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2017, Vol.26, No.6

  • 1.

    A Study on Categorizing Ecosystem Groups for Climate Change Risk Assessment – Focused on Applicability of Land Cover Classification -

    Inae Yeo | Haejin Bae | Seungbum Hong | 2017, 26(6) | pp.385~403 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study showed the national ecosystem classification for the spatial standards of ecosystems-based approaches to the risk assessments and adaptation plan. The characteristics of climate change risk assessment, implement national adaptation plans, and ecosystem/habitat classification status was evaluated. Focusing on the land cover classification widely utilized as spatial data for the assessments of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the UK and other countries in Europe, the applicability of the national land cover classification for climate change risk assessments was reviewed. Considering the ecosystem classification for climate change risk assessment and establishing adaptation measures, it is difficult to apply rough classification method to the land cover system because of lack of information on habitat trend by categorization. The results indicated that forest ecosystems and agro-ecosystem occupied 62.3% and 25.0% of land cover, respectively, of the entire country. Although the area is small compared with the land area, wetland ecosystem (2.9%), marine ecosystem (0.4%), coastal ecosystem (0.6%), and urban ecosystem (6.1%) can be included in the risk assessments. Therefore, it is necessary to subdivide below the medium classification for the forest and agricultural land, as well as Inland wetland, which has a higher proportion of habitat preference of taxa than land area, marine/coastal habitat, and transition areas such as urban and natural ecosystem.
  • 2.

    Zooplankton Community as an Indicator for Environmental Assessment of Aquatic Ecosystem: Application of Rotifer Functional Groups for Evaluating Water Quality in Eutrophic Reservoirs

    HYE-JI OH | CHANG KWANG-HYEON | 서동일 and 5other persons | 2017, 26(6) | pp.404~417 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we analyzed response patterns of rotifer community to eutrophic state, and estimated the applicability of rotifer community as an environmental indicator for highly eutrophicated reservoirs. In order to evaluate the relationships among spatial and temporal distributions and the water quality of rotifer community, we selected the Jundae Reservoir and Chodae Reservoir in Chungcheongnam-do, Korea, which are geographically adjacent but have different water quality, particularly in their eutrophic states. For the analyses on their correlations, monthly survey of water quality and rotifer community, was conducted from April to November 2013 in both reservoirs. The rotifer community was divided into different compositions of functional groups as well as species. Functional groups were classified according to the structure and shape of trophi which can represent feeding behavior of rotifer genus. To reflect ecological characteristics of species, body size and habitat preferences were also considered. Species-based composition did not show a consistent tendency with water quality parameters related with eutrophication. On the contrary, functional group composition showed relatively clear group-specific patterns, increasing or decreasing according to the parameters. The results suggest the possible application of rotifer functional group composition as an indicator for the lentic systems, especially hyper-eutrophicated reservoirs. The present study can suggest the applicability based on the field observations from the limited time scale and sites, and further studies on feeding behavior of the rotifer functional group and its interactions with environmental variables are necessary for the further application.
  • 3.

    Spatial and Seasonal Water Quality Variations of Han River Tributries

    이영준 | Min-Ji PARK | Ju Yeon Son and 8other persons | 2017, 26(6) | pp.418~430 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The quality of surface water is a very important issue to use various demands like as drinking water, industrial, agricultural and recreational usages. There has been an increasing demand for monitoring water quality of many rivers by regular measurements of various water quality variables. However precise and effective monitoring is not enough, if the acquired dataset is not analyzed thoroughly. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate differences of seasonal and regional water quality using multivariate data analysis for each investing tributaries in Han River. Statistical analysis was applied to the data concerning 11 mainly parameters (flow, water temperature, pH, EC, DO, BOD, COD, SS, TN, TP and TOC) for the time period 2012∼2016 from 12 sampling sites. The seasonal water quality variations showed that each of BOD, TN, TP and TOC average concentration in spring and winter was higher than that of summer and fall, respectively. In summer each flow rate and average concentration of SS was higher than any other seasons, respectively. The correlation analysis were explained that EC had a strong relationship with BOD (r=0.857), COD (r=0.854), TN (r=0.899) and TOC (r=0.910). According to principal component analysis, five principal components (Eigenvalue > 1) are controlled 98.0% of variations in water quality. The first component included TP, DO, pH. The second component included EC, TN. The third component included SS. The fourth component included flow. The last component included Temp. Cluster analysis classified that spring is similar to fall and winter with water quality parameters. AnyA, WangsA, JungrA and TancA were identified as affected by organic pollution. Cluster analysis derived seasonal differences with investigating sites and better explained the principal component analysis results.
  • 4.

