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2013, Vol.22, No.6

  • 1.

    An Impact Assessment on Atmospheric Dispersion of Pesticide using AGDISP Model

    김정환 | Youn-Seo Koo | Lee, Seunghoon | 2013, 22(6) | pp.547~556 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Recently, golf courses have increased over the years because golf became popular leisure sport. Various environmental problems have been then issued by a golf course during constructing and running them. A problem of pesticide, which is serious among various environmental problems, from golf course has harmful effect on surrounding area and makes human suffer from acute and chronic diseases. Pesticides are used for the cost-effective managing of golf course and the amount of pesticides also increases as the number of golf course increase. Since the assessment of pesticides on near-by surrounding has been focused on water and soil media, studies related to atmospheric dispersion have been hardly attempted. The method to assess an impact of pesticide nearby agricultural production by the atmospheric dispersion using AGDISP(AGricultural DISPersal) model was developed and applied to the actual planned golf course located in Hongcheon, Gangwon. For implementing AGDISP, parameters were investigated from the golf course's land use planning map, pesticide spray device, Hong-Cheon weather station and etc. First of all, a kind of pesticide, a form of spraying pesticide, geographical features, weather data, and distance(golf course to plantation) were investigated to understand how to work these parameters in AGDISP. Restricted data(slope angle, droplet size distribution and solar insolation) sensitivity analysis of these parameters to estimate effect of pesticide nearby a plantation and a high relative contribution data of analyzed data was selected for input data. Ethoprophos was chosen as the pesticide used in the golf course and the amounts of pesticide deposition per annual agricultural productions were predicted. The results show that maximum amount of pesticide deposition through atmospheric dispersion was predicted 2.32 ㎍/㎡ at 96 m where the nearest organic plantation exists. The residues of pesticide were also estimated based on the annul production of the organic and the deposition amount of the pesticide. Consequently, buckwheat, wheat and millet were likely to exceed maximum residue limits for pesticides in foods(MRL) and sorghum, corn and peanut were likely to exceed MRL by organic farming as well.
  • 2.

    The Calculation of NPS Load per Unit Area in Orchard to the Nakdong River Basin

    이재운 | Heongak Kwon | 이윤정 and 1other persons | 2013, 22(6) | pp.557~568 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, Calculated the nonpoint sources(NPS) load per unit area about various rainy events in vineyard of Nakdong River basin. NPS monitoring and calculation for NPS load per unit area were estimated from 'Investigation method of precipitation discharge(National Institute of Environmental Research, 2007)'. The evaluation of applicability for NPS load per unit by compared with prior research data and Total Maximum Daily Load(TMDL) data. Five target areas were each 2000㎡, 1800㎡, 1943㎡, 2484㎡, 864㎡ and located in Gyeongsangbukdo Gyeongju, Gyeongsangbukdo Sangju, Gyeongsangnamdo Hapcheon in Korea. Since fruits were the only crop on the target area, the characteristics of stormwater discharge at survey sites could be evaluated independently. A total of 115 rainfall events in the Orchard area during five years(2008-2012) was surveyed, and 38 of them became stormwater discharge. In the Nakdong River watershed, average of event mean concentrations(EMCs) in Orchard area for biochemical oxyzen demand(BOD), Chemical oxyzen demand(COD), total nitrogen(T-N), total phosphorus(T-P) were 2.0㎎/L, 10.1㎎/L, 3.195 ㎎/L, 0.578㎎/L, respectively. NPS load per unit area in Orchard area showed BOD : 2.0㎏/㎢·day, COD : 10.2㎏/㎢·day, T-N : 3.220㎏/㎢·day, T-P : 0.606㎏/㎢·day.
  • 3.

    A Study on Dropping Behavior and Survey Improvement Methods for Siberian Flying Squirrel(Pteromys volans)

    우동걸 | 최태영 | Lee, Sang Kyu and 1other persons | 2013, 22(6) | pp.569~579 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    To identify the characteristics of the dropping habits and to provide sign survey methods improvement of Siberian flying squirrels Pteromys volans, an investigation was carried out in Jirisan National Park from April 2012 to May 2013. The latrines of study area were checked once a month and the characteristics of dropping behavior were camera trapped. The feces of Siberian flying squirrel were found on the point which tree forked, mostly from November to May. The squirrel actively presents in forked tree mainly on the September to April. The Siberian flying squirrel is found to be a typical nocturnal animal as it actively move between 6p.m. to 7a.m.. The study found that squirrel does feeding and dropping in the winter time on forked tree. On the point which tree forked could be a good place for the squirrel to hide from their predator when there is no leaf on the tree. Conducting the sign survey is advisable from November to May, as well as with the careful approach to the animals. As Siberian flying squirrel is an endangered species, adjusting the survey period is mandatory, especially when doing environmental impact assessment and a research on its dwelling areas.
  • 4.

