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2016, Vol.25, No.6

  • 1.

    Evaluation of Pollution Loads Removal Efficiency of Vegetation Buffer Strips Using a Distributed Watershed Model

    박민혜 | 조홍래 | 구본경 | 2016, 25(6) | pp.369~383 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    A distributed watershed model CAMEL(Chemicals, Agricultural Management and Erosion Losses) was applied to a part of grazing grassland and vegetation buffer strip(VBS) located in Daegwanryeong, Korea. A set of scenario analyses was carried out for grassland and VBS with various combinations of VBS widths, soil textures and ground surface slopes. The simulation results indicate that annual direct runoff decreases with wider VBS and the removal efficiency of pollutants generally decrease with steeper slopes. The removal efficiency of sediment is not significantly different with VBS widths. For gentle and medium slopes(10°, 20°), the removal efficiency of TOC and TN is not significantly different with VBS widths. As for a steep slope(30°), however, the removal efficiency of TOC and TN increases with narrower VBS. The removal efficiency of TP is generally high except for medium and steep slope of sandy loam where the removal efficiency of TP increases with wider VBS. This result of TP is contrary to the results of TOC and TN due to the adsorption characteristics of phosphorus associated with fine sediment particles. It is expected that CAMEL can be used for evaluating the effectiveness of VBS to reduce non-point source pollution discharges.
  • 2.

    Development of Vegetation Indicator for Assessment of Naturalness in Stream Environment

    Seung-Hoon Chun | Chae,Soo-Kwon | 2016, 25(6) | pp.384~401 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The vegetation assessment indicator has been developed recently as a biological part of the integrated assessment system for river environment to improve the efficiency of river restoration projects. This study carried out to test the vegetation assessment indicator and to reset its grade criteria on experimental streams. We classified and mapped vegetation communities at the level ofphysiognomic-floristic composition by each assessment unit. A total of 204 sampling quadrats were set up on the 68 assessment units at 5 experimental streams. By analyzing the vegetation data collected, we examined the appropriate numbers of sampling quadrats, the criteria of vegetation index score, classification of vegetation community, and grade criteria for vegetation assessment. The developed vegetation assessment indicator composed with the vegetation complexity index (VCI), the vegetation diversity index (VDI), and the vegetation naturalness index (VNI) was proved to reflect the current conditions of the streams sufficiently. The contribution of vegetation naturalness index to grading by vegetation assessment indicator was larger, but three indexes were closely correlated to each other. Also there was more clearer discrimination of grading with the application of adjusted criteria of vegetation assessment indicator and the standardized classification of vegetation community, but the stream segment type did not influence the vegetation assessment grade significantly.
  • 3.

    Methodology for Selection and Sensitivity Index of Socio - economic Resources for Marine Oil Spill Incidents

    노영희 | 김충기 | 2016, 25(6) | pp.402~413 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Marine oil spill accidents are occurring continuously due to the marine transportation of the oil. While building a preventive system for oil spill is uttermost necessary, we also need to have a systematic response system to handle the oil spills that inevitably occur. So far, studies have focused on the environmentally sensitive resources affected by oil spills. However, there is a need to conduct research to evaluate the damage to the socially and economically sensitive resources that make up the life of local residents. This study represents the process of building an analytical framework for the assessment of socioeconomic resources affected by marine oil spills. While it is important to provide a scheme for identification and indexation of socially and economically sensitive resources that is compatible with Korea’s situations, using existing data for identifying socio-economically sensitive resources might also be meaningful. However, to allow accurate analysis for better evaluation, we need to select more applicable data among the various indicators. In this research, we have reviewed many existing case studies of sensitive resources, studies of the variables that have been used for indexing sensitive resources, and various factors considered in SIA (Social Impact Assessment). Based on the findings, we classify socio-economically sensitive resources into marine products acquisition, population, land usage, administrative area, and cultural heritage and tourist region.
  • 4.