    Review and Discussion on Policy and Legal System for River Environments Management in Korea

    Seung-Hoon Chun | 2017, 26(6) | pp.431~444 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study was carried out to review the guidelines being used by law and national policy concerned on river environments management and suggest the applicability of newly developed river environment assessment system. In the current legal system, the national river environment management system is insufficient in securing an independent status in the legal institutional system which is separated to the Ministry of Land, Transport and Infrastructure and the Ministry of Environment. And the river environment assessment system of the national standard, which is a core matter, has not been established yet. In particular, there is a lack of integrated approach between the upper and lower plan or related plans on water resources, water quality, river environment and aquatic ecosystem management. In addition, the consistency and effectiveness as the process of planning and design according to the current status and comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the river environment were not secured either. To integrate national river environment management system and improve efficiency, I proposed the establishment of hierarchy and connection between national river plans, and the adoption and application of developed assessment system based on characteristics of river environment in Korea. Finally, I proposed the separated application with dividing the developed assessment system including the naturalness of river environment and suitability of water friendly activity into both assessment method for management plan of water resources of river basins & basic river plan respectively.
  • 5.

    Estimation of Peak Water Level Based on Observed Records and Assessment of Inundation in Coastal Area – A Case Study in Haeundae, Busan City –

    Saekyul Ahn | Lee, Dong Kun | 2017, 26(6) | pp.445~456 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    For impact assessment of inundation in coastal area due to sea level rise (SLR), model for estimating future peak water level was constructed using observed mean sea level (MSL), storm surge level (SSL) data and calculated tide level (TL) data. Based on time series analysis and quadratic polynomial model for SLR and Monte-Carlo simulation for IC, SSL and TL, 100-year return peak water level is expected to be 2.3, 2.6, 2.8m, respectively (each corresponding to year 2050, 2080, 2100). Further analysis on future potential inundation area showed U-dong, Yongho-dong, Songjeongdong, Jaesong-dong to be at high risk.
  • 6.

    A Preliminary Study for Identifying Soil Management Area in Environmental Impact Assessment on Development Projects

    Jong Sung Kim | Choong-Ki KIM | Keunje Yoo and 1other persons | 2017, 26(6) | pp.457~469 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In order to conserve soil functions to the highest degree in development projects, it is necessary to identify and manage specific area (so called soil management area) including soils with good or excellent functions. Therefore, in this work, we conducted a preliminary study how to identify soil management area in environmental impact assessment on development projects. To do this, quantitative evaluation was carried out on two example projects, using InVEST model considering a couple of soil functions, i.e., erosion control and carbon sequestration functions. Then, soil management area was identified through overlay analysis. The methodology developed in this study is able to be used widely for more detailed analysis with high resolution and furthermore overlay anaysis with other assessment items. For more perfect assessment, other soil fuctions needed to be taken into account into our methodology.
  • 7.

