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2015, Vol.24, No.5

  • 1.

    A Study on Impact Assessment for Application of Strengthened Compliance Concentration of Effluent Limit from PSTWs in the Jinwee-stream Watershed

    Dong-Hwan Jeong | Cho Yang Seok | Ki Hong Ahn and 4other persons | 2015, 24(5) | pp.397~406 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The different compliance concentration of effluent limit is applied to effluent discharged from public sewage treatment works(PSTWs) in each watershed on the basis of water quality thereof in accordance with the enforced Watershed Sewer System Maintenance Plan in 2013. It is necessary to set the compliance concentration of effluent limit for PSTWs in watershed sewer system, in order to achieve water quality criteria for regional watersheds or target water quality under TMDL program. Watershed Environmental Agencies establish the Watershed Sewer System Maintenance Plan and set the compliance concentration of effluent limit for PSTWs under the plan. The agencies have a plan to apply strengthened effluent BOD concentration limits for PSTWs in Ⅰ to Ⅳ area grade, respectively. Effluent BOD concentration limits will be strengthened from 5~10 mg/L to 3 mg/L in Ⅱ~Ⅲ area grade, from 10 mg/L to 5 mg/L in Ⅳ area grade. Uniform application of effluent BOD concentration limits to PSTWs in the watershed sewer system need to be complemented considering type of sewage treatment technology employed and watershed characteristics. Therefore, this study presents assessment methodology which analyze for the compliance concentration of effluent limit to affect water quality of discharge watershed using simulation model for the Jinwee-stream watershed.
  • 2.

    Comparison of Unit Load from Paddy Field by Various Estimation Methods

    최동호 | Jaewoon Jung | Yoon, KwangSik and 4other persons | 2015, 24(5) | pp.407~419 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The unit load of paddy field was estimated by several methods and compared in this study. Four year field study was conducted at the paddy fields located in Yeongsan river and Sumjin river basins. The unit load was estimated by four methods; ①averaging field monitored load; ②NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research) method which use EMC(Event Mean Concentration) and runoff ratio of rainfall groups with rainfall weighting factors; ③method using EMC determined by best fit probability distribution; ④method using arithmetic mean EMC and runoff ratio. The result of this study showed that the unit loads of water quality constituents by field monitoring was similar to those of NIER method whereas those by probability distribution(log-normal, gamma) method were less than unit loads of NIER method. The unit loads by arithmetic mean EMC and runoff ratio were larger than those by NIER method. The unit load by NIER method showed higher BOD, COD, SS, lesser T-N, and similar T-P values when compared to unit loads determined by MOE in 1995.
  • 3.

    Assessment on the Forest Conservation Value Considering Forest Ecosystem Services - The case of Gapyung-gun

    JIN YIHUA | jeong seunggyu | Jeong,Seulgi and 1other persons | 2015, 24(5) | pp.420~431 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    As biodiversity and climate change have become main issues in recent times, the role of the forest ecosystem has been more important and forest conservation has been highlighted. The purpose of this study is to estimate forest area with high conservation values in Gapyung-gun by considering forest ecosystem services. The indicators of biodiversity, climate regulation, and water regulation were selected for assessment in this study. To assess biodiversity, habitat structural features and distribution characteristics of species were analyzed. Climate regulation and water regulation were assessed through analysis of carbon absorption volume and water storage. The result showed that, 50.1% of the forests in Gapyung-gun had high conservation values. The results were verified by comparing them with distribution tendencies of other environmental maps, which represent forest ecological values, and showed similar distribution tendencies. The study was conducted on only Gapyung-gun in Korea; however, the methods used in this study could be utilized for assessment of other areas to identify forests with high conservation values.
  • 4.

    Estimating Effects of Climate Change on Ski Industry - The Case of Ski Resorts in South Korea

    김송이 | Park Chan | Park Jin Han and 1other persons | 2015, 24(5) | pp.432~443 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Ski industry is sensitive to climate change. Many studies were carried out to learn the impact on climate change to large scale ski resorts around the world and the results are difficult to be applied to small scale ski resorts in general. So, this study targeted small ski resorts composing the ski industry of Korea and forecasted the impact of climate change. As a result, based on the mitigation efforts to minimize climate changes of the future (RCP 4.5), ski industry could be maintained at the same level of today. However, if climate change continues at the current trend (RCP 8.5), ski resorts will face loss of business days. If 100 days are considered as the minimum days to maintain the ski business, among 17 ski resorts in Korea, 3 ski resorts will be driven out of business by 2030s, 12 more ski resorts by 2060s and remaining 2 ski resort by 2090s will end the business. It means that smaller ski resorts has higher chance of facing difficulties in running business just as large scale ski resorts. Therefore, to sustain the ski business, technical and managerial efforts to adapt to the changing environment is needed.
  • 5.

