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2018, Vol.27, No.6

  • 1.

    The Vascular Plants of Mt. Jigisan in Hongseong-gun, Korea

    Hwan Joon Park | Jung-Hyun Kim | Jin-Seok Kim and 5other persons | 2018, 27(6) | pp.521~547 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    To provide fundamental information to areas that lack data on the plant resources and the ecosystem, this study conducted a survey on the vascular plants in Mt. Jigisan in Hongseonggun. The vascular plants identified during the six-round field surveys were a total of 443 taxa: 96 families, 286 genera, 391 species, 7 subspecies, 40 varieties, 3 forms, and 2 hybrids. On floristic regional of Korea, Mt. Jigisan is deciduous broad-leaved and conifer-mixed forest which is south province of Korean peninsula. 4 taxa of Korean endemic plants such as Populus × tomentiglandulosa, Forsytsythia koreana, Forsytsythia ovate, and Iris rossii var. latifolia were collected. The vascular plants on the red list according to IUCN evaluation basis were found to be 6 taxa: Vulnerable (VU) species of Forsytsythia ovata, Least Conern (LC) species of Chionanthus retusus, Pseudoraphis ukishiba, and Cymbidium goeringii, and Not Evaluate (NE) species of Panax ginseng, and Fimbristylis verrucifera. The floristic regional indicator plants were found 27 taxa: 2 taxa of grade Ⅴ, 3 taxa of grade Ⅳ, 6 taxa of grade Ⅲ, 4 taxa of grade Ⅱ, and 12 taxa of grade Ⅰ. The specific distribution plants were found 27 taxa: 4 taxa of northern part of plants, 12 taxa of southern part of plants, 10 taxa of isolation distribution of plants, and 1 taxon of recently reported Viola betonicifolia var. albescens. The invasive alien plants were identified as 67 taxa. The naturalized index (NI) was 15.12%, and urbanization index (UI) was 20.9%, respectively.
  • 2.

    Evaluation of Eutrophication and Control Alternatives in Sejong Weir using EFDC Model

    Yeojeong Yun | 장은지 | Hyungseok Park and 1other persons | 2018, 27(6) | pp.548~561 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The objectives of this study were to construct a three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic and water quality model (EFDC) for the river reach between the Daecheong dam and the Sejong weir, which are directly affected by Gap and Miho streams located in the middle of the Geum River, and to evaluate the trophic status and water quality improvement effect according to the flow control and pollutant load reduction scenarios. The EFDC model was calibrated with the field data including water level, temperature and water quality collected from September, 2012 to April, 2013. The model showed a good agreement with the field data and adequately replicated the spatial and temporal variations of water surface elevation, temperature and water quality. Especially, it was confirmed that spatial distributions of nutrients and algae biomass have wide variation of transverse direction. Also, from the analysis of algal growth limiting factor, it was found that phosphorous loadings from Gap and Miho streams to Sejong weir induce eutrophication and algal bloom. The scenario of pollutant load reduction from Gap and Miho streams showed a significant effect on the improvement of water quality; 4.7~18.2% for Chl-a, 5.4~21.9% for TP at Cheongwon-1 site, and 4.2~ 17.3% for Chl-a and 4.7~19.4% for TP at Yeongi site. In addition, the eutrophication index value, identifying the tropic status of the river, was improved. Meanwhile, flow control of Daecheong Dam and Sejong weir showed little effect on the improvement of water quality; 1.5~2.4% for Chl-a, 2.5~ 3.8% for TP at Cheongwon-1 site, and 1.2~2.1% for Chl-a and 0.9~1.5% for TP at Yeongi site. Therefore, improvement of the water quality in Gap and Miho streams is essential and a prerequirement to meet the target water quality level of the study area.
  • 3.

    Prediction of Potential Species Richness of Plants Adaptable to Climate Change in the Korean Peninsula

    Man-Seok Shin | Seo, Chang Wan | Lee, Myung-Woo and 4other persons | 2018, 27(6) | pp.562~581 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study was designed to predict the changes in species richness of plants under the climate change in South Korea. The target species were selected based on the Plants Adaptable to Climate Change in the Korean Peninsula. Altogether, 89 species including 23 native plants, 30 northern plants, and 36 southern plants. We used the Species Distribution Model to predict the potential habitat of individual species under the climate change. We applied ten single-model algorithms and the pre-evaluation weighted ensemble method. And then, species richness was derived from the results of individual species. Two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) were used to simulate the species richness of plants in 2050 and 2070. The current species richness was predicted to be high in the national parks located in the Baekdudaegan mountain range in Gangwon Province and islands of the South Sea. The future species richness was predicted to be lower in the national park and the Baekdudaegan mountain range in Gangwon Province and to be higher for southern coastal regions. The average value of the current species richness showed that the national park area was higher than the whole area of South Korea. However, predicted species richness were not the difference between the national park area and the whole area of South Korea. The difference between current and future species richness of plants could be the disappearance of a large number of native and northern plants from South Korea. The additional reason could be the expansion of potential habitat of southern plants under climate change. However, if species dispersal to a suitable habitat was not achieved, the species richness will be reduced drastically. The results were different depending on whether species were dispersed or not. This study will be useful for the conservation planning, establishment of the protected area, restoration of biological species and strategies for adaptation of climate change.
  • 4.