    The Study on the Prediction of Algae Occurrence by the Multiple Regression Analysis After Weir Construction at Namhan River

    Seungeun Oh | 안홍규 | 채수권 | 2017, 26(6) | pp.470~478 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study was classified into two groups, normal season group and drought season group, by the cluster analysis using the weather and water quality data from 2012 to 2015, using SPSS 18 version. Also each cluster was classified into three spaces, Gangcheon, Yeoju and Ipoh weir. We performed the multiple regression analysis with each monthly data that concentration of Chl-a was more than algae warming level. 6 groups classified in time and space were analyzed by the correlation analysis between concentration of Chl-a and 3 weather, 11 water quality and discharge factors. We developed Chl-a prediction equations of each group with independent variables of the multiple regression analysis applying to the correlation result. The result of cluster analysis was that the period was divided into two groups, normal group(2012- 2013) that total annual precipitation rate was normal and drought group(2014-2015) that total annual precipitation rate was less than 1,000 mm/hr, in time. The months that concentration of Chl-a was more than algae warming level in each group classified by cluster analysis were that the normal group was 3~8 and drought group was 3 and 6~10. The correlation result between Chl-a and weather, water quality and discharge factors for each 6 group was that relationships between Chl-a and water, discharge factors were high in the drought group more than in normal group at all weirs. This was influenced by velocity reduction and increasing HRT according to the intense drought. Weather, water quality and discharge factors that were high correlation with Chl-a were applied to independent variables of Chl-a prediction equations and each equations were developed. Among them, Each adjusted R square of Prediction equations for Chl-a in each group at Ipoh weir where is located in Namhan river downstream and is directly connected to Paldang dam were normal group = 0.920 and drought group = 0.818. It’s showed the high linear.
  • 8.

    The Optimal Energy Mix in South Korea’s Electricity Sector for Low Carbon Energy Transition in 2030: In Consideration of INDC and Sequential Shutdown of Decrepit Nuclear Power Plants

    김동윤 | 황민섭 | 2017, 26(6) | pp.479~494 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    After Fukushima incident, negative sentiment towards nuclear power has led to transition in policies that reduce the dependency on nuclear power in some countries. President Moon of Republic of Korea also announced a national plan of decommissioning retired nuclear power plants stage by stage. Therefore, nuclear power that once was considered the critical solution to energy security and climate change is now a limited option. This study aims to find an optimal energy mix in Korea’s electricity system from 2016 through 2030 to combat climate change through energy transition with minimum cost. The study is divided into two different scenarios; energy transition and nuclear sustenance, to compare the total costs of the systems. Both scenarios show that electricity generated by wind technology increases from 2018 whereas that of photovoltaic(PV) increases from 2021. However, the total cost of the energy transition scenario was USD 4.7 billion more expensive than the nuclear sustenance scenario.
  • 9.

    Feasibility Study of Environmental Impact Assessment as Instrument for Alternative Dispute Resolutions – Case Study: Environmental Conflicts of Mungjangdae Hot Spring Resort Development –

    Hong Sangpyo | 2017, 26(6) | pp.495~507 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The regional environmental conflicts of ‘Mungjangdae Hot Spring Development Project’ have still now continued from 1985. As a case study, the limitation of environmental litigation and the feasibility of EIA as Alternative Dispute Resolutions (ADR) for solving the conflict of ‘Mungjangdae Hot Spring Development Project’ was analysed. In order to mitigate environmental and social conflicts, the scope and time of public participation in EIA process which is democratic procedure based on scientific prediction of environmental impact need to be diversified to the extent ‘Aarhus Convention’, and the burden of environmental litigation need to be alleviated by the ‘EIA consultation’ from environmental authorities. In decision-making process related with large scale development plan and project which have enormous impact, the effectiveness of the EIA as ADR can be enhanced by applying citizen involvement in environmental governance and the various aspects of sustainability. The effective utilization of EIA public participation such as public hearing to pursue social equity can be a ESSD scheme for the implementation of SDG at regional dimension in Korea.
  • 10.

