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2012, Vol.21, No.6

  • 1.

    Sampling and Cryogenic Pulverization and Storage of Environmental Samples and Improvement of Operating Procedures in National Environmental Specimen Bank

    이장호 | Jong-Chun Lee | MYUNGJIN KIM and 4other persons | 2012, 21(6) | pp.823~839 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Environmental Specimen Banks (ESBs) are playing pivotal role in monitoring the effect of environmental pollution on the ecosystem based on the retrospective analysis of the representative samples collected regularly and stored in cryogenic condition. In Korea, National Environmental Specimen Bank (NESB) was established in 2009 and the standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling, and cryogenic milling and storage had been prepared during 2007-2010. Since then, the tentative SOPs for the seven kinds of specimens (shoots of Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) and Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis), leaves of Mongolian Oak (Quercus mongolica) and Zelkova Tree (Zelkova serrata), eggs of Feral Pigeon (Columba livia var. domestica), muscles and organs of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), and Freshwater Bivalve (Unio (Nodularia) douglasiae)) have been put to test in the field and laboratory as well against the practicality and feasibility. The SOPs were improved by reflecting the findings from the research and the following discussion regarding the selection of specimen (Feral Pigeon suffering from a control management), sample size (a problem of decreasing number of sampling trees related to increasing sampling time) and period (a problem related to a bud growth), and sampling methods etc.. In addition, barcoding system for the management of the specimen information, and monitoring system of the cryogenic storage to regulate the optimum temperature and the liquid nitrogen level were also developed for the efficient and effective control of the samples. Lastly, the safety guide and emergency protocol were augmented to guarantee a safe work environment with the cryogenic facility. These improvements of the SOPs are expected to contribute to more stable operation of the NESB.
  • 2.

    Preliminary Ecological Environmental Assessments of a Brooklet in Jeungchon

    JEONGHO HAN | Kwang Guk An | 2012, 21(6) | pp.841~857 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Preliminary ecological environmental assessments including physico-chemical constituents, water quality, fish fauna analysis, physical habitat health, and ecological health assessment were conducted as a primary step for Jeungchon micro-habitat ecosystem restoration in 2012. Water chemistry analysis of conductivity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a and etc. indicated that there were no significant differences(p < 0.05) among 6 sites between the headwaters and downstream. Multi-metric model analysis of Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index(QHEI) showed that brooklets were at “good condition” as a mean QHEI of 158.7(n = 6) and the longitudinal differences of the model values between the sites were minor(QHEI range: 153 - 165). Total fish species and the number of individuals were 12 and 481, respectively, and dominant species were Zacco platypus(49.5%) and Zacco koreanus(36.8%). Tolerance guild analysis showed that the proportion of sensitive species(SS) had a negative linear function[SS = 86.35 - 0.31(DH); R2 = 0.892, p < 0.01] with a distance from the headwaters, while the proportion of tolerant species(TS) had a positive linear function(R2 = 0.950, F = 90.28, p < 0.001) with the distance. Trophic feeding guild analysis showed that the proportion of insectivore species(IS) had a negative linear function(R2 = 0.934, p < 0.01) with a distance from the headwaters, while the proportion of omnivore species(OS) had a positive linear function(R2 = 0.958, p < 0.001) with the distance. Index of Biological Integrity(IBI) model, based on fish assemblages, showed a “fair condition” as a mean IBI of 23(n = 6), and there was a distinct differences of ecological health between the headwaters(S1 = 30; “good condition”) and the downstreams(S6 = 14; “poor condition”). Overall, the preliminary environmental impact assessments suggest that water quality, physical habitat conditions(QHEI model), and ecological health(IBI model) were maintained well, even if the state was not an excellent conditions.
  • 3.

