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2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.51
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2015, Vol.24, No.6

  • 1.

    The Environmental Hazard Assessment of Siting Restricted Industries from Industrial Complex in Rural Area Applied by Chemical Ranking and Scoring System

    Hong Sangpyo | 2015, 24(6) | pp.549~560 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The priorities of siting restriction was derived from quantification of environmental hazard according to industrial classification based on ‘Chemical Ranking and Scoring System(CRS)’ which is handling the discharge characteristics of 31 industrial classifications regulated from locating at ‘Industrial Complex in Rural Area(ICRA)’. CRS that is utilizing the data of ‘Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers(PRTR)’ is applied to determine human health risk and ecological risk which are calculated by discharged amount and materials LC50 according to water, soil and air media based on industrial classification. From this process, exposure assessment and toxicity assessment for integrating the adverse environmental impact and the mitigation effect of environmental risk according to the development of environmental technologies into establishing the rational landuse management method for the 31 industrial classifications regulated from locating at ICRA was analyzed. From the assessment result of the siting restriction removal at ICRA for 31 industrial classifications, based on 2012 year reference 6 industries that includes Manufacture of Guilt Coloration Surface Processing Steel Materials, Manufacture of Biological Product, Manufacture of Smelting Refining and Alloys of Copper, Dyeing and Finishing of Fibers and Yarns, Manufacture of Other Basic Iron and Steel n.e.c., Rolling Drawing and Extruding of Non-ferrous Metals n.e.c. are calculated as having relatively lower environmental hazards, thus it is judged that the siting restriction mitigation at ICRA is possible for the 6 industrial classifications that are not discharging the specific hazardous water contaminants during manufacturing process.
  • 2.

    The Characteristics of Heavy Metal Accumulations in Feral Pigeon (Columba livia) Eggshells for Environmental Monitoring

    이장호 | Lee,Jong-Chun | 박종혁 and 4other persons | 2015, 24(6) | pp.561~577 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The heavy metal accumulations of avian eggshells were studied in order to test a feral pigeon (Columba livia)’s eggshell as an indicator for the environmental monitoring of pollutants. The reviews on the eggs of the different 19 avian species showed that it is the eggshell rather than the egg content that can better reflect the heavy metals in the environment; in most cases the CVs (coefficients of variations) of the heavy metal concentrations in the eggshells were higher than those in the egg contents. This can indicate that the heavy metal accumulations are homeostatically controlled in the egg contents, but the accumulations in the eggshells are varied according to the environmental conditions. To test the reviews, the feral pigeon eggs from the two different sites, one representing urban and the other rural environment, were analyzed for lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The result showed that the eggshells of the urban pigeons (Hangang) had the higher metal concentrations than those of the rural pigeons (Hampyeong). The same difference can also be found in the internal organs (liver, bone) and blood. However, the analyses of the egg contents between the two sites did not reveal the differences. In other words, the result suggests that the feral pigeons, like the other avian species, are able to control the heavy metals into the egg contents homeostatically. Therefore, it is more useful to use the feral pigeon eggshell rather than the egg content in case of monitoring heavy metals in different habitats.
  • 3.

    The Characteristics and Seasonal Variations of OC and EC for PM2.5 in Seoul Metropolitan Area in 2014

    박종성 | Inho Song | 박승명 and 2other persons | 2015, 24(6) | pp.578~592 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    To investigate characteristics and seasonal variations of carbonaceous species for PM2.5 in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea, we measured organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) from January 2014 to December 2014 using a semi-continuous OC/EC Analyzer (Model-4, Sunset Lab.). Mean concentrations of OC and EC were estimated 4.1 ± 2.7 μg/m3 and 1.6 ± 1.0 μg/m3, respectively. The annual averaged OC/EC ratio was 2.9 ± 2.7. Concentrations of OC and EC comprised 13% and 5% of PM2.5 and the mass fraction of both was the highest in fall. OC and EC showed similar trend in seasonal variations. Concentrations of those showed a clear seasonal variation with the highest in winter and the lowest in summer. The correlations between the two were the best during the winter (r2 = 0.88). As results of carbonaceous species analysis, the dominant factor in view of fine particle (PM2.5) is primary emission source such as mobile, fossil fuel combustion during commute time(08:00~10:00 or 17:00~21:00) and winter season. Continuous monitoring of atmospheric carbonaceous species is essential to provide the science-based data to policy-maker establishing the air quality improvement policy.
  • 4.

