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2013, Vol.22, No.5

  • 1.

    An Assessment of Urban Water Cycle in Changwon-si Using GIS-based Water Cycle Area Ratio

    bonggeun song | Kyunghun Park | Teaksoon Lee | 2013, 22(5) | pp.397~408 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to analyze water cycle area ratio and spatial evaluation of water cycle in urban area of Changwon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do. Water cycle area ratio are analyzed by using spatial data of land-cover and land-use, and Hot spot analysis of GIS program was used for spatial evaluation of water cycle. The results are as below. Firstly, the high water cycle area ratio areas were forests, parks, and rivers, but urban areas covered asphalt and concrete were low under 40%. Public institutions and co-residential of urban areas were higher than others because of high area ratio of pervious land-cover. Spatial evaluation of water cycle was analyzed to vulnerable areas there are dense residential and commercial area. These areas are really occurring frequently flooding and immersion, therefore, is required water management facilities and improvement of land-cover from impervious to pervious. In the future, it will require additionally analysis of water cycle area ratio supplemented data of water management facility and ground water.
  • 2.

    Halophytes and Vegetation of Seocheon Tidal Flat Wetland Conservation Area

    Oh, Hyun-Kyung | KIM SEI CHEON | You Ju Han | 2013, 22(5) | pp.409~426 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to present the raw data for management and conservation of tidal flat by objective surveying and analysing the halophytes and vegetation distributed in Seocheon tidal flat wetland conservation area, Korea. The results are as follows. The numbers of halophytes in this site were summarized as 27 taxa including 13 families, 21 genera, 26 species and 1 variety. In the results of ecologically important species, rare plant was 1 taxa, 10 taxa of the specific plants by floristic region, 1 taxa of naturalized plant and 1 taxa of the plant with approval for delivering oversea. The life form spectrum consisted of therophytes(44.4%), hemicryptophytes(25.9%), geophytes(14.8%), nanophanerophytes(7.5%), chamaephytes and hydatophytes(each 3.7%). The types of vegetation of Seocheon tidal flat wetland conservation area were classified with 17 communities including Vitex rotundifolia community, Suaeda maritima community, Calystegia soldanella community and so forth. In the halophytes composition, section C and E-1 had the largest character species and companion species. In the results of vegetation amount, section C, D, E-1 and E-2 were the highest score, on the other hand, section A and B were the lowest. The final rating was calculated by adding up values of two factors, and section C and E-1 had the highest rating of Ⅱ. In future, we will survey the whole flora in Seocheon tidal flat, we will offer the help to establishing the conservation plan of coastal plant ecosystem in West Sea.
  • 3.

    Assessment of Leaching Characteristics of Alkaline and Heavy Metal Ions from Recycled Concrete Aggregate

    신택수 | Hong Sangpyo | KIM KWANG YUL | 2013, 22(5) | pp.427~437 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Generation rate of construction wastes in Korea has occupied preponderantly in recent years. Although Korean government has made efforts to increase recycling rate, classification based on chemical properties of construction wastes has not been well defined. The objective of this study is to understand chemical properties of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA). RCA was tested for its leaching characteristics. Leaching tests were conducted the following procedures in Korean standard leaching test (KLT) and toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), respectively. The RCA samples were characterized using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Alkalinity of the leachate was determined using a pH meter titration method. The XRF analysis result shows that the calcium oxide (CaO) content in the RCA sample is 25.3~50.4 %. When the RCA sample was mixed with water in a batch reactor, pH in the solution was rapidly increased, and 70% of the total pH change was found in 1 hour. The TCLP showed slightly higher efficiency for leaching heavy metals than the KLT. The leaching efficiency was also higher as the particle size of RCA sample was smaller. The leaching test results suggest that RCA can be generally classified as non-hazardous waste.
  • 4.