    Application of Echo-Sounder Monitoring Technique as Ecological Impact Assessments of Fish on Artificial Weir Construction

    JEONGHO HAN | 이재훈 | 최지웅 and 3other persons | 2012, 21(6) | pp.859~877 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, Echo-sounder(Es) monitoring methodology was applied to test environmental impacts of artificial weirs(SCW and JSW) in the Yeongsan River on fish community and habitat structures at first time, and was compared with conventional fish sampling methodologies(Cs). For the Es monitoring in the fields, parallel transect methods was employed in determining the survey distance interval with every 125 m within the upper-lower 2 km of the weirs. Four different fish sampling gears such as casting nets, kick nets, fyke nets, and gill nets were used for applications of Cs monitoring methodology. According to the Echo-sounder monitoring, fish density, expressed as a number of individuals per square meter, along the longitudinal axis of the weir was significantly greater(JSW, t = 3.506, n = 30, p < 0.001) in the down-river reach of the weir than in the up-river reach. Also, fish density along the vertical water column was highest at mid-depths of Seungchon weir, which has simple habitat substrates, while fish density was highest at hypolimnetic depth of Juksan weir. According to fish sampling by the Cs methodology, the fish compositions decreased as the river goes upward, and significant differences(JSW, t = 0.248, n = 30, p < 0.05) in the compositions of fish species occurred between up-reach and down-reach of the weirs. The dominant species near the two weirs were Opsarichthys uncirostris amurensis, Hemiculter eigenmanni and Coilia nasus. Overall, our fish and habitat data, based on Es and Cs monitoring methodologies, suggest that the weirs disturbed the rivers due to initial habitat disturbances by the weir constructions as well as the barrier roles of weirs on fish passage and migrations. More long-term scientific and systematic fish impact monitoring and assessments(Es and Cs) are required in the future to predict changes of ecological structures and functions on the constructions of the weirs.
  • 4.

    Summer Patterns and Diel Variations of Fish Movements Using Fish Trap Sampling Technique in the Juksan Weir

    JEONGHO HAN | 고대근 | 임병진 and 2other persons | 2012, 21(6) | pp.879~891 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of this study was to evaluate seasonal patterns and diel variations of fish movements in the Juksan Weir which was constructed in 2010 at the down-stream of Yeongsan-River watershed. For this study, we monitored day-and-night movement(24 Hr cycle) and seasonal fish migration(June ∼ August) patterns in 2011 along with species compositions and abundances depending on the locations of the traps within the fishway. Total number of species sampled was 14 and the total number of individuals was 1263 with only the size-fractions(as total length) of the fish < 20 cm during the study. Seasonal analysis of fish movement in the fish way showed that highest frequency in the movement occurred in June - July, which is closely associated with a spawning peak season. The most dominant species using the fishway was Squalidus chankaensis tsuchigae, and this species turned out to be 26.9% of the total in the use rate of fishway. Daily monitoring of fish movements showed that most frequent movements occurred between 18:00 PM and 21:00 PM when the fish have a feeding time generally. The migratory fish were not found in the fishway during the study. Mean current velocity during the study 0.42 ± 0.02 ms-1(n = 42), and there were no significant statistical differences(p > 0.05) among the daily and monthly velocities in the fishway. The use rate of fish passage, in terms of fish species, was 48%, compared with total sampling of fish species(29 species) at the down-river regions during the same period, indicating a low use rate. Further continuous long-term monitoring should be conducted to evaluate the impacts of the weir construction in the river.
  • 5.

    Noise Contour Map Designed from Validation Study of Model for Predicting Aircraft Noise

    임봉빈 | 김주인 | 이규성 and 2other persons | 2012, 21(6) | pp.893~901 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Aircraft noise model such as FAA Integrated Noise Model(INM) has recently been used for forecasting the impact of noise in a residential area near an airport and quantifying the effect of various options for noise mitigation. The noise modeling should be reliable and precise in order to ensure the quality of the results provided. In this study, the validation of the noise levels simulated by the INM against measurement data recorded continuously at multiple monitoring sites was discussed. As a result of validation, the quality of the input data used as a fixed point profiles for the INM was enhanced. The noise contour maps were designed as a way to evaluate the aircraft noise of the vicinity of the airfield. The results of this study indicate that the validation of aircraft noise model by the measurement data would be required for the accurate assessment of the aircraft noise levels.
  • 6.

