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pISSN : 1225-7184

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.51
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2013, Vol.22, No.2

  • 1.

    Study on potential environmental risk of virus resistant LM plants using co-inoculation of Zucchini green mottle mosaic virus (ZGMMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)

    송해룡 | Taesung Kim | Sun-Jung Kim and 5other persons | 2013, 22(2) | pp.125~134 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Plant virus coat (CP) gene-mediated protection is one of the best known approaches to protect against virus resistant transgenic plants. Transgenic N. benthamiana plants containing the CP gene of Zucchini green mottle mosaic virus (ZGMMV) were used for the environmental risk assessment of the living modified (LM) plants with plant virus resistance. The most optimal co-infection method of both ZGMMV and CMV (Cucumber mosaic virus) on Non-LM and CP-expressing LM tobacco plants was established and co-infection of CMV and ZGMMV was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To address the effects of LM tobacco plants on the mutation of the virus, in-vitro transcripts of CP and Replicase (Rep) derived from CMV and/or ZGMMV were inoculated onto Non-LM or LM tobacco plants. Mutation frequency of CP and Rep from CMV and ZGMMV was examined through six serial passages in Non-LM and LM tobacco plants. Little actual frequency of mutation was estimated, probably due to the limited number of transgenic plants tested in this study. However, it does not suggest environmental safety of these CP-mediated LM plants. Further study at a larger scale is needed to evaluate the environmental risk associated with the CP-expressing LM plants.
  • 2.

    Leaching Characteristics and Potential Impact Assessment of Pollutants from Field Test Cells with Coal Bottom Ash as Fill Materials for Recycling

    Yong-Chul Jang | 이성우 | 강희석 and 1other persons | 2013, 22(2) | pp.135~145 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The recycling of coal bottom ash generated from coal power plants in Korea has been limited due to heterogenous characteristics of the materials. The most common management option for the ash is disposal in landfills (i.e. ash pond) near ocean. The presence of large coarse and fine materials in the ash has prompted the desire to beneficially use it in an application such as fill materials. Prior to reuse application as fill materials, the potential risks to the environment must be assessed with regard to the impacts. In this study, a total of nine test cells with bottom ash samples collected from pretreated bottom ash piles and coal ash pond in a coal-fired power plant were constructed and operated under the field conditions to evaluate the leachability over a period of 210 days. Leachate samples from the test cells were analyzed for a number of chemical parameters (e.g., pH, salinity, electrical conductance, anions, and metals). The concentrations of chemicals detected in the leachate were compared to appropriate standards (drinking water standard) with dilution attenuation factor, if possible, to assess potential leaching risks to the surrounding area. Based on the leachate analysis, most of the samples showed slightly high pH values for the coal ash contained test cells, and contained several ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate in relatively large quantities. Three elements aluminum, boron, and barium) were commonly detected above their respective detection limits in a number of leachate samples, especially in the early leaching period of time. The results of the test cell study indicate that the pollutants in the leachate from the coal ash test cells were not of a major concern in terms of leaching risk to surface water and groundwater under field conditions as fill materials. However, care must be taken in extending these results to actual applications because the results presented in this study are based on the limited field test settings and time frame. Structural characteristics and analysis for coal bottom ash may be warranted to apply the materials to actual field conditions.
  • 3.

    Land cover change and forest fragmentation analysis for Naypyidaw, Myanmar

    Kong, In-hye | 백경혜 | Lee, Dong Kun | 2013, 22(2) | pp.147~156 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Myanmar(Burma) has been preserved valuable environmental resources because of its political isolation. But recently, Myanmar has moved a capital city(Naypyidaw) at central forest area and it has been urbanized radically since 2005. In this paper, we built multi-temporal land cover map from Landsat images of 1970s to 2012 with ENVI 4.5 software. For a broad approach, administrative district Yamethin which includes Naypyidaw is classified into 3 classes and with only Naypyidaw region is classified with 4-5 classes to analyse specific changes. And with forest cover extracted by Object Oriented Classification, we evaluated forest fragmentation before and after the development using Patch Analyst(FRAGSTATs 3.3) at Yamethin area. For Yamethin area, there were significant forest cover change, 51% in 1999 to 48% in 2012, and for Naypyidaw area, 67% in 1999 to 57% in 2012 respectively. Also landscape indices resulted from Patch Analyst concluded that the total edge, edge density and mean shaped index of forest patches increased and total core area is decreased. It is attributed from land cover change with urbanization and agricultural land expansion.
  • 4.

