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2014, Vol.23, No.5

  • 1.

    A Study on Economic Evaluation of Beneficiary Pays Principle in Water Resource Management - The Case of Namyangju in Korea -

    윤재현 | 2014, 23(5) | pp.323~336 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Using hedonic price method, this paper analyzes the impact of restriction for water qualityprotection on property value with the officially announced price of reference land in the city ofNamyangju in 2012 to evaluate Water Use Fee, based on beneficiary pays principle, levied on thedownstream area of the Han River in Korea. The results from the regression analyses of the models used show that the double-log model is the preferred model in the case of Namyangju. Using the double-log model, the total compensation for the city of Namyangju is estimated to be 8.6 trillion won with 95% confidence interval between 4.4 trillion and 12.4 trillion won. Under the perpetuity compensation scheme at the discount rate of 10%, the estimated annual compensation is 0.9 trillion won with 95% confidence interval between 0.4 trillion and 1.2 trillion won. This is more than Water Use Fee collected in 2012 for the Han River, which is approximately 0.5 trillion won. Considering the size of the restricted area of the Paldang area, which is more than 18 times of that of Namyangju, the rate of Water Use Fee, which is based on beneficiary pays principle and imposed on the residents of the downstream area, needs to be increased to sufficiently compensate the economic loss caused to the upstream areas of the Han River in Korea.
  • 2.

    The Causality among Residents’ Loyalty to an Environmental Festival and Its Influential Factors: With Special Reference to Hampyung Butterfly Festival

    Lee, Kyoung-Jin | Myung Gyu,SONG | 2014, 23(5) | pp.337~352 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The main purposes of this study are to find the causality among residents’ loyalty to anenvironmental festival and its influential factors and, based upon the findings, to exploreenvironmental festivals’ developmental vision with special reference to Hampyung ButterflyFestival. Under these aims, this study applies structural equation modeling(SEM). The structural model for SEM analysis is composed of four independent variables which consist of residents’attachment(RA) to their region where its own environmental festival is provided, residents’participational intention(RP) to the festival, the economic effects(EE) of the festival, and thecommunication(CM) between the residents and the festival providers, one intermediate variable,residents’ satisfaction(RS) from the festival, and one final dependent variable, residents’ loyalty(RL)to the festival. The causality among these variables is hypothesized as follows; Among theindependent variables, RP, EE, and CM have effects only on RS and RA has an effect on both RSand RL. And RS has an effect on RL. The facts found from the SEM are summed up as follows; First, ① RP and CM turn out to havestatistically significant effects on RS, ② RA is confirmed to have a statistically very significant effecton both RS and RL, and ③ RS is also proved to show a statistically very significant effect on RL. Second, the total effects on RL of independent variables are stronger in the order of RA, CM, andRP. Third, EE seems to have no effect on RS, consequently no effect on RL, either. The reason whyEE has no effect looks like to be due to environmental festivals’ peculiar features. These findings offer the following suggestions for the future of environmental festivals in the partof festival providers. Firstly, to be successful in the festival, they have to provoke RL above all. Second, to do so, they need to encourage RA, CM, and RP in the mentioned order in the long run. Third, but for a short period, they had better concentrate upon promoting RS.
  • 3.

    Evaluation of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields emission Level from High Voltage Transmission Lines

    정준식 | 최성호 | Jeon, Hyung Jin and 2other persons | 2014, 23(5) | pp.353~363 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to investigated the ELF-MF emission level of variousenvironments such as 258 facilities near located to high voltage transmission lines and 120 high voltagetransmission lines, 17 underground cable lines. In addition, ELF-MF reduction rate according toseparation distance was calculated by using simulations. An appropriate separation distance showing below 4mG was at least 70m. In the case of the appropriate separation distance for 120 high voltage transmission lines, 154kV required 20m of separation distance and 345kV required 60m of separation distance. The simulation results showed that the appropriate separation distance showing below 4mG was 40m and 60m for overhead 154kV and 345kV respectively. To adjust the worst conditions considering the aspects of environmental impact assessment study and the electric power currents that will increase in the future, the appropriate minimum separation distance for HVTL is judged to be above 70m in this study. Thus, there is a need to establish the greenbelt or buffer zone within 70m so as to create an environment in which the receptors are not exposed and thereby eliminate the risk factors of ELF-MF against humans.
  • 4.

    Trend and prediction of the Ecological Footprint in Korea

    Min Ju Yeo | Yong Pyo Kim | 2014, 23(5) | pp.364~378 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Ecological Footprint (EF) in Korea has increased steeply over the past 50 years and, thus,the overshoot. It has been known that the main causes of the overshoot are population growth andthe increase of the consumption intensity per person. In this study, the EF trend in Korea is analyzedfor the past 50 years and it is found the major cause of the rapid increase of EF in Korea is the increaseof the consumption intensity per person. Among the sectors of the consumption, Carbon Footprint(CF) from the energy consumption and Grazing Land Footprint and Fishing Grounds Footprintfrom the protein consumption are the major players for the increase. It is also found that if currenttrend of the EF per person would be maintained until 2060, EF in Korea would be expected toincrease also continuously, despite of the decrease of the population from 2031. Therefore, thedirection of the environmental management should be considered for inducing the change of theindividual consumption patterns and the behavioral changes.
  • 5.