    Comparative Evaluation between Administrative and Watershed Boundary in Carbon Sequestration Monitoring -Towards UN-REDD for Mt. Geum-gang of North Korea-

    Junwoo Kim | Um, Jung Sup | 2013, 22(5) | pp.439~454 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    UN-REDD (United Nations programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) is currently being emerged as one of important mechanism to reduce carbon dioxide in relation to the deforestation. Although administrative boundary has already gained world-wide recognition as a typical method of monitoring unit in the process of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) reduction project, this approach did not provide a realistic evidence in the carbon sequestering monitoring in terms of UN-REDD; the meaningful comparison of land use patterns among watershed boundaries, interpretation for distribution trends of carbon density, calculation of opportunity cost, leakage management, etc. This research proposes a comparative evaluation framework in a more objective and quantitative way for carbon sequestering monitoring between administrative and watershed boundary approaches. Mt. Geumgang of North Korea was selected as a survey objective and an exhaustive and realistic comparison of carbon sequestration between the two approaches was conducted, based on change detection using TM satellite images. It was possible for drainage boundary approach to identify more detailed area-wide patterns of carbon distribution than traditional administrative one, such as estimations of state and trends, including historical trends, of land use / land cover and carbon density in the Mt. Geumgang. The distinctive changing trends in terms of carbon sequestration were specifically identified over the watershed boundary from 4.0% to 34.8% while less than 1% difference was observed in the administrative boundaries, which were resulting in almost 21-22%. It is anticipated that this research output could be used as a valuable reference to support more scientific and objective decision-making in introducing watershed boundary as carbon sequestering monitoring unit.
  • 5.

    Correlations between Spatial Distribution of Alien Plants and Land Cover -Focused on National Ecosystem Survey-

    정태준 | 신현철 | Young-Kyu Shin and 1other persons | 2013, 22(5) | pp.455~466 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study is to seek application plans of National Ecosystem Survey database based on comparison and examination of feasible analysis methods for distribution characteristics of alien plants. In order to set up a correlation analysis method between alien plants and environmental factors, we had reviewed the 3rd National Ecosystem Survey guide book and consequently, two kinds of analysis method were tested. One was 1/25,000 scale map boundary based analysis and the other was representative mountain area based analysis. In this study we restricted the research area to select reliable surveyed database from whole "2011 National Ecosystem Survey flora database" according to two major criteria. First, an area defined by 1/25,000 scale map boundary and representative mountain area where the number of surveyed flora records should be within top 20%. Second, land cover map should also be built up inside that area. As a result, 25 map boundaries and 25 representative mountain areas were extracted to be analyzed. To limit a boundary for every representative mountain area we had analyzed distribution of environmental factors around that area by manual inspection with SPOT-5 remote sensed satellite image then designated 3km buffer zone from each alien plant location in that area. After then, naturalized index (NI) and urbanized index (UI) was calculated and correlations analysis was carried out. With the result of correlation analysis by map boundary only agricultural land area showed significant value of r (0.4∼0.6, correlated) and the rest of factors did not. In the case of representative mountain area, the result showed that agricultural land, road and forest area showed significant value of r (0.6∼0.8, highly correlated) which was corresponding to existing researches. Therefore, representative mountain area based method is preferable when using the alien plants database of National Ecosystem Survey for species distribution analysis. And also, considering the way of database utilization is strongly suggested at the first stage of survey planning for promoting active use of national ecosystem survey database.
  • 6.

    Application of Spatial Autocorrelation for Analysis of Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Birds Observed in Namdaecheon River, Muju-gun, Jeollabuk-do, Korea