    Waste Load Allocation Method for Total Maximum Daily Load Program of a Polluted River

    CHO JAE HEON | 2013, 22(2) | pp.157~170 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    수질오염총량관리제 시행 하천에 대해서는 객관적이고 과학적 방법으로 유역내 각 지역의 오염 부하량을 할당할 필요가 있다. 본 연구에서는 대도시에서 배출되는 오염부하의 영향을 크게 받는 영산강수계의 중상류부를 대상으로 오염부하량 할당 방법에 대해 검토하였다. 오염부하량 할당을 위한 수질모델링은, 수질관리에 흔히 적용되어온 QUAL2E의 최근 판인, QUAL2Kw를 이용해서 수행하였다. 모델 적용 대상 지역의 각 reach의 수질매개변수는 QUAL2Kw의 자동보정 기능을 이용해서 추정하였다. 오염부하량 할당의 최적화는 유전알고리즘(genetic algorithm)을 이용하였고, 최소부하량 삭감법(least waste load removal allocation), 일정 부하량 이상 최소부하량 삭감법(least waste load removal over a certain value), 동일삭감률 할당법(equal removal rate)의 세가지 방법을 적용하고 비교 검토하였다. 동일삭감률 할당법은 다른 방법보다 유역 전체 부하량 삭감량이 훨씬 크기 때문에 효과적이지 않았고, 이 방법을 쓰기 위해서는 부하량 삭감대상인 각 소유역과 하수처리장을 그 규모와 특성에 따라 세분화할 필요가 있다. 동일삭감률 할당법의 적용시 세가지 범주로 나누어서 삭감률을 적용하였다. 오염부하량 삭감의 효율성을 감안할 때 최소부하량 삭감법보다 일정 부하량 이상 최소부하량 삭감법이 더 적절한 것으로 검토되었다.
  • 5.

    Water Quality Characteristics of the Major Tributaries in Yeongsan and Sumjin River Basin using Statistical Analysis

    박진환 | 정재운 | 김대영 and 4other persons | 2013, 22(2) | pp.171~181 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we report the water quality characteristics of pollutants for 4 major tributaries in the Yeongsan and Sumjin river basins using statistical analysis, such as regression equation and factor analysis. The flow rate and water qualtiy data collected from 4 sampling sites(Hwangryoung A, Jiseok A, Chooryeong A, Osu A) in the Yeonsan and Sumjin river basin during the past 3 years were analyzed for 11 parameters(flow rate, dissolved oxgen, pH, water temperature, electric conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen deman, total organic carbon, total nitorgen, total phosphorus, suspended solid). The results showed that the concentrations of BOD, COD, TOC, T-N, T-P in Hwangryoung A(HW) and Jiseok A(JS) of the Yeongsan river basin were decreased as the flow rate was increased. This means that rather than nonpoint soources, point sources affect water quality. In the cases of Chooryeong A(CR) and Osu A(OS) in the Sumjin river basin, howerever, nonpoint sources than point sources are an important factor that affects the water quality. Also, the factor analysis technique was employed to analyze principal component influencing on water quality. The results revealed that the first principal component in HW was correlated with EC, DO, T-N, water temperature. This “nitrogen influx according to seasonal pattern” factor may be interpreted. In JS, the first principal component was correlated with BOD, COD, TOC and is likely to represent “organic matter” processes. In CR and OS, BOD, COD, TOC,SS and T-P were significantly correlated and is considered as representing “Organic matter and adsorption of phosphorus on sediments influx”. This study is expected to contribute to the effective pollution control/management of the surfac waters in the study sites.
  • 6.

    A Study on Comprehensive Environmental Information System for Livestock Manure Management in Korea

    Dong-Hwan Jeong | Kim Yong-Seok | 신진수 and 3other persons | 2013, 22(2) | pp.183~194 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry, and Ministry of Construction, Transportation and Maritime Affairs are in charge of livestock manure management. There are national statistics regarding the livestock industry such as the National Pollution Source Survey, Livestock Statistic Survey, and Livestock-breeding Trend Survey. The current statistical data are focused on the scale of livestock breeding and the production of livestock manure using these data, but it is difficult to establish database due to lack of information. In order to plan relevant policies including management of livestock manure, the government established database systems such as the integrated information system of livestock manure, the integrated system of national infectious animal-disease prevention, and the Sae-ol public administrative system. We have tried to suggest improvements for the comprehensive environmental information system of livestock manure management by detecting problems in each level of the livestock manure life-cycle, making use of the existing systems, and considering the electronic transfer system of livestock manure. The services and functions of this comprehensive system include information of livestock farmers, the production, collection, transportation, and treatment of livestock manure, the area of agricultural land used for livestock manure, the report of approval and results on livestock manure products, management of statistical information, management of civil affairs, and relevant mobile application services. The system is made up of three processes: first, establishment of GIS-based management database of livestock manure; second, establishment of a history management system for livestock manure transactions; and third, development of a water quality assessment system.