    The Effect of Ecological Restoration and Water Purification of Ecological Fish-way and Floodplain Back Wetland Created as Sustainable Structured Wetland Biotope at Maeno Stream

    Chan Woo Byeon | 김용민 | 2017, 26(6) | pp.508~523 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study monitored the changes before and after restoration of ecological stream focusing on the places which are applied Sustainable Structured wetland Biotop (SSB) system and ecological Fish-way for restoration of Maeno stream. A total of 11 species and 191 individuals of fishes were founded out which were not verified inhabitation before restoration at SSB wetlands. Especially, it was could identified that micro habitat and healthy Fish-way was created because the restored target species, Microphysogobio yaluensis and Iksookimia koreensis were identified that habitation was monitored in SSB wetland. Amphibian have been restored to a number of Rana nigromaculata found in and around wetlands at the time of the third survey, which is highly active after restoration. Specified endangered species class 1 and natural monuments designated by the Ministry of Environment, Lutra lutra lutra, as a Mammalian, uses the wetlands and ecological Fishway as habitat areas, and the his habitat is restored. In the case of Flora, vascular plants emerging in the survey area were increased to 7 and 13 species before restoration and 15 and 19 species directly after restoration, and 22 species and 33 species after restoration. Vegetation after restoration was found to be a basic producer of various ecosystems and a plant community that contributes to the purification of water quality such as Phragmites japonica communities. As the result of water quality monitoring, the average of treatment efficiencies were BOD 64.3%, T-N 47.2%, T-P 80.7%. Successful treatment of the nonpoint pullution source, which is a limiting factor to disturb the ecosystem, creatively restored the target species in the water quality class I, II.
  • 11.

    Effects on Water Quality in the Development and the Comparative Analysis of Water Quality Results in Post-environmental Impact Investigation - Focused on a Quarry Mine and Sports Facilities -

    Seyong, Lee | 노영희 | Hanna Cho and 1other persons | 2017, 26(6) | pp.524~537 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Post-Environmental impact investigation(Post-EII) plays an important role in investigating and reducing the environmental impacts of construction operations in South Korea. To date, it has been estimated that the results for Post-EII showed the low reliability; however, understanding those reliability has rarely been studied. We investigated the effect on water qualities by construction operations of the quarry mine, training center, and golf club in South Korea. In addition, the results of water quality analysis in this study were compared and analyzed with those in Post-EII. Treated wastewater in a quarry mine showed high concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand(BOD), suspended solid(SS), total nitrogen(T-N), and total phosphorus(T-P). Compared with the water quality results between this study and Post-EII, the concentrations of BOD, SS, T-N, and T-P in the treated wastewater were higher than the interquartile range(IQR) as well as the range of the results from minimum to maximum in Post-EII(p<0.05). The concentrations of BOD, SS, T-N, and T-P in treated wastewater were high under constructions in a training center. The concentrations of BOD and SS exceeded the consultation standard for the treated wastewater. These concentrations showed the significant difference with the IQR and the range from minimum to maximum of the water quality results in Post-EII(p<0.05). Therefore, the management and monitoring for water quality should be conducted in the treated wastewater by of construction operations. In addition, the alternative to enhance the reliability for the water quality results should be sought in Post-EII.
  • 12.

    Mercury Concentrations of Black-tailed Gull Eggs Depending on the Egg-Laying Order for Marine Environmental Monitoring

    이장호 | Lee,Jong-Chun | 장희연 and 4other persons | 2017, 26(6) | pp.538~552 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, total mercury (THg) of Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) eggs laid on Baengnyeongdo, West Sea of Korea was analyzed in order to compare the THg concentrations of eggs depending on egg-laying order. The first-laid eggs (mean ± standard error, 234.4 ± 11.2 ng/g wet, n=18, t=8.4, p<0.01) significantly had higher THg concentrations than the second-laid eggs (182.8 ± 9.1 ng/g wet, n=18). Also, the first-laid eggs had higher values in biometrics (length 63.10 ± 0.49 mm, t=2.4, p<0.05; width 44.51 ± 0.19 mm, t=4.3, p<0.01; weight 65.53 ± 0.87 g, t=4.2, p<0.01) than the second-laid eggs (length 62.37 ± 0.40 mm, width 43.55 ± 0.17 mm, and weight 62.48 ± 0.72 g). These differences might be attributed to the amount of food eaten by females relating to males’ courtship feeding pattern (males increase courtship feeding rate before the first eggs are laid, and decrease the rate following the laying of the first eggs). Moreover, the lower food intake of females could diminish the quantities of egg albumen that contains a protein binds to most of methylmercury during the period of egg production. Therefore, it is necessary to consistently apply one of egg selection methods (targeted selection (the first-laid egg or the second-laid egg), random selection, and etc.) in one nest for ensuring comparability of mercury concentrations among monitoring sites and monitoring years.
  • 13.