    강종현 | KIM, YONG-KI | 연명훈 | 2013, 22(5) | pp.467~479 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study was conducted to find out characterization of spatial distribution of birds observed in river areas. Our bird survey was carried out 4 times at 31 sites from January to September in 2011. A total of 1,609 accumulated individuals belonging to 59 species, 28 families and 11 orders were observed. In the result of spatial autocorrelation analysis using the richness index of the maximum counts of each sites, we confirmed that the distribution of birds in Namdaecheon river was clustered and the tendency of spatial autocorrelation was apparent. The area of each sites within a 200m radius was classified in four biotope categories such as agricultural land, forest, residential area and water area, and the spatial autocorrelation was analysed about four types. In the result of spatial autocorrelation analysis for four biotope categories, all types were showed the positive spatial autocorrelation, but the type of water area was higher than other types. The positive correlation was found between the water area and water birds in statistical significance. However, the forest birds had non-significance values. Therefore, it is appropriate to focus on water birds except for forest birds, when researches of bird distribution in river ecosystem is conducted. The number of bird species and individuals increased as the riverside of water area was to widen. Thus, if the areas of riverside offering the feeding and roosting area increase, it will be accommodated many birds. Also, the areas of riverside should be maintained naturally because it is an important habitats of birds. Our study area is on the outskirts the city of higher rates of forest and agricultural land, it may be unreasonable to apply our results to the whole rivers. If the research is studying about the river flowing the city, it is expected to be useful to the relation study area such as ecological river's restoration.
  • 7.

    Study on the soil contamination characteristics according to the functions of the returned U.S. military base

    오창규 | 2013, 22(5) | pp.481~489 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    There are U.S. troops with a force about 290,000 strong stationed all around the world, approximately 150 countries. Among the troops, USFK has performed principal part with its stationing for 50 years against the military threat of North Korea. However, as a result of an investigation made into environmental contamination of several bases which were restituted from US to ROK by the Land Partnership Plan in the process of relocation of USFK, it was found that the area was contaminated by not only TPH and BTEX caused by diesel fuel and JP-8 but also various heavy metal over the standard level according to the operations of corps. Among these bases, 4 corps, each of which has different duties and function, were chosen to be analyzed for the characteristics and degrees of soil contamination. Fisrt of all, in armored corps the soil was contaminated by TPH and heavy metal (Zn, Ni, Pb) due to the repairing activities of tracked vehicles and shooting exercises. In army aviation camp, the soil was contaminated by TPH, BTEX and heavy metal (Zn, Cd) due to repairing activities of aircrafts. Also, in engineer camp there was contaminated area polluted by TPH and heavy metal (Zn, Pb) caused by open-air storage of various construction materials and TPH, BTEX and heavy metal (Zn, Pb, Cu) contamination of aircraft shooting area in shooting range camp were detected. Managing environment will be more effective when we identify the contaminative characteristics and take necessary measures in advance.
  • 8.

    A Study on Plant Diet Resource of Nutria(Myocastor coypus) Habitat in Nakdong-river

    이도훈 | 이창우 | 길지현 | 2013, 22(5) | pp.491~511 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, three survey areas in Changnyeong, Miryang and Jinju of the confirmed the habitation of nutria and carried out the performance on the plant diet resource. From the habitat trace survey in the nutria habitat, a total of 336 trace points was shown. There were 181 trace points (54%) confirmed from St. 1 as the highest showing, followed by 52 trace points (15.4%) from St. 2, and 103 trace points (30.6)% from St. 3. The vascular plants distributed in the habitat area were a total of 182 taxonomic group with 55 families, 99 genus, 16 hybrids, and 1 race. The vascular plant living types in the habitat area are 1-year plant (Th, Th(w)) for 63class groups (34.6%), hemicryptophyte (H) for 42class groups(23.1%). plants, trees, crop plants were included. As a result of analyzing the overseas research cases on the diet plants of nutria, there are 195 taxonomic groups in a total of 39 families, 126 genus, 183 breeds, and 12 hybrids. In the study areas, feeding the plants was confirmed by the 7 taxonomic groups, aquatic plant, terrestrial From the total of 182 taxonomic groups discovered in the habitat area, 20 class groups, in 3 habitation region, 10 class groups of commonly appearing 49 class groups were shown to be the breed confirmed for diet in existing case studies, and assuming from it basis, the nutria habitating in the survey area is considered to have the supply of diverse diet resource to have flawless habitation. This is implication of having potential breeding possibility.
  • 9.

