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2018, Vol.27, No.2

  • 1.

    Comparison of Evaluation Methods for Receiver Setting and Representative Noise Level Selection in Calculating Population Exposed to Noise

    윤희경 | Jaewon Lee | Myunghee Kwon | 2018, 27(2) | pp.105~113 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The modeling of noise mapping and the evaluation of noise pollution based on the exposed population were frequently used as an indicator of environmental noise assessment to overcome the limitations of field survey and Tele-Monitoring System. Results from these methods were highly influenced by the setting of noise source, input data of prediction factors and analytical methods of predictive values. The population exposed to noise were estimated as M1-1>M2-1>Base>M2-2>M1-2 in both areas. The highest noise setting methods(M1-1, M1-2) were overestimated, being compared with the Base method.
  • 2.

    Evaluation Criteria of Biodiversity in Ecosystem Protected Areas – In Mt. Jiri and Mt. Bukhan National Parks –

    강혜인 | Kang, Kyu-Suk | 2018, 27(2) | pp.114~123 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    For conservation of biodiversity, we designate and manage the major areas that are habitats of organisms as ecosystem protected areas. It is necessary to evaluate the biodiversity of protected areas relatively in order to establish strategies to protect and secure the biodiversity of protected areas. In this study, we selected evaluation indicators by which we can compare objectively the biodiversity of protected areas corresponding to forest ecosystem, and applied them to Mt. Jiri and Mt. Bukhan National Parks. We reviewed literatures to select evaluation criteria. Frequently mentioned criteria and the structure of the forest which plays an important role of forest biodiversity were selected as the evaluation criteria. As the result, the selected evaluation indicators were 7 – species diversity, species richness, evenness, rarity, disturbance species, indigenous species, and forest structure. In Mt. Jiri and Mt. Bukhan National Parks, species diversity were 3.492 and 2.943, species richness were 8.998 and 9.793, evenness were 0.849 and 0.680, rarity were 11.976 and 10.783, and disturbance species index were 0.214 and 0.357 respectively. Both national parks had abundant indigenous species and showed various forest physiognomies and stable 4-layer structure. It was found that crown density was higher in Mt. Jiri. Most indicators were implied high biodiversity in Mt. Jiri and Mt. Bukhan national parks.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Availability of Spatial and Statistical Data for Assessing CO2 Absorption Rate in Forests – A Case Study on Ansan-si –

    김성훈 | Ilkwon Kim | 전배석 and 1other persons | 2018, 27(2) | pp.124~138 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This research was conducted to examine the availability of spatial data for assessing absorption rates of CO2 in the forest of Ansan-si and evaluate the validity of methods that analyze CO2 absorption. To statistically assess the CO2 absorption rates per year, the 1:5,000 Digital Forest- Map (Lim5000) and Standard Carbon Removal of Major Forest Species (SCRMF) methods were employed. Furthermore, Land Cover Map (LCM) was also used to verify CO2 absorption rate availability per year. Great variations in CO2 absorption rates occurred before and after the year 2010. This was due to improvement in precision and accuracy of the Forest Basic Statistics (FBS) in 2010, which resulted in rapid increase in growing stock. Thus, calibration of data prior to 2010 is necessary, based on recent FBS standards. Previous studies that employed Lim5000 and FBS (2015, 2010) did not take into account the CO2 absorption rates of different tree species, and the combination of SCRMF and Lim5000 resulted in CO2 absorption of 42,369 ton. In contrast to the combination of SCRMF and Lim5000, LCM and SCRMF resulted in CO2 absorption of 40,696 ton. Homoscedasticity tests for Lim5000 and LCM resulted in p-value <0.01, with a difference in CO2 absorption of 1,673 ton. Given that CO2 absorption in forests is an important factor that reduces greenhouse gas emissions, the findings of this study should provide fundamental information for supporting a wide range of decision-making processes for land use and management.
  • 4.

    The Flora of Vascular Plants of Ohdosan Natural Recreation Forest in Hapcheon-gun

    Tae-Woon Kim | 서장미 | 박유진 and 2other persons | 2018, 27(2) | pp.139~151 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study was carried out to provide the basic information for efficient protection management of natural recreation forest in addition to providing ecological information by analysing the vascular plants in Ohdosan natural recreation forest, and conducted from September 2016 to June 2017. This study showed that the area had a total 295 taxa including 86 families, 192 genuses, 255 species, 3 subspecies, 32 variants 6 forms and the ratio of genus/family was 1.5. Korea endemic plants were 10 taxa including Aconitum austrokoreense and A. pseudolaeve. Rare plants designated by Korea Forest Service were 6 taxa including Aconitum austrokoreense and Goodyera schlechtendaliana. The floristic regional indicators plants found in this survey area were 30 taxa comprising 5 taxa of grade IV, 6 taxa of grade III, 7 taxa of gradeII and 11 taxa of gradeI. Based on the list approved for delivering overseas of plants, 42 taxa were recorded in the surveyed area. The target plants adaptable to climate change were 4 taxa such as Abies koreana, Acotinum austrokoreense and so forth. The naturalized plants were 11 taxa including Cerastium glomeratum, Oenothera biennis and so forth.
  • 5.