    Predicting the suitable habitat of the Pinus pumila under climate change

    Park Hyun Chul | Lee, Jung Hwan | Lee Gwan Gye | 2014, 23(5) | pp.379~392 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract PDF
    This study was performed to predict the future climate envelope of Pinus pumila, asubalpine plant and a Climate-sensitive Biological Indicator Species (CBIS) of Korea. P. pumila isdistributed at Mt. seorak in South Korea. Suitable habitat were predicted under two alternativeRCPscenarios (IPCC AR5). The SDM used for future prediction was a Maxent model, and the totalnumber of environmental variables for Maxent was 8. It was found that the distribution range of P. pumila in the South Korean was 38° 7’ 8”N~38° 7’ 14”N and 128° 28’ 2”E~128° 27’ 38”E and1,586m~1,688m in altitude. The variables that contribute the most to define the climate envelopeare altitude. Climate envelope simulation accuracy was evaluated using the ROC’s AUC. The P. pumila model’s 5-cv AUC was found to be 0.99966. which showed that model accuracy was very high. Under both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, the climate envelope for P. pumila is predicted to decrease in South Korea. According to the results of the maxent model has been applied in the current climate, suitable habitat is 790.78㎢. The suitable habitats, are distributed in the region of over 1,400m . Further, in comparison with the suitable habitat of applying RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 suitable habitat current, reduction of area RCP8.5 was greater than RCP4.5. Thus, climate change will affect the distribution of P. pumila. Therefore, governmental measures to conserve this species will be necessary. Additionally, for CBIS vulnerability analysis and studies using sampling techniques to monitor areas based on the outcomes of this study, future study designs shouldincorporate the use of climatic predictions derived from multiple GCMs, especially GCMs that were not the one used in this study. Furthermore, if environmental variables directly relevant to CBIS distribution other than climate variables, such as the Bioclim parameters, are ever identified, more accurate prediction than in this study will be possible.
  • 6.

    Evaluation of Pollution Level Attributed to Nonpoint Sources in Nakdonggang Basin, Korea

    Jae-Woon Lee | Hun-Gak Kwon | CHOI,HAN-YOUNG | 2014, 23(5) | pp.393~405 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, the nonpoint sources were evaluated by calculating the Nadonggang basinregional water quality and nonpoint source pollution load discharged. And were selected the banksof first administration based on the results and the direction of the next administration. As a results of estimating the water quality about BOD concentration in the mid influence area inthe Nakdonggang basin, it was founded that 10 sites for ‘Ia’ water quality level, 6 sites for ‘lb’ waterquality level, 5 sites for ‘Ⅱ’ water quality level, 1 sites for ‘Ⅰ’ water quality level. The estimation ofCOD concentration in the mid influence area, It showed that 9 sites for ‘Ib’ water quality level, 6sites for ‘Ⅱ’ water quality level, 6 sites for ‘Ⅲ’ water quality level, 1 site for ‘Ⅳ’ water quality level. The assessment of water quality made Mid influence area of Gumhogang, Nakdong Goryung, Nakdong Milyang and Namgang selected as the mid influence area of high pollution. And delivery loads of nonpoint sources were calculated for mid influence area in Nakdonggang basin(max delivery load : 17,706.7 ㎏/day for Gumhogang influence area). As the result of calculating NPS(nonpoint sources) delivery load and water quality at influence area in Nakdonggang basin, Gumhogang influence area was selected as an area for management priority among nonpoint sources.
  • 7.

    A Study on Impact of Public Sewage Treatment Works Affecting Water Qualities of the Lake Uiam in Chuncheon City

    Dong-Hwan Jeong | Cho Yang Seok | 최인철 and 3other persons | 2014, 23(5) | pp.406~416 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    When abnormal taste and odor were detected in the tap water of the North-Han riverwatershed during the dry season in late 2011, excessive nutrients with algal growth in the LakeUiam and weather factors were considered to be among its causes. The nutrients, in particular,originated from domestic sewage in the Chuncheon area. This study was conducted to investigaterelations between the algal growth in the Lake Uiam and the contribution of nutrients from publicsewage treatment works (PSTWs) in Chuncheon city, and based on this to analyze the environmentalimpact. Nutrients in the Lake Uiam have already been accumulated to the level of eutrophication. Even in winter, the conditions in the lake such as retention time and water temperature were favorable to boost algal growth. After phosphorus treatment processes were introduced, the PSTWs in the Lake Uiam watershed were able to reduce the total phosphorus loads by 43%. The algal concentrations in the Lake Uiam also dropped by about 7%. The nitrogen treatment efficiencies in the PSTWs, on the other hand, remained almost the same after the introduction of the phosphorus treatment processes. To solve these problems more efficiently, it is necessary to develop management strategies for the upstream area of the Lake Uiam and set plans to improve nitrogen treatment operation and management for the PSTWs in Chuncheon.