    A Research on Diagnosis of Institutional Problem and Improvement Plan for Management in Coastal Dredged Sediment - Case Study of Masan Bay -

    Yong Min Yi | Hyun Taik OH | 이대인 and 3other persons | 2015, 24(5) | pp.444~455 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In relation to the utilization and disposal of dredged sediment caused by coastal dredging project, we diagnosed the status of legal standard and system, and proposed the improvement plan. Dredging costal sediment distinguished the usage and the disposal by the Standard for the Beneficial Usage of Dredged Sediment. The site where disposal has been completed could be used as a site for developmental project. In case of the usage of dredged sediment for reclamation, we found that the adaptation of the Standard for Beneficial Usage of Dredged Sediment is appropriate for reclamation considering the characteristic of soil, the differences of variables, and the distinction of standard analysis methods. The current the Standard for Beneficial Usage of Dredged Sediment requires the improvement with the usage of dredging coastal sediment in the following. First, the Standard needs to include the standard of the discrimination for reclamation. Second, the current Standard is necessary to be divided by two levels, it needs to be mitigated considering human health risk. Third, it is necessary to consider both the marine environmental impact assessment and mitigation plan near coastal dredging area.
  • 6.

    Assessment of Emission Data for Improvement of Air Quality Simulation in Ulsan

    Yujin Jo | Cheol-Hee Kim | 2015, 24(5) | pp.456~471 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Emission source term is one of the strong controlling factors for the air quality simulation capability, particularly over the urban area. Ulsan is an industrial area and frequently required to simulate for environmental assessment. In this study, two CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) emission data; CAPSS-2003 and CAPSS-2010 in Ulsan, were employed as an input data for WRFCMAQ air quality model for emission assessment. The simulated results were compared with observations for the local emission dominant synoptic conditions which had negative vorticities and lower geostrophic wind speed at 850hPa weather maps. The measurements of CO, NO2, SO2 and PM10 concentrations were compared with simulations and the ‘scaling factors’ of emissions for CO, NO2, SO2, and PM10 were suggested in in aggregative and quantitative manner. The results showed that CAPSS-2003 showed no critical discrepancies of CO and NO2 observations with simulations, while SO2 was overestimated by a factor of more than 12, while PM10 was underestimated by a factor of more than 20 times. However, CAPSS-2010 case showed that SO2 and PM10 emission were much more improved than CAPSS-2003. However, SO2was still overestimated by a factor of more than 2, and PM10 underestimated by a factor of 5, while there was no significant improvement for CO and NO2 emission. The estimated factors identified in this study can be used as‘scaling factors’for optimizing the emissions of air pollutants, particularly SO2 and PM10 for the realistic air quality simulation in Ulsan.
  • 7.

    A Study on Expanding the Recycling of Coal Ash for Minimizing Environmental Impact Imposed by the Establishment of Thermal Power Plant Ash Ponds

    서동환 | Junho Maeng | 2015, 24(5) | pp.472~486 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    More than 8M tons of coal ashes are generated from coal-fired thermal power plants every year in Korea. Excluding the recycled portion (Current recycling rate: approximately 70%), all of the generated coal ashes end up in coastal landfills. Currently, the difficulties faced in establishing new ash treatment fields are attributed to the concerns raised over the environmental impacts caused by the landfills at individual plant facilities. Given the number of coal-fired thermal power plants to be built in the future (reflected in the 7th Basic Plan for Long-term Electricity Supply and Demand), building new ash treatment fields or seeking a new treatment plan seems unavoidable. Based upon a review of coal ash and its management, this study concluded that the most effective and fundamental strategy to minimize the environmental impacts resulting from coal ash landfills is to avoid constructing new coal-fired powerplants and furthermore, suggests that the practice of beneficial use and recycling the produced coal wastes should be encouraged.
  • 8.