    Assessment on Economies-Environmental Affect of Smart Operation System(SOS) in Sewage Treatment Plant

    Kim, Youn-Kwon | In Seok SEO | 김홍석 and 1other persons | 2013, 22(6) | pp.581~589 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Generally, Sewage Treatment Plants(STPs) are complexes systems in which a range of physical, chemical and biological processes occur. However, their performance strongly depends on the know-how acquired by the field-engineer. Recently, in order to solve this situations, various operation and management technologies based on the Instrumentation, Control and Automation(ICA) have been developed. As a economies-environmental affect point of view, this study was for the performance evaluation and assessment of results from the Smart Operation System(SOS) in full-scale STP. The SOS in STP consisted of the process monitoring module, including real-time influent prediction and effluent simulation, and the Smart Air Control(SAC) module. According to the results from field test for 2 years, the results of economical evaluation, amount of benefits and cost saving by the SOS have shown to be much higher than that of traditional operation. Nevertheless, the removal load(kg/yr) of BOD 13.3 %, COD 28.2 %, TN 44.4 % and TP 20.8 % were increased, respectively. Remarkable improvement of removal load could be achieved after the SOS was adapted. It was concerned that the SOS offer a user friendly functionalities and cost saving needed by the field-engineers. In addition, it was expected that the results of this study would supply helpful information for design and cost saving for the SOS in full-scale STP.
  • 5.

    Multiple-biometric Attributes of Biomarkers and Bioindicators for Evaluations of Aquatic Environment in an Urban Stream Ecosystem and the Multimetric Eco-Model.

    강한일 | 강남이 | Kwang Guk An | 2013, 22(6) | pp.591~607 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the aquatic environment of an urban stream using various ecological parameters of biological biomarkers, physical habitat quality, and chemical water quality and to develop a "Multimetric Eco-Model" (Mm-E Model) for the ecosystem evaluations. For the applications of the Mm-E model, three zones including the control zone (CZ) of headwaters, transition zone (TZ) of mid-stream and the impacted zone (IZ) of downstream were designated and analyzed the seasonal variations of the model values. The biomarkers of DNA, based on the comet assay approach of single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), were analyzed using the blood samples of Zacco platypus as a target species, and the parameters were used tail moment, tail DNA(%) and tail length (㎛) in the bioassay. The damages of DNA were evident in the impacted zone, but not in the control zone. The condition factor (CF) as key indicators of the population evaluation indicator was analyzed along with the weight-length relation and individual abnormality. The four metrics of Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI) were added for the evaluations of physical habitat. In addition, the parameters of chemical water quality were used as eutrophic indicators of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and conductivity. Overall, our results suggested that attributes of biomarkers and bioindicators in the impacted zone (IZ) had sensitive response largely to the chemical stress (eutrophic indicators) and also partially to physical habitat quality, compared to the those in the control zone.
  • 6.

    An impact of meteorological Initial field and data assimilation on CMAQ ozone prediction in the Seoul Metropolitan Area during June, 2007

    Dae-gyun Lee | 이미향 | 이용미 and 4other persons | 2013, 22(6) | pp.609~626 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Air quality models have been widely used to study and simulate many air quality issues. In the simulation, it is important to raise the accuracy of meteorological predicted data because the results of air quality modeling is deeply connected with meteorological fields. Therefore in this study, we analyzed the effects of meteorological fields on the air quality simulation. This study was designed to evaluate MM5 predictions by using different initial condition data and different observations utilized in the data assimilation. Among meteorological scenarios according to these input data, the results of meteorological simulation using National Centers for Environmental Prediction (Final) Operational Global Analysis data were in closer agreement with the observations and resulted in better prediction on ozone concentration. And in Seoul, observations from Regional Meteorological Office for data assimilations of MM5 were suitable to predict ozone concentration. In other areas, data assimilation using both observations from Regional Meteorological Office and Automatical Weather System provided valid method to simulate the trends of meteorological fields and ozone concentrations. However, it is necessary to vertify the accuracy of AWS data in advance because slightly overestimated wind speed used in the data assimilation with AWS data could result in underestimation of high ozone concentrations.
  • 7.