    Evaluation of Internal Phosphorus Loading through the Dynamic Monitoring of Dissolved Oxygen in a Shallow Reservoir

    Park, Hyung Seok | Sunhwa Choi | Chung, Se-woong and 3other persons | 2017, 26(6) | pp.553~562 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In these days, agricultural reservoirs are considered as a useful resource for recreational purposes, tour and cultural amenity for vicinity communities as well as irrigation water supply. However, many of the agricultural reservoirs are showing a eutrophic or hyper-eutrophic state and high level of organic contamination. In particular, about 44.7% of the aged agricultural reservoirs that constructed before 1945 exceed the water quality criteria for irrigational water use. In addition to external loading, internal nutrient loading from bottom sediment may play an important role in the nutrient budget of the aged reservoirs. The objectives of this study were to characterize variations of thermal structure of a shallow M reservoir (mean depth 1.7 m) and examine the potential of internal nutrient loading by continuous monitoring of vertical water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration profiles in 2015 and 2016. The effect of internal loading on the total loading of the reservoir was evaluated by mass balance analysis. Results showed that a weak thermal stratification and a strong DO stratification were developed in the shallow M Reservoir. And, dynamic temporal variation in DO was observed at the bottom of the reservoir. Persistent hypoxic conditions (DO concentrations less than 2 mg/L) were established for 87 days and 98 days in 2015 and 2016, respectively, during the no-rainy summer periods. The DO concentrations intermittently increased during several events of atmospheric temperature drop and rainfall. According to the mass balance analysis, the amount of internal PO4-P loading from sediment to the overlying water were 37.9% and 39.7% of total loading during no-rainy season in 2015 and 2016, respectively on August when algae growth is enhanced with increasing water temperature. Consequently, supply of DO to the lower layer of the reservoir could be effective countermeasure to reduce nutrient release under the condition of persistent DO depletion in the bottom of the reservoir.
  • 14.

    Studies on Expanding Application for the Recycling of Coal Ash in Domestic

    Hanna Cho | 맹준호 | 김은영 | 2017, 26(6) | pp.563~573 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Coal ash is generated from coal-fired thermal power plants every year. The remaining quantity of coal ash ends up in the landfills except for the recycled portion, and the existing ash pond capacity is limited almost. Currently, the difficulties are faced in building a new ash treatment plant because of the concerns about the environmental impacts of landfills at individual plant facilities. In terms of minimizing the environmental impact, the recycling and effective uses of coal ash are recognized as urgent issues to be challenged. Accordingly, this study examines the obstacles in expanding the recycling of the coal ash in South Korea and proposes solutions based on the casestudy analysis. The analysis results are as follows: 1) specific recycling guidelines and standards are required to be established in accordance with the contact medium (soil, ground water, surface water and sea water) and the chemical. 2) by providing the recognition environmentally safe in recycling the coal ash, transparency in establishing the planning stages and active communication with the community through promotion and research are essentially needed. 3) practical support system is required to encourage the power plant companies to use the coal ash as beneficial use.study analysis. The analysis results are as follows: 1) specific recycling guidelines and standards are required to be established in accordance with the contact medium (soil, ground water, surface water and sea water) and the chemical. 2) by providing the recognition environmentally safe in recycling the coal ash, transparency in establishing the planning stages and active communication with the community through promotion and research are essentially needed. 3) practical support system is required to encourage the power plant companies to use the coal ash as beneficial use.