    Comparison of Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination from Two Abandoned Metal Mines Using Metal Mine - specific Exposure Parameters

    임태용 | Sang-woo Lee | Cho Hyen Goo and 1other persons | 2016, 25(6) | pp.414~431 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    There are numerous closed and abandoned mines in Korea, from which diverse heavy metals (e.g., As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) are released into the surrounding soil, groundwater, surface water, and crops, potentially resulting in detrimental effects on the health of nearby residents. Therefore, we performed human risk assessments of two abandoned metal mines, Yanggok (YG) and Samsanjeil (SJ). The exposure parameters used in this assessment were specific to residents near mines and the included exposure pathways were relevant to areas around metal mines. The computed total excess carcinogenic risks for both areas exceeded the acceptable carcinogenic risk (1 × 10-6), indicating that these areas are likely unsafe due to a carcinogenic hazard. In contrast, the non-carcinogenic risks of the two areas differed among the studied receptors. The hazard indices were higher than the unit risk (=1.0) for male and female adults in YG and male adults in SJ, suggesting that there are non-carcinogenic risks for these groups in the study areas. However, the hazard indices for children in YG and female adults and children in SJ were lower than the unit risk. Consumption of groundwater and crops grown in the area were identified as major exposure pathways for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic hazards in both areas. Finally, the dominant metals contributing to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks were As and As, Cu, and Pb, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of YG were evaluated to be 10 and 4 times higher than those of SJ, respectively, resulted from the relatively higher exposure concentration of As in groundwater within SJ area. Because of lacking of several exposure parameters, some of average daily dose (ADD) could not be computed in this study. Furthermore, it is likely that the ADDs of crop-intake pathway included some errors because they were calculated using soil exposure concentrations and bioconcentration factor (BCF) rather than using crop exposure concentrations.
  • 5.

    Prediction on Habitat Distribution in Mt. Inwang and Mt. An Using Maxent

    서새별 | 이민지 | 김재주 and 2other persons | 2016, 25(6) | pp.432~441 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we predicted species distributions in Mt. Inwang and Mt. An as preceding research to build ecological corridor by considering connectivity of habitats which have been fragmented in the city. We analyzed species distributions by using Maxent (Maximum Entropy Approach) model with species presence. We used 23 points of mammals and 15 points of Titmouse (Parus major, P. palustris, P. varius) as target species from appearance points of species examined. We build 4 geography factors, 4 vegetation factors, and 2 distance factors as model variables In case of mammals, factors that affected species distribution model was Digital Elevation Model(DEM, 34%) followed by Distance from edge forest to interior (24.8%) and Species of tree (10%). On the other hand, in case of Parus species, factors that affected species distribution model were DEM (39.6%) followed by distance from road (35.4%) and Density-class (8.2%). Therefore, birds and mammals prefer interior of mountain, and this area needs to be protected.
  • 6.

    The City Ecological Soundness Index Development Based on the City Biodiversity Index (CBI) and Korean City Characteristics

    윤형두 | 이장호 | 최인태 and 3other persons | 2016, 25(6) | pp.442~456 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (SCBD) encourages the use of the City Biodiversity Index (CBI) as a monitoring tool to assist local authorities in evaluating their progress in urban biodiversity conservation. The CBI has been applied to conserve the city biodiversity. This study has developed the City Ecological Soundness Index (CESI) based on the CBI and Korean city characteristics. The CESI includes total of 12 indicators grouped in three categories, which are ‘biodiversity,’ ‘ecosystem services’ and ‘governance and management.’ 85cities in Korea were classified according to the city size and type. 18 cities have applicable biotope map, which were analyzed in the CESI pilot study. The CESI will contribute to collect and manage biodiversity data systematically and to promote biodiversity-related actions.
  • 7.

    The Effect of an Urban Park View on the Price of Apartment - A Case of Songdo Central Park -

    Tae Yong Jung | 백용준 | 손지현 and 1other persons | 2016, 25(6) | pp.457~465 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Around the world, a lot of people are migrating to the urban areas, and new cities are continuously being constructed. Currently about 54 percent of the world’s population live in the urban areas, and by 2050, it is expected to increase to 66 percent; thus, managing the urban areas is one of the most important challenges of sustainable development in the 21st century. The key to successful urban management is to preserve the urban green spaces, which provide aesthetic, psychological and health benefits to the urban citizens. However, the benefits of the urban green spaces are not fully appreciated within the societies due to the difficulty of economic valuation of the urban green spaces. This study examined whether the view of the Songdo Central Park has a positive influence on the prices of the surrounding apartments, using the hedonic pricing method. The results showed that a positive relation exists between the view of the Songdo Central Park and the price of apartment. The price of an apartment with the view of the Songdo Central Park was 5 percent higher than that of an apartment without the view. In addition, it was estimated that the proximity to the Songdo Central Park has an influence on the housing price as well.
  • 8.