  • 8.

    A Study on the trend of Energy Mix and Air Environmental Impact Assessment

    Hanna Cho | Hyun-Soo Joo | Park, Joo-Yang | 2013, 22(6) | pp.639~648 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Unconventional natural gas resources are now estimated to be as large as conventional resources. Unconventional natural gas has became an increasingly important source of energy in the world since the start of this century. The factors that drive natural gas demand and supply point more and more to a future in which natural gas plays greater role in the global energy mix. The expansion of using natural gas will be expected in Korea. This research aims to analyze environmental impacts of expansion of unconventional natural gas. This research was carried out for comparative analysis between global energy mix and Korea energy mix, and developed a case that reflect the changed energy mix due to the expansion of unconventional natural gas in Korea. Also this research evaluate the production of air pollutants and the cost of the damage in power generation sector. The results of this research can be summarized as that natural gas portion of future global energy mix (about 25%) is greater than Korea energy mix (about 12%). This research developed a case that replace 10% energy of power generation sector to natural gas in the 6th demand supply program, reflecting the changed energy mix due to the expansion of natural gas use. In that case, air pollutants would be reduced gradually through 2015 to 2027. In detail, carbon dioxide reduces 22 million tons and environmental damage cost reduces 4500 billion won by 2027.
  • 9.

    Evaluating future deforestation to assess REDD implementation suitability study on Kon Tum province in Vietnam

    Riwako Tanaka | Lee, Dong Kun | Tae Yong Jung and 1other persons | 2013, 22(6) | pp.649~657 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    UNFCCC(United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) agreed with Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation(REDD). It is necessary to develop the method of REDD suitability assessment in national scale. Existing researches suggested projection methods of deforestation area by many deforestation factors, but the causes of deforestation were different by regions. Therefore, in this study, REDD suitability in Kon Tum province in Vietnam was analyzed by several significant deforestation factors. REDD suitability value was computed using the Fuzzy set. As a result, all deforestation factors related to deforestation area and the REDD suitability value was the highest in Sa Thay district, Dak Glei district, Kon Plong district and Dak Ha district. These provinces have high biodiversity, on the other hand deforestation problem has been occurred.
  • 10.

    Analysis of economic and environmental value of dredged soil

    조성수 | 2013, 22(6) | pp.659~666 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Most of dredged soil generating millions of tons per year is treated as a waste disposing in ocean or landfill except some part of recycling. The purpose of this study is to present the prerequisite for the use of dredged soil as a resource and analyse economic and environmental values of the recycling of dredged soil. The analysis of the economic and environmental value of recycling of dredged soil as a resource showed that several trillion won of budget can be saved in construction of disposal area or landfill and that loss of about 50 million tons of aggregates from deforestation can be restored by supplyment of dredged soil preserving a mountain as big as the Namsan(Mt.) every year. In order to utilize dredged soil in more diverse areas as high value of resource, the related domestic laws are need to be readjusted integrating laws spreaded in different government departments and a special law is prepared and enacted.
  • 11.

    Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potentials in a Electronic·Electrical components company using LEAP Model

    박영수 | 조영혁 | Kim Tae Oh | 2013, 22(6) | pp.667~676 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzed the energy demand, greenhouse gas emission and greenhouse gas reduction potential of Electronic·Electrical components company. The LEAP model targeting long term energy plan was used to establish the most efficient plan for the companies by examining the climate change policy of government and the countermeasures by companies. A scenario was created by having 11 greenhouse gases reduction plans to be introduced from 2011 as the basic plan. Regarding input data, energy consumption by business place and by use, number of employee from 2009 to 2012, land area and change in number of business places were utilized. The study result suggested that approximately 13,800 TJ of energy will be spent in 2020, which is more than 2 times of 2012 energy consumption. When the integrated scenario based on the reduction plan of companies would be enforced, approximately 3,000 TJ will be reduced in 2020. The emission of greenhouse gases until 2020 was forecasted as approximately 760,000 ton CO2eq. When the integrated scenario would be enforced, the emission will be approximately 610,000 ton CO2eq, which is decrease by approximately 150,000 ton CO2eq. This study will help the efficient responding of eElectronic·Electrical components company in preparing detail report on objective management system and enforcement plan. It will also contribute in their image as environment-friendly companies by properly responding to the regulation reinforcement of government and greenhouse gases emission target based on environment policy.
  • 12.