    Distribution of Negative Air Ion Concentration in Urban Neighborhood Park by Distance to Road – A Case of Yangjae Citizen’s Forest, Seoul –

    Lee Hyun Jin | Lee, Dong Kun | Bomi Kim | 2018, 27(2) | pp.152~169 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of adjacent roads on the concentration of negative air ions in urban neighborhood park. The measured factors were negative air ion concentration, positive air ion concentration, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, green formation volume factor (GVZ) and distance from highway and general road. The mean negative air ion concentration was 206ea/cm3 and the positive air ion concentration was 416ea/cm3 in the influence zone of roads. On the other hand, the mean negative air ion was 339ea/cm3 and the positive air ion was 229ea/cm3 in the unaffected zone of roads, which are inner areas of the park. The difference of the negative air ion concentration according to the influence of the road was statistically significant. The negative air ion concentration model was presented by integrating the correlation analysis with the influence factors, and the explanatory power of the model was increased by adding the influence factor of the road.
  • 6.

    Pollutants Removal Efficiency of Rainfall-runoff from Dense Highland Field Areas in Multistage Sedimentation Basins – Focused on Jaun Area in Upstream Watershed of Lake Soyang –

    CHO JAE HEON | 2018, 27(2) | pp.170~180 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Highland fields are concentrated in the Jaun area of Hongcheong-gun, a large amount of sediments are discharged from the highland fields. The sediment runoff affect the turbidity and water quality of the Soyang Lake, furthermore adversely affect water supply source of the capital region. There are several kinds of BMPs(Best management practices) to decrease the sediment runoff from the highland fields. Although construction cost of multistage sedimentation basins is very high, there is no actual survey data for the removal efficiency of suspended sediments and water quality in our country. In this study, stormwater inflow and outflow of the multistage sedimentation basins were surveyed, and the removal efficiency of nonpoint source pollutants were analyzed. The stormwater survey results for two rainfall events show that removal efficiencies of SS, BOD and TP loads in the multistage sedimentation basins are 35%~62%, 24%~55%, 35%~58%, respectively. Although the measured efficiencies of the basins were lower than the theoretical efficiency, the proper operation and management can improve the removal rate of the basins. Turbid water problem in the upper parts of the Soyang River can be managed effectively through the additional installation of multistage sedimentation basins.
  • 7.

    Evaluation of Ecosystem Service for Distribution of Korean fir using InVEST Model

    CHOI JIYOUNG | Lee, Sang-Don | 2018, 27(2) | pp.181~193 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The present study was conducted to analyze the quality of the habitats of Abies koreana WILS. by using the InVEST model based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique and to evaluate the economic value by estimating the carbon fixation. Abies koreana WILS., an original biological species of South Korea, may be an essential element in establishing the national biological sovereignty in the future. The subjects of the present study were the national parks in Mt. Halla, Mt. Jiri, and Mt. Sobaek, which are the habitats of Abies koreana WILS. As suggested by previous studies as a limitation of the InVEST model, the utilization of the data from relevant international publications as the input data, due to the lack of the domestic input data, may decrease the accuracy of the modeling. Therefore, the AHP technique was applied for the input data. The modeling was performed with reference to the years of 1980, 1990, and 2000 for the scenario analysis. The result of the modeling showed that the habitat quality was changed most in the national park in Mt. Halla, as the habitat quality score was decreased from 0.96 in 1980 to 0.97 in 1990 and 0.94 in 2000. In the national part of Mt. Sobeak, the habitat quality was changed most in the sub-alpine zone, as the habitat quality score was decreased from 0.98 in 1980 and 0.98 in 1990 to 0.97 in 2000. The habitat quality was best conserved in the national part in Mt. Jiri, as the habitat quality score was 0.98 in 1980, 0.99 in 1990, and 0.99 in 2000. The estimated economic loss by the change of the habitat quality was 19,280,000 USD for Mt. Halla and 8,030,000 USD for Mt. Sobeak. In the present study, the habitat quality of the Abies koreana WILS, the original species of South Korea, was evaluated and the economic value of the ecological services provided by the habitats was estimated quantitatively. The result showed that the ecosystem service model may be used to qualitatively analyze the quality of a habitat located in a specific region and to estimate the economic value quantitatively. The objective evaluation of ecosystem services demonstrated in the present study may be applied to promote sustainable utilization of natural resources and conservation of the ecosystem by predicting the changes that may be caused by external factors including the development of preservation areas.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Application of Potential Exposed Population for a Receptor-oriented Health Impact Assessment

    Jongsik Ha | 2018, 27(2) | pp.194~202 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Health impact assessment in South Korea is carried out within the framework of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). And, public health and hygiene items in EIA as an evaluation of health impact items were designed to calculate the emission level of hazardous air pollutants from specific development projects, and the exposure concentration at major sites, and to assess the health risk associated with these projects. But, the assessment of the receptor characteristics around the development project is limitedly considered. The purpose of this study is to propose the method of calculation of potential exposed population and the use of it for public health and hygiene items in EIA. The data for the calculation of potential exposed population in South Korea were identified. And the calculation algorithm based on them was proposed. After that, in a development of industrial complex, a case analysis was carried out assuming the release of hazardous air pollutants. This study suggested that the concept of population risk should be applied in risk assessment utilizing the potential exposed population and as a future study, a standard of assessment of health effects for population risk should be established. Finally, the possibility of using this study as a location-limiting tool for the development project was presented through the method of calculating the potential exposed population. It is meaningful that this study presented a method for performing risk assessment from the perspective of receptors around a development project.
  • 9.