    Monitoring of Urban Thermal Environment Change in Daejun Using Landsat TIR Satellite Data

    Choi, Jin Ho | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Jong Hoan-Do | 2013, 22(5) | pp.513~523 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This purpose of this work is to explore the characteristics of urban thermal environment distribution with the case of Daejeon. To do that, this work applied GIS Spatial Statistics to the LandSAT images gathered from 2000 to 2011. The urban thermal environment distribution at the time point of 2 showed high spatial autocorrelation. Therefore, it is judged that spatial autocorrelation is needed to increase the reliability and explanatory power of the characteristics of thermal environment distribution. In the case of the thermal in Daejeon, its positive clustering appeared high at the time point of 2, and its clustering in 2011 more gradually decreased than that in 2000 to 2011. In particular, given the decrease in the core H-H region, it was found that the thermal environment of Daejeon was greatly improved. However, since the rise in the region L-L means another changed like construction of a new city, it is judged that it is necessary to come up with a proper plan. It is considered that this analysis of the characteristics of urban thermal environment distribution in consideration of spatial autocorrelation L-L be useful for providing a fundamental material necessary for the policy and project of thermal environment improvement.
  • 10.

    Long-term population monitoring with population viability analysis of river otter in Korea

    Lee, Sang-Don | 2013, 22(5) | pp.525~528 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    River otter(Lutra lutra) are listed as endangered species and Natural monument in Korea, and this study examined the possibility of extinct of river otter in Hongchon river using with the application of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) technique. In Hongchon river areas population was estimated 9 individuals for the last 1999-2005 years and PVA analysis was done for the next 10 years using the average population of 9. Using the initial population the river otter was estimated 30% of extinct for the next 10 years. This estimation was quite low considering water pollution and construction of highways. Also PVA only used population size lacking in other life history information. Nonetheless river otter population can be in risk of extinction if the current construction of crossovers, cement bank are maintained. Long term information regarding life history needs essential.
  • 11.

    Blue Sky Project and Impact Assessment - Examples of Urban Air Quality Management of Agenda 21 in Indonesia -

    Lee, Sang-Don | 2013, 22(5) | pp.529~536 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Agenda 21 of Indonesian government is a national program to support any efforts in maintaining sustainable environment. It is a commitment of the government to actively promote the importance of sustainable environment in balance with national economic development. Indonesia is seriously needed for air quality management, and the Urban Air Quality Management Strategy was adopted in 1992 as part of Metropolitan Environmental Improvement Program. The Urban Air Quality Program (UAQP) should control “Langit Biru” (Blue Sky). The UAQP has causes of air pollution and sets up each strategic intervention. This leads to Action Plan to prevent air pollution and works as a good example to bring Agenda 21 to air quality management in local level. “Langit Biru” program has put efforts in maintaining sustainable environment.
  • 12.

    Air quality modeling guideline for national air policy development and evaluation -Part I General information-

    Dae-gyun Lee | 이용미 | 이미향 and 2other persons | 2013, 22(5) | pp.537~546 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In the Seoul Metropolitan Area(SMA) photochemical air pollutants, nitrogenic compound and particulate matters have increased substantially due to mobile sources, power plants and so on. Therefore 'Special Act on Seoul Metropolitan Air Quality Improvement' was enacted on 2003 in order to improve air quality in the SMA. According to the Special Act, Central and local government have developed the state implementation plan(SIP) to reduce air pollutant emissions from various local sources. One of the key elements of the SIP development is the air quality modeling since modeling results can be used to establish emissions control strategies as well as to demonstrate attainment of air quality goals for ozone, particulate matter, and so on. Air quality modeling, therefore, can be usefully utilized to investigate the effects of government's efforts according to control strategies or measures. Using the air quality model, we can determine whether the implementation plan should be revised or not. A number of questions, however, has been raised concerning accuracy, consistency and transparency of modeling results because if we do not trust modeling results, all the measures dependent on modeling becomes in vain. So, without dealing with these questions, we can not guarantee the reliability and utilizability of air quality modeling results. In this study, we tried to establish standard methodology for air quality modeling in order to ensure consistency and transparency of modeling results used in the development and evaluation of national air policy. For this purpose, we established air quality modeling guideline to provide or recommend modeling procedures, vertical and horizontal domains, input data of meteorological and air quality modeling and so on.