    Study on Sensitivity of different Standardization Methods to Climate Change Vulnerability Index

    Kipyo Nam | Cheol-Hee Kim | 2013, 22(6) | pp.677~693 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    IPCC showed that calculation of climate vulnerability index requires standardization process of various proxy variables for the estimation of climate exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. In this study, four different methodologies of standardization methods: Z-score, Rescaling, Ranking, and Distance to the reference country, are employed to evaluate climate vulnerability-VRI (Vulnerability-Resilience Indicator) over Korean peninsula, and the error ranges of VRI, arising from employing the different standardization are estimated. All of proxy variables are provided by CCGIS (Climate Change adaptation toolkit based on GIS) which hosts information on both past and current socio-economic data and climate and environmental IPCC SRES (A2, B1, A1B, A1T, A1FI, and A1 scenarios) climate data for the decades of 2000s, 2020s, 2050s, and 2100s. The results showed that Z-score and Rescaling methods showed statistically undistinguishable results with minor differences of spatial distribution, while Ranking and Distance to the reference country methods showed some possibility to lead the different ranking of VRI among South Korean provinces, depending on the local characteristics and reference province. The resultant VRIs calculated from different standardization methods showed Cronbach's alpha of more than 0.84, indicating that all of different methodologies were overall consistent. Similar horizontal distributions were shown with the same trends: VRI increases as province is close to the coastal region and/or it close toward lower latitude, and decreases as it is close to urbanization area. Other characteristics of the four different standardization are discussed in this study.
  • 13.

    Estimation of Sediment Delivery Ratio in Upper Geum River Basin Using Watershed Model

    Kim Tae Geun | 김민주 | 2013, 22(6) | pp.695~703 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Soil erosion and sediment delivery ratio(SDR) were estimated by using HSPF model in 3 tributaries of upper stream of Geum river-basin. Meteorological data and other input data were constructed from 2006 to 2011 year by the HSPF model. Flow and suspended solid results were relatively matched with the measurement data through the calibration and validation of the model. Soil erosion was proportional to the amount of rainfall and the area of watershed based on the results of model calibration and validation. SDR in Moojunamdea stream was the highest and one in Cho stream was the lowest. This was effected by the geographical characteristic. SDR was 17.6% Moojunamdea stream, 9.1% Cho stream and 13.2 % Bocheong stream. As the SDR was effected by watershed area and shape factor in this study area.
  • 14.

    Effects of PAA (Polyaspartic Acid) Contained Complex Fertilizer on Rice Growth and CH4 emission from Rice Cultivation

    Ok-Jung Ju | Jong-Hyeong Lee | 최병열 and 5other persons | 2013, 22(6) | pp.705~711 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of the complex fertilizers containing polyaspartic acid (PAA) on growth and CH4 emission in rice field and optimum application rate of the fertilizer compared to the standard recommended application rate (control). The PAA-containing complex fertilizers (PCF) were applied at 55, 65 and 75% levels of standard recommended application rate (control). The application rate of PAA in the plot of every PCF treatment was 150g ai 10a-1. The PCF was applied as a basal dressing without topdressing at tillering stage. The growth parameters of rice and its nitrogen use efficiency treated with PCF at a 65 to 75% level were not different compared with those of control, and the rice yield was also not significantly different between PCF at a 65 to 75% level and control during 2 years(2010~2011) field experiment. And the NH4-N content in soil was not affected by 65% to 75% level of PCF treatment. Considering overall research results such as rice yield and growth parameters PCF is not significantly different with the control and the optimum application rate of the PCF as a basal fertilization was determined to be 65~75% of the standard application rate based on the result in rice cultivation. Moreover, CH4 emission rate was significantly reduced by PCF treatments, showing 216 kg and 229 kg CH4/ha at 65% and 75% PCF treatment level, respectively, compared to 266 kg CH4/ha of the control.
  • 15.