    A Review on Applicability of Sustainable City Index - Focusing on GCI, EPI and CBI -

    윤형두 | 박진영 | Tae-Bong Choi and 4other persons | 2015, 24(6) | pp.593~606 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study was intended to develop Korean Environmental Sustainable City Index (ESCI) so that local governments can examine and identify urban environment issues and then come up with a policy to improve the environment and urban biodiversity for cities. Green City Index (GCI), Environmental Performance Index (EPI), and City Biodiversity Index (CBI) which have used worldwide were analyzed. Based on the result of analysis, evaluation indicators of ESCI were finally a total of 20 indicators under four categories, which are native biodiversity, living environment, ecosystem services, and governance and management. Then, five cities with biotope mapping and evaluation index were selected to apply ESCI for evaluation. In order to apply ESCI, local governments need to accumulate basic data. There should be a policy which requires local governments to build data for biotope mapping so that the rate of natural area, ecological network and permeable land surface can be evaluated. Indicators must be applied to be compliant with scale of the city and level of data building gradually.
  • 5.

    Evaluation of the Measurement Uncertainty from the Standard Operating Procedures(SOP) of the National Environmental Specimen Bank

    Lee,Jong-Chun | 이장호 | 박종혁 and 5other persons | 2015, 24(6) | pp.607~618 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Five years have passed since the first set of environmental samples was taken in 2011 to represent various ecosystems which would help future generations lead back to the past environment. Those samples have been preserved cryogenically in the National Environmental Specimen Bank(NESB) at the National Institute of Environmental Research. Even though there is a strict regulation (SOP, standard operating procedure) that rules over the whole sampling procedure to ensure each sample to represent the sampling area, it has not been put to the test for the validation. The question needs to be answered to clear any doubts on the representativeness and the quality of the samples. In order to address the question and ensure the sampling practice set in the SOP, many steps to the measurement of the sample, that is, from sampling in the field and the chemical analysis in the lab are broken down to evaluate the uncertainty at each level. Of the 8 species currently taken for the cryogenic preservation in the NESB, pine tree samples from two different sites were selected for this study. Duplicate samples were taken from each site according to the sampling protocol followed by the duplicate analyses which were carried out for each discrete sample. The uncertainties were evaluated by Robust ANOVA; two levels of uncertainty, one is the uncertainty from the sampling practice, and the other from the analytical process, were then compiled to give the measurement uncertainty on a measured concentration of the measurand. As a result, it was confirmed that it is the sampling practice not the analytical process that accounts for the most of the measurement uncertainty. Based on the top-down approach for the measurement uncertainty, the efficient way to ensure the representativeness of the sample was to increase the quantity of each discrete sample for the making of a composite sample, than to increase the number of the discrete samples across the site. Furthermore, the cost-effective approach to enhance the confidence level on the measurement can be expected from the efforts to lower the sampling uncertainty, not the analytical uncertainty. To test the representativeness of a composite sample of a sampling area, the variance within the site should be less than the difference from duplicate sampling. For that, a criterion, i.e. s2 geochem(across the site variance) 〈s2 samp(variance at the sampling location) was proposed. In light of the criterion, the two representative samples for the two study areas passed the requirement. In contrast, whenever the variance of among the sampling locations (i.e. across the site) is larger than the sampling variance, more sampling increments need to be added within the sampling area until the requirement for the representativeness is achieved.