    Evaluation of DOM Variations and Reduction Effects in Bioreation Artificial Wetland

    JOO KWANGJIN | Lee Jong Jun | 김태경 and 4other persons | 2018, 27(6) | pp.582~594 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, the vertical and horizontal flow wetlands were combined in series to create conditions for flow in the exhalation and anaerobic state with the aim of monitoring the variability and reduction of dissolved organic matter in the bio-reactive artificial wetlands, and the performance assessment was conducted as acrylic reaction groups by designing artificial wetlands that filled the functional residuals. In case of artificial wetlands in vertical and horizontal planes, the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the reaction tank was measured as 2.7 mg/L in the vertical flow wetlands under exhalation, and N.D. in the horizontal flow artificial wetlands under anaerobic conditions. The test was carried out by changing the operation time to 140 min, 80 min, and 60 min. The test was conducted with the same natural operation time of 20 min depending on the operation time. All hours of operation were shown to be due to microbial activity. In 3D-EEM, it was found that the longer the driving time was taken, the more reduction the organic compounds in the areas of insoluble human resources, III and V. Further research on the mechanism analysis of future reduction effects is expected to be carried out, but the findings are expected to contribute to the development of technologies for reducing obfuscated substances using artificial wetlands in the future.
  • 5.

    Evaluation of Fluoride Removal Effect with Growth of Attached Microbial Community in Middle and Small Stream

    김태경 | 류서영 | 박윤아 and 4other persons | 2018, 27(6) | pp.595~603 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study was conducted to understand the growth of attached microbial community in small and medium streams of Gyeonggi-do and the removal efficiency of fluoride with changes in growth. The sites monitoring were carried out for 12 weeks at the P1 and P2(P1 is the point where the discharge water flows. P2 is the downstream point of about 2 km flow), and investigated the water quality and the biomass analysis of the attached microbial community. The growth of the attached microbial community increased up to the 7th investigation, and it was observed that detachment phenomenon occurred. Influencing factors about growth of the attached microbial community were flow rate, velocity, and organic material(T-N & T-P). Meanwhile, fluoride content of attached microbial community also tended to increase until the 7th investigation, and decrease from the 8th. It is assumed that fluoride content has also be reduced with the detachment phenomenon of the attached microbial community. It is expected that this will contribute to the evaluation and management of the use of attached microbial community as a means of stream management. The application of techniques using the attached microbial community should include basic investigation of factors that may affect the growth of the attached microbial community and replacement of the attachment plate according to the time of removal.
  • 6.

    Changes in Temperature and Humidity in the Forest Caused by Development

    Jaeyong Choi | 박명수 | 김수경 and 6other persons | 2018, 27(6) | pp.604~617 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    As the depletion of forests became more widespread due to the increase in the number of roads, the research was conducted on the relationship between temperature and humidity in the forests, assuming that the forests around the roads were affected. Through the forest monitoring, the temperature and humidity of coniferous forests and broadleaf forests in Sedong and Gongju areas were observed at three point of 10m, 20m and 30m from the road boundary to the inside of the forest, respectively. In Yeongdong area, for more reliable results, it was observed from the point of 0m, 10m, and 20m. During the study period, so it was expected the change in tree growth was small, the change of temperature and humidity inside the forest by the road was compared with the temperature and humidity from the road to the inside of the forest from September 2017 to January 2018, the changes of temperature and humidity inside the forest due to linear development such as roads were quantitatively analyzed. Using the HOBO data logger (MX2301, Onset Corp.), the temperature and humidity changes of each site were measured, and the average of the changes have been analyzed monthly. In the case of Gongju coniferous forests in September 2017, the average weekly temperature is 0.57 °C higher than the forest outside from the forest boundary and 1.23 °C higher than the inside of the forest, at night in November 2017, in Sedong broadleaf forests. That is, the ability to control the temperature and humidity of the forests along the road was larger and less variable as the distance from the road boundary to the inside of the forest increased. In this study, it is considered that the high degree of change in temperature and humidity of the forest and the surrounding area due to artificial linear development such as roads will affect the growth of trees. This results could serve as a basis for studying the quantitative scope of linear development affecting forest growth and for managing forest change caused by linear development.
  • 7.