    Application of multi-objective genetic algorithm for waste load allocation in a river basin

    CHO JAE HEON | 2013, 22(6) | pp.713~724 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In terms of waste load allocation, inequality of waste load discharge must be considered as well as economic aspects such as minimization of waste load abatement. The inequality of waste load discharge between areas was calculated with Gini coefficient and was included as one of the objective functions of the multi-objective waste load allocation. In the past, multi-objective functions were usually weighted and then transformed into a single objective optimization problem. Recently, however, due to the difficulties of applying weighting factors, multi-objective genetic algorithms (GA) that require only one execution for optimization is being developed. This study analyzes multi-objective waste load allocation using NSGA-II-aJG that applies Pareto-dominance theory and it's adaptation of jumping gene. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for the parameters that have significant influence on the solution of multi-objective GA such as population size, crossover probability, mutation probability, length of chromosome, jumping gene probability. Among the five aforementioned parameters, mutation probability turned out to be the most sensitive parameter towards the objective function of minimization of waste load abatement. Spacing and maximum spread are indexes that show the distribution and range of optimum solution, and these two values were the optimum or near optimal values for the selected parameter values to minimize waste load abatement.
  • 16.

    Status and Development of National Ecosystem Survey in Korea

    김창회 | 강종현 | MYUNGJIN KIM | 2013, 22(6) | pp.725~738 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    The National Ecosystem Survey in Korea provides information to policy makers for preservation of natural environment and implementation of international agreement. The 1st and 2nd National Ecosystem Survey was carried out between 1986 and 1990, and between 1997 and 2005, respectively. The 3rd National Ecosystem Survey began in 2006 and ended in 2012. In 2013 the pilot survey for the 4th National Ecosystem Survey is ongoing. The 4th National Ecosystem Survey due to the revision of the Natural Environment Conservation Act which has been done every 10 years would change into every five years. It is planned to be conducted from 2014 to 2018. The survey method of the 4th National Ecosystem Survey has been modified to obtain more accurate data for many taxa. The survey for a nocturnal animals so far have not investigated plans to perform. In addition, monitoring by setting the grid will get quantitative data seasonally. The vegetation survey will be conducted with a mobile device contained files of aerial image maps including classified vegetation map. National Ecosystem Survey will be improved as follows. First, each survey methods suitable for the purpose should be developed. Second, monitoring methods for obtaining quantitative data should be developed. Finally, the research using the data should be developed in the field of not only ecosystem and biological diversity but also habitat assessment.
  • 17.

    Analysis of Major Environmental Items for Railroad Construction in the EIA Process

    이민주 | Kim, Minkyung | Lee, Sang-Don | 2013, 22(6) | pp.739~744 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Recently, railroad construction becomes an alternative considering environmental merits such as mass transportation, safety, economy and energy efficiency. Also railroad can have 3 to 4 times better in economy compared to road construction. However, long line and unavoidable sensitive areas hinders railroad construction often resulted in ecosystem degradation. This paper reviewed 27 cases of EIS submitted during 2003-2006 and reviewed major issues on Animal-Plants and Landscape. Noise-Vibration (13.5%), Water Quality (13.5%), Wastes (10.8%) appeared to be most frequent factors to supplement. Route selection in the railroad is the most sensitive issues so that public participation and hearing should be involved in the early stage of the process and social and cultural factors also must be considered to make a final decision on the railroad route location and selection.
  • 18.

    Sampling Procedure of Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris)'s eggs in National Environmental Specimen Bank for Monitoring Long-term Marine Environmental Pollution

    이장호 | Lee,Jong-Chun | 이상희 and 3other persons | 2013, 22(6) | pp.745~751 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Environmental Specimen Banks (ESBs) have been established widely in the world since 1979 for monitoring long-term bio-accumulation of environmental pollutants. The ESBs perform the retrospective analysis of representative biological samples collected regularly and store them in cryogenic condition. In Korea, National Environmental Specimen Bank (NESB) was established in 2009. Since then, NESB had prepared the standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the seven kinds of specimens (Red Pine (Pinus densiflora), Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), and etc.) for monitoring the effect of environmental pollution on the terrestrial ecosystem and river ecosystem. In 2012, NESB added Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris)'s eggs to the list of the environmental specimen for monitoring marine environmental pollution. In this study, we sampled the eggs of the Black-tailed Gull on two islands (Baekryeongdo of the West Sea and Hongdo of the South Sea). Especially, we selected eggs which remained in the early stages of embryo development for certifying the consistent and stable monitoring for environmental pollutants in egg contents. However, it was not considered to classify an order of eggs per clutch in this study. It is known that the concentration variations of pollutants exist among eggs in one clutch. Therefore, it is needed to consider the positions of eggs in the laying sequences to meet the objective of bio-accumulation monitoring. We collected 30 eggs in each site but the amount may be insufficient to achieve storage target (over 2,000 g). Therefore, we need to consider an optimal sampling size.