    A Management Plan According to the Estimation of Nutria (Myocastor coypus) Distribution Density and Potential Suitable Habitat

    Areum Kim | Young-Chae Kim | Do-Hun Lee | 2018, 27(2) | pp.203~214 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to estimate the concentrated distribution area of nutria (Myocastor coypus) and potential suitable habitat and to provide useful data for the effective management direction setting. Based on the nationwide distribution data of nutria, the crossvalidation value was applied to analyze the distribution density. As a result, the concentrated distribution areas that required preferential elimination is found in 14 administrative areas including Busan Metropolitan City, Daegu Metropolitan City, 11 cities and counties in Gyeongsangnam-do and 1 county in Gyeongsangbuk-do. In the potential suitable habitat estimation using a MaxEnt (Maximum Entropy) model, the possibility of emergency was found in the Nakdong River middle and lower stream area and the Seomjin river lower stream area and Gahwacheon River area. As for the contribution by variables of a model, it showed DEM, precipitation of driest month, min temperature of coldest month and distance from river had contribution from the highest order. In terms of the relation with the probability of appearance, the probability of emergence was higher than the threshold value in areas with less than 34m of altitude, with -5.7°C~-0.6°C of min temperature of the coldest month, with 15-30mm of precipitation of the driest month and with less than 1,373m away from the river. Variables that Altitude, existence of water and winter temperature affected settlement and expansion of nutria, considering the research results and the physiological and ecological characteristics of nutria. Therefore, it is necessary to reflect them as important variables in the future habitable area detection and expansion estimation modeling. It must be essential to distinguish the concentrated distribution area and the management area of invasive alien species such as nutria and to establish and apply a suitable management strategy to the management site for the permanent control. The results in this study can be used as useful data for a strategic management such as rapid management on the preferential management area and preemptive and preventive management on the possible spreading area.
  • 10.

    Analysis of the Changes in PM2.5 Concentrations using WRF-CMAQ Modeling System: Focusing on the Fall in 2016 and 2017

    Kipyo Nam | 임용재 | Jihoon Park and 9other persons | 2018, 27(2) | pp.215~231 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    It was analyzed to identify the cause of PM2.5 concentration changes for the fall in 2016 and 2017 in South Korea using ground measurement data such as meterological variables and PM2.5, AOD from GOCI satellite, and WRF-CMAQ modeling system. The result of ground measurement data showed that the PM2.5 concentrations for the fall in 2017 decreased by 12.3% (3.0 μg/m3) compared to that of 2016. The difference of PM2.5 concentrations between 2016 and 2017 mainly occurred for 11 Oct. – 20 Oct. (CASE1) and 15 Nov. – 19 Nov. (CASE2) when weather conditions were difficult to long-range transport from foreign regions and favored atmospheric ventilation in 2017 compared to 2016. Simulated PM2.5 concentrations in 2017 decreased by 64.0% (23.1 μg/m3) and 35.7% (12.2 μg/m3) during CASE1 and CASE2, respectively. These results corresponded to the changes in observed PM2.5 concentrations such as 53.6% for CASE1 and 47.8% for CASE2. It is implied that the changes in weather conditions affected significantly the PM2.5 concentrations for the fall between 2016 and 2017. The contributions to decreases in PM2.5 concentrations was assessed as 52.8% by long-range transport from foreign regions and 47.2% by atmospheric ventilation effects in domestic regions during CASE1, whereas their decreases during CASE2 were affected by 66.4% from foreign regions and 33.6% in domestic regions.
  • 11.

    Assessment of Fence Height to Prevent Roadkill of Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis)

    Hee-Bok Park | 우동걸 | Eui‑Geun Song and 5other persons | 2018, 27(2) | pp.232~239 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Our study aims to provide a guideline of deer-proof fence heights to prevent roadkill of water deer (Hydropotes inermis), the most frequently killed by a vehicle collision, in South Korea. With 27 water deer in deer ecology center of the National Institute of Ecology, we measured the ability of water deer to jump gradually higher fences from 0.5cm by 10cm until the deterrence rate reached 100%. Our result revealed that the deterrence rate became 96.7% at the fence height of 1.5m and the rate reached 100% at the 1.8m. We believe that our result provides the fundamental information to prepare a standard of deer-proof fence height. This evidence-based standard will contribute to improving the guideline for wildlife crossing construction and management, established by Ministry of Environment Korea.