    Landscape Management Strategies Based on Landscape Assessment of Riparian Buffer Zone in the Han River: Focused on Gyeongan Stream

    Park, Chang Sug | Minki Bae | 2012, 21(6) | pp.903~916 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    We need to use aesthetic landscape assessment(ALA) as the means of riparian buffer zone(RBZ) management. This study verified the political validity of designation policy of RBZ and land purchase policy. The purpose of this study was to propose RBZ landscape management strategies through ALA of RBZ in Gyeongan Stream for the better attractive and healthy riparian landscapes. The natural type landscape units(LUs) covered 40.9% of the entire area and the cultivated land type LUs covered 20.58%. Landscape assessment consisted of landscape quality and landscape integration assessment. The criteria for assessing landscape quality(LQ) were naturalness, interest, uniqueness, and landscape function. LQ was ranked into five grades using a matrix. The landscape integration assessment consisted of an inner integration assessment in each LU and outer integration assessment among LUs. To review the propriety of designating the riparian area and the riparian ecological belt, differences in ecological appraisal and aesthetic valuation were reviewed through a t-test, Oneway ANOVA, and logistic analysis. The results of ALA, 29.15% of the entire area scored at grade 1 in LQ, while 31.95% scored at grade 5, indicating that grade 5 areas occupied a high share. Surveyed areas were divided into designated RBZ and undesignated RBZ. Results indicated that designated RBZ scored grade 1 in LQ took up 33.2% of the total, significantly higher than the 23.3% taken up by undesignated RBZ. When examined according to buffer distance, grade 1 areas within 50m took up 50.2% of the total area, lower than the 32.7% at buffer distances of 500m-1km. Results indicated a 1% statistically significant difference. Accordingly, analysis was undertaken for the expansion of designation of the riparian area and the selection of appropriate land for formation of a riparian ecological belt, and was designated at priority 1 and 2 for land purchase. This study can also contribute to the formation of a riverine eco-belt through discovery of design factors for upgrading the ecology, aesthetics, and landscape of the riparian area and application in determining land purchase priorities.
  • 7.

    Characteristics of the pollutants ronoff on the Tamjin A and B Watershed with Discharge Variation

    박진환 | 임병진 | 정재운 and 4other persons | 2012, 21(6) | pp.917~925 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we report the runoff characteristics of pollutants for Tamjin A and B watershed in Tamjin river basin using statistical analysis, such as correlation analysis and regression equation. Flow rate and water qualtiy data collected from 2 sampling sites(Tamjin A and B watershed) during 3 years(2009∼2011) were analyzed for biochemical oxygen demand(BOD), total nitorgen(TN), total phosphorus(TP) and suspended solid(SS). The results showed that strong correlations were observed between flow rate and SS in Tamjin A, while weak correlations were observed among the BOD, TN, and TP. In Tamjin B, strong correlations were observed among the flow rate, SS and T-P except BOD and TP. Meanwhile, the values of R2 for regression equations between flow rate and pollutants load were greater than 0.7. Results of these statistics indicated that there was a good agreement between flow rate and pollutants load. Also, the flow rate exponents of regression equations for BOD, TN, and TP were smaller than 1 in Tamjin A. In Tamjin B, flow rate exponents of regression equation for BOD and TP were smaller than 1. These results indicated that concentrations of BOD, TN, TP in Tamjin A and concentrations of BOD and TP were decreased as the flow rate was increased. This means that rater than nonpoint sources, point sources affect BOD, TN and TP in Tamjin A and BOD and TP in Tamjin B.
  • 8.