    Analysis of Ecological Network According to Invalidation of Decision on Urban Parks : Focused on Busan

    Kang, Jung Eun | Hee-Sun Choi | HWANG HEESOO and 1other persons | 2018, 27(6) | pp.618~634 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined ecological network change affected by the 2020 invalidation of decisions on urban parks with a focus on Busan. The analyses were conducted to five scenarios using FRAGSTATS. The green space in scenario 1 assuming all development for unexecuted urban park would decrease by 7,339.75 ha compared to scenario 5, which assumes the entire conservation of unexecuted urban parks, and the fragmentation of the ecological space in scenario 1 increased. In scenario 1, 8.06% of the total area of core habitats and 28.23% of connectivity would decrease. However, scenario 3, which assumes the conservation of environmentally sensitive areas of unexecuted urban parks, can achieve 94% of green space and 95.6% of the connectivity of the scenario 5. Scenario 3 has effects similar to scenario 5 in terms of defragmentation. Thus, conservation of environmentally sensitive areas in parks is critical and effective in maintaining ecological networks.
  • 8.

    Analysis of the Seasonal Concentration Differences of Particulate Matter According to Land Cover of Seoul – Focusing on Forest and Urbanized Area –

    Taeyoung Choi | Ho-Gyeong Moon | Da-In KANG and 1other persons | 2018, 27(6) | pp.635~646 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study sought to identify the characteristics of seasonal concentration differences of particulate matter influenced by land cover types associated with particulate matter emission and reductions, namely forest and urbanized regions. PM10 and PM2.5 was measured with quantitative concentration in 2016 on 23 urban air monitoring stations in Seoul, classified the stations into 3 groups based on the ratio of urbanized and forest land covers within a range of 3km around station, and analysed the differences in particulate matter concentration by season. The center values for the urbanized and forest land covers by group were 53.4% and 34.6% in Group A, 61.8% and 16.5% in Group B, and 76.3% and 6.7% in Group C. The group-specific concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 by season indicated that the concentration of Group A, with high ratio of forests, was the lowest in all seasons, and the concentration of Group C, with high ratio of urbanized regions, had the highest concentration from spring to autumn. These inter-group differences were statistically significant. The concentration of Group C was lower than Group B in the winter; however, the differences between Groups B to C in the winter were not statistically significant. Group A concentration compared to the high-concentration groups by season was lower by 8.5%, 11.2%, 8.0%, 6.8% for PM10 in the order of spring, summer, autumn and winter, and 3.5%, 10.0%, 4.1% and 3.3% for PM2.5. The inter-group concentration differences for both PM10 and PM2.5 were the highest in the summer and grew smaller in the winter, this was thought to be because the forests’ ability to reduce particulate matter emissions was the most pronounced during the summer and the least pronounced during the winter. The influence of urbanized areas on particulate matter concentration was lower compared to the influence of forests. This study provided evidence that the particulate matter concentration was lower for regions with higher ratios of forests, and subsequent studies are required to identify the role of green space to manage particulate matter concentration in cities.
  • 9.

    Suggestion of Zoning Criteria Based on the Assessment System for River Environment

    Seung-Hoon Chun | 2018, 27(6) | pp.647~657 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study was carried out to review as criteria for zoning at management plan for river restoration, in case of naturalness of river environment and suitability of water friendly activity suggested at assessment system of river environment in Korea. As a result of reviewing law and guidelines concerned, historic & cultural resources used as criteria for preservation zone, it was judged that the historical and cultural value as the preservation zone needs to be examined in connection with water friendly activity zone. In this study, we propose a sequential evaluation method to distinguish the water friendly activity zone by applying suitability of water friendly activity reflecting land use social characteristics, followed division of preservation and restoration zone at the first stage by the naturalness of river environment reflecting the natural environmental characteristics as a result of application to the test bed, Gap and Yudeung streams. In particular, it was concluded that the results of the present study provided more clear criteria for the problem that the last criteria for zoning did not reflect the difference between the left and the right side of stream, or the designation of the excessive water friendly zone. On the other hand, the criteria for designation in this study reflect the characteristics of various river environments as well as the setting of assessment unit based on the physical characteristics of rivers, and other legal regulations and local situations should be adjusted and supplemented in administrative procedures.
  • 10.

    Study on Standardization of the Environmental Impact Evaluation Method of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields near High Voltage Overhead Transmission Lines

    박성애 | Joon-sig Jung | Tae-Bong Choi and 3other persons | 2018, 27(6) | pp.658~673 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Social conflicts with extremely low frequency magnetic field(ELF-MF) exposures are expected to exacerbate due to continued increase in electric power demand and construction of high voltage transmission lines(HVTL). However, in current environmental impact assessment(EIA) act, specific guidelines have not been included concretely about EIA of ELF-MF