    Prediction of Heating and Cooling Energy Consumption in Residential Sector Considering Climate Change and Socio-Economic

    이미진 | Lee, Dong Kun | Park Chan and 4other persons | 2015, 24(5) | pp.487~498 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The energy problem has occurred because of the effects of rising temperature and growing population and GDP. Prediction for the energy demand is required to respond these problems. Therefore, this study will predict heating and cooling energy consumption in residential sector to be helpful in energy demand management, particularly heating and cooling energy demand management. The AIM/end-use model was used to estimate energy consumption, and service demand was needed in the AIM/end-use model. Service demand was estimated on the basis of formula, and energy consumption was estimated using the AIM/end-use model. As a result, heating and cooling service demand tended to increase in 2050. But in energy consumption, heating decreased and cooling increased.
  • 9.

    The Characteristics of Vegetative Composition Among Plants in the Heronries

    Ahn, kyunghwan | Lim, Jeong-Cheol | ChangWook Han and 6other persons | 2015, 24(5) | pp.499~515 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to understand phytosociological characteristics and changes, providing basic ecology informations based for heronries. We investigated the 25 heronries sites to have more than a hundred nests in the country. The vegetations of heronries were arranged 8 plant communities that consisted of 60 families, 129 genuses and 167 species including 17 species of exotic species. The communities of heronries were composed of high NCD (Net Contribution Degree) of plants, such as pokeberry (Phytolacca americana), japanese chaff flower (Achyranthes japonica), asiatic dayflower (Commelina communis) including diagnosis species, that was heliophilous and tolerance of eutrophic and/or acidic soil condition, and had the highest composition with the annual plants. As locational condition, they were distributed a favorite feeding place (rice field, stream etc.) inside 0.5 km radius, and located on the eastern slope of the mountain. The vegetative composition among plants in the heronries didn’t have plant sociological characteristics for environmental conditions of the sites. But generally, they had trends in floristic composition like the areas of polluted soil, open canopy and disturbance.
  • 10.

    Development of a Vegetation Buffer Strip Module for a Distributed Watershed Model CAMEL

    박민혜 | 조홍래 | 구본경 | 2015, 24(5) | pp.516~531 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, a software module to predict the effectiveness of vegetation buffer strip (VBS) has been developed for using with Chemicals, Agricultural Management and Erosion Losses (CAMEL), a distributed watershed model. Most basic functions for the VBS module are same as CAMEL except functions newly developed to implement sedimentation enhancement by vegetation and level spreaders. For verification of the VBS module, sensitivity analyses for length, roughness, soil and vegetation type of VBS were carried out using a test grid cell. The surface discharge of sediment are highly sensitive to the roughness coefficient of VBS. The removal efficiencies of VBS for the surface discharges of sediment and TP are generally high regardless of environment changes. The surface discharges of TOC and TN are highly sensitive to the length and soil of VBS. The removal efficiencies of VBS for the surface discharges of TOC and TN are generally lower than those of sediment and TP. The newly developed VBS module reasonably simulates the removal efficiencies of surface discharges that vary according to the environment changes. It is expected that this VBS module can be used for evaluating the effectiveness of VBS-based best management practices to be applied to reduce pollution discharges from various non-point sources.
  • 11.

    The Food Habits and Habitat Use of Yellow-Throated Martens(Martes flavigula) by Snow Tracking in Korean Temperate Forest During the Winter

    우동걸 | Taeyoung Choi | Hyuksoo Kwon and 2other persons | 2015, 24(5) | pp.532~548 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The winter ecology of individual yellow-throated martens(Martes flavigula) intemperate region of Korea were studied through snow-tracking. The study was performed across 3 winter seasons, from January 2011 to February 2013. Total distance of 49.8km was snow tracked (comprising 13 snow-tracking routes) to determine winter foraging habits, general behavior and movement paths of solitary and small groups (1-6 individuals; mean = 2.9 ± 1.6) of yellow-throated martens. The martens in the current study were omnivorous, with their winter diet including 9 animal and 5 plant species. Yellow-throated martens searched for food near and under the fallen logs and branches, root plates of fallen trees, around the roots of growing trees, and in small holes in the ground. They also climbed trees to search inside the tree holes and vacant bird nests. Foraging activity was estimated to occur at a frequency of 1.20 times/km, while territory marking occurred 1.42 times/km on average. Of the 60 documented foraging activities we observed, 17 were successful (28.3%). Moving activity and territory marking mainly occurred along ridges, whereas foraging activity was recorded in valleys, slopes, and forest edges. To protect the habitat of this species, the entire forest should be preserved, including the valleys, slopes, and even forest edges as well as main ridges.