    Comparative Evaluation between Cool Roof and Green Roof in terms of Installation Cost: a Case Study of KNU Campus

    Junwoo Kim | Um, Jung Sup | 2012, 21(6) | pp.927~939 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Cool roofs are currently being emerged as one of important mechanism to save energy in relation to the building. Although green roof has already gained nation-wide recognition as a typical method of energy saving in the roof, this approach did not provide a realistic evidence that is economically feasible in terms of installation cost. This research is primarily intended to compare installation cost between the two techniques. This research proposes a comparative evaluation framework in a more objective and quantitative way for an installation cost between the two techniques. Kyungpook National University (KNU) was selected as a survey objective and an exhaustive and realistic comparison of installation cost between the two techniques was conducted, based on Life Cycle Cost analysis (initial investment cost, maintenance cost, dismantling and waste disposal expense). It was possible to identify that installation cost of cool roofs is 4.7 times cheaper than that of green roof. Also present value based on probabilistic approach was identified as 0.25 (4.95) higher than the installation cost on the assumption of constant price and interest. It is expected that much more installation cost for the large scale green roof will be required since small-size green roof selected as a survey objective in this study could be operated under less initial installation and maintenance condition.
  • 9.

    A Study on Review of the Current Noise Impact Assessment for the Power Plant

    정태량 | Park Young Min | 손진희 and 3other persons | 2012, 21(6) | pp.941~949 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The various plants including power plants have been increased near downtown in accordance with the policy objective of rising the power feed rate and development projects. As a result of these various plants near residential area, noise damage complaints has been raised very often. The power plant is included with the range of environmental impact assessment project. Nevertheless, environmental noise issues regarding construction of these power plants have arisen. Accordingly it is time to consider the environmental and social issues of plants noise in accordance with the government's policy objectives of increased power production. In this study, we reviewed the current noise impact assessment and we also sought solutions to these issues. In order to minimize the problem of noise impact on neighborhood and residents, we intended to propose alternative method of 3D simulation in dealing with these issues.
  • 10.

    Solid Waste Management of Nepalese Municipalities

    Abinashi Sigdell | 구자건 | 2012, 21(6) | pp.951~964 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    네팔 지방자치단체의 고형폐기물 관리 부서는 도시계획 및 개발국이나 환경위생 부서 또는 일반복지 부서에서 담당한다. 네팔에는 폐기물관련법과 기준, 지침이 제정되어 있으며 지방자치단체법에 의해 지방자치단체 여건에 맞게 관련 법률 조항을 개정할 수 있다. 네팔에서 발생하는 가정폐기물의 65%는 유기성 폐기물이나, 폐기물 관리는 아직 체계화되지 않고 있다. 지방 NGOs와 일부 부락이 분리수거와 퇴비화를 실시하고 있으나 병원폐기물과 같은 유해폐기물의 경우 병원이 자체적으로 소각하고 있으며 지방자치단체의 의해 적절히 처리되지 않고 있다. 현재 네팔에서는 폐기물이 비위생 매립 방식에 의해 처리되고 있어서 지방자치단체에서 이를 금지하고 위생매립지를 확대 설치할 계획이다. 그럼에도 불구하고 기술 및 전문인력, 예산의 부족, 민간자본 및 시민들의 참여 부족으로 인해 지방자치단체가 설정한 폐기물관리 목표를 달성하지 못하고 있는 실정이다. 네팔 지방자치단체들이 당면한 시급한 과제는 지속가능한 폐기물관리 계획 및 전략의 수립이다. 네팔 지방자치단체의 폐기물관리 계획은 폐기물의 적정 처리를 위한 제도적 측면의 강화는 물론, 폐기물 분리 배출 및 수거에 시민들의 동참을 이끌어내고 이해관계자의 참여 확대, 폐기물 처리 비용, 폐기물 처리를 위한 적정기술의 개발과 같은 내용을 포괄할 수 있어야 한다.