    Significance of Biomarkers in the Assessment of Dredged Materials for Beneficial Reuses and Disposal

    Eun-Ji Won | Jinyoung Choi | Kyoungrean Kim | 2016, 25(6) | pp.466~476 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Dredging is inevitably necessary for the management of water infrastructure such as waterways and polluted bottom sediment. Dredged material management options may be offshore dumping, wetland creation, beach nourishment and various other engineering uses depending on the given circumstances at the time of dredging. Among those options, wetland creation and beach nourishment are the preferred ones in Korea considering significant loss of wetland and beach erosion due to various development projects along the coastal region. In order to use dredged material beneficially, however, dredged material needs to be assessed its suitability with respect to its engineering purpose and environmental criteria. In this paper, we demonstrate that environmental risk of dredged material to be introduced into the marine environment can be easily assessed using biomarkers with relative low cost. Biomarkers can also compliment pollutant contents analysis that may not be specific to their impact on biological response. Biomarker information may be used to assist decision making process in selecting suitable treatment or beneficial use options for dredged materials.
  • 9.

    Growth Pattern of Red - tongued Viper Snake (Gloydius ussuriensis) Inhabiting Gapado, Jeju Island

    Byoung-Soo Kim | Minho Chang | Oh Hong-Shik | 2016, 25(6) | pp.477~486 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    We investigated the growth pattern of Red-tongued viper snakes (Gloydius ussuriensis), which were captured from the islet of the Jeju Island, Gapado between April, 2006 and November, 2009. The results indicated that there were some snakes that grew relatively fast, but most snakes either almost did not grow or grew around 10mm in snout-vent length during one year period. High growth rates was April and June. Since the growth rate of snakes is highly correlated with their foods, these results implied that the feeding activity of Red-tongued viper snakes is high during this period compared to other months. In female, difference in body condition between goodconditioned and bad-conditioned snakes became large as time elapsed from April to June. The body condition of the male Red-tongued viper snakes improved with the progression of time from April till June. Many of the Red-tongued viper snakes were captured between April and June, while they were rarely captured between July and September. Some of the Red-tongued viper snakes were captured during the autumn season. This tendency was because snakes were rarely active during hibernation and peak summer seasons. Thus, Red-tongued viper snakes are active between April and June and between September and November. They then go into hibernation as the temperature dropped in November. Furthermore, the limitation of the movement period of the Red-tongued viper snakes restricted their feeding activities while foods became scarce, which ultimately restricted their overall growth rate. The growth rate of the snakes decreased with age. The snout-vent length of the Red-tongued viper snakes and growth rate showed a negative correlation (r = -0.591), however, it was not statistically significant due to small sample size. The findings from this study could provide meaningful information in the further study of the life cycle of Red-tongued viper snakes.
  • 10.

    Operating Status and Activation of Ecological Learning Facilities in Korea

    Kwon Kim | Jeong-Hee EUM | Paikho Rho | 2016, 25(6) | pp.487~501 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to establish basic data of operating status for ecological learning facilities in Korea, investigate their characteristics for operating methods, and present proposals for the efficient operation and management of ecological learning facilities. For this purpose, a list of ecological learning facilities in Korea was established and 50 facilities were surveyed about the current status regarding the operation and management. Based on the survey, operation form, interpreter and volunteer, visitor, budget and revenue, promotion method, and other items were analyzed. Concerning the operating forms, most of the facilities were direct-operated facilities by government, and they are operating mainly by officials. Visitors are mostly families on weekends, while kindergarten children are main visitors during weekdays. Most facilities have higher proportion of visitors nationwide, and they get information mainly from websites operated by facilities and related organization. The annual operating budget and revenue depend on the facility size and operating forms, and the direct-operated facilities by government use higher budget compared to commission-operated ones. For the efficient operation of ecological learning, expert with specialized knowledge should participate in the operation, and intuitive and informative websites should be established and continually managed. In addition, it is necessary to support revenue of by national and local governments and to secure external funding network like local companies and donation.
  • 11.

    The Characteristics of Heavy Metal Distributions in the Tissues of Feral Pigeon (Columba livia) as a Bio - monitoring Indicator

    이장호 | Jong-Chun Lee | 박종혁 and 4other persons | 2016, 25(6) | pp.502~513 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, heavy metal distributions in the tissues of feral pigeon (Columba livia) were characterized using samples collected from bio-monitoring sites (Hangang Park and Hampyeong Park) of the NESB (National Environmental Specimen Bank), Korea, in order to evaluate the feasibility of feral pigeons as an indicator for the environmental monitoring. Cadmium (Cd) was analyzed to be accumulated in kidneys at higher concentration than in the other tissues. Such trend can also be found in the reviews on the Cd accumulations of the 34 cases including 17 avian species which showed that 31 cases had the highest Cd concentrations in the kidney among tissues. However, lead (Pb) was found to be richest in the bones in this study. 17 cases out of 30 reviewed cases had the highest Pb concentration in bones, whereas other 10 cases showed the highest concentration in kidneys, and 3 cases in livers. Therefore, kidneys together with bones can be a main target organ to test cadmium exposure to different habitat environments depending on physiological traits of birds. Zinc (Zn) was found to be the highest concentration in the pigeon livers of Hangang Park, but not in the bones. In contrast, the 13 cases of 16 reviewed cases had the highest Zn concentration in bones, and the 3 cases in livers. In addition, the heavy metal distribution patterns in relations to the metal accumulation mechanisms (a competition between Pb and Ca, a function of methallothionein protein, and etc.) were discussed.
  • 12.

    Evaluation of Health Impact of Heat Waves using Bio - Climatic impact Assessment System (BioCAS) at Building scale over the Seoul City Area

    김규랑 | Lee, Ji-Sun | 이채연 and 4other persons | 2016, 25(6) | pp.514~524 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The Bio-Climatic impact Assessment System, BioCAS was utilized to produce analysis maps of daily maximum perceived temperature (PTmax) and excess mortality (rEM) over the entire Seoul area on a heat wave event. The spatial resolution was 25 m and the Aug. 5, 2012 was the selected heat event date. The analyzed results were evaluated by comparing with observed health impact data - mortality and morbidity - during heat waves in 2004-2013 and 2006-2011, respectively. They were aggregated for 25 districts in Seoul. Spatial resolution of the comparison was equalized to district to match the lower data resolution of mortality and morbidity. Spatial maximum, minimum, average, and total of PTmax and rEM were generated and correlated to the health impact data of mortality and morbidity. Correlation results show that the spatial averages of PTmax and rEM were not able to explain the observed health impact. Instead, spatial minimum and maximum of PTmax were correlated with mortality (r=0.53) and morbidity (r=0.42), respectively. Spatial maximum of PTmax, determined by building density, affected increasing morbidity at daytime by heat-related diseases such as sunstroke, whereas spatial minimum, determined by vegetation, affected decreasing mortality at nighttime by reducing heat stress. On the other hand, spatial maximum of rEM was correlated with morbidity (r=0.52) but not with mortality. It may have been affected by the limit of district-level irregularity such as difference in base-line heat vulnerability due to the age structure of the population. Areal distribution of the heat impact by local building and vegetation, such as spatial maximum and minimum, was more important than spatial mean. Such high resolution analyses are able to produce quantitative results in health impact and can also be used for economic analyses of localized urban development.
  • 13.

    Estimation of Soil Erosion Using National Land Cover Map and USLE

    Jeong, Jong Chul | 2016, 25(6) | pp.525~531 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study integrates the Universal Soil Loss Equation(USLE) with GIS method to assess the soil erosion for national land cover map between 2007 and 2014. The land cover change map and C factors of USLE were applied to the estimation of spatial distribution of sediment yield. However, they generated distinct results because of differences in their applied methods and calculation processes of national land cover map. To generate the USLE model, C factors of MOE(Ministry of Environment) were compared with soil erosion of Inje stadium development area at the Naerin watershed in Gangwon province to 2014. The several thematic maps of research area such as land cover map, topographic and soil maps, together with tabular precipitation data used for soil erosion calculation. The land cover change were carried with level-2 and high level land cover map of MOE and estimated maximum double of soil erosion.
  • 14.

    Applicability test of broad leaf samples stored at the NESB for biomonitoring of airborne pollutants

    Jong-Chun Lee | 이장호 | 박종혁 and 3other persons | 2016, 25(6) | pp.532~541 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The National Environmental Specimen Bank (NESB) has been collecting broad leave samples to monitor environmental pollution from five different designated sampling areas. In order to ensure the reproducibility and comparability of the results, all the procedures from selecting trees and pooling leaves to make the representative sample are defined in the standard operation procedures(the SOP). The representative samples were subjected to the chemical analyses for some heavy minerals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs). The uncertainty levels involved in each step of the SOP, that is, the sampling and the chemical analysis, were derived using the Robust ANOVA, which enables the relative comparison among the different levels of pollutants concentrations with confidence. Furthermore, the effect of the varying degrees of precipitation on the pollutants concentration of the leaves was also examined. Overall, the biological difference estimated from the duplicate samples was found to exceed the variation across the site, implying even aerial deposition over site. Samples from Gwanak Mt. showed highest heavy metal concentrations than the other sites. Washing off effect of the pollutants adhering in the form of particles on the leaf surface was found to be affected by the cumulative precipitation.