee | 2012, 21(5) | pp.789~799 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The major causes of environmental and social conflicts were analyzed through the samples of the construction and the management for tidal power plant abroad and inland. Based on the results, the eco-friendly and socially acceptable policy instruments for decreasing the scope and intensity of the conflicts were explored. Regarding environment issues, it was found that the tidal power project resulted in decreasing in tidal range and area of intertidal zone and in damaging to tidal flat and wetland conservation area. Also there are the characteristic change of tidal current and biological effect, etc. The major environmental and social conflicts were resulted from the distrust of environmental results to environmental impact assessment and prior environmental review and the distrust of project feasibility study, and insufficient activities of public participation. In this study, introduction to joint fact-finding(JFF) was reviewed as the measure of minimizing environmental and social conflicts.
  • 17.

    A Study on Ecological Evaluation of Habitat Suitability Index using GIS - With a case study of Prionailurus bengalensis in Samjang-Sanchung Road Construction -

    Lee, Sang-Don | Kwon, Ji-hye | 김아람 and 1other persons | 2012, 21(5) | pp.801~811 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    For biodiversity conservation, Biological Impact Assessment is very important. The focus of the study is to enhance efficient Environment Impact Assessment(EIA) based on collecting existing information of endangered species covering the status survey, estimation of effects and reducing methods. Habitat Suitability Index(HSI) can be applicable to Ecological Impact Assessment and finding various reducing methods based on estimating effects. For this study, the EIA report of Samjang - Sanchung highway construction was chosen as an example and Prionailurus bengalensis euptilura as an endangered species was chosen to assess the ecosystem impact on road construction. Water, road, ground coverage, slope, altitude as variables of habitat were weighted and final HSI map was calculated using Arc map and Arc view. Through comparing of before and after HSI, quantitative estimating on effects was possible to minimize impact of road construction to wildlife habitat.
  • 18.

    Simple priority setting method for Screening in public health assessment of waste incineration facilities

    김기영 | Hong Seung Cheol | 2012, 21(5) | pp.813~821 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Environmental and public health concern for the emission of air pollutants from burn-up process in waste incineration plants located in the vicinity of living environment was increased during the past decade. The purpose of this study was to suggest of the simple and rapid method of priority setting model for the decision of full-scale public health assessment. This method was consists of total 5-step. Step 1 was “secure the satellite map” and we can use the satellite map which serves from the website such as NAVER Co. Step 2 was “drawing mesh on the map” for catch the point of occupation of environmental sensitivity facilities, and step 3 was “identification and sorting of the facilities”, Step 4 was “setting of weight” using the “weighted linear combination (WLC) method”. Finally, all facility was sorted by score. As a result, we can set a priority of 145 facilities based on 177 facilities which managed in local government. Facilities in Seoul metropolitan area was high rank in priority list. On the other side, Facilities located at the country or rural area was low rank because of low occupation of the house and the environmental sensitivity facilities such as kindergarten, elementary school, and hospital. In this study, we suggested simple and rapid method that using for screening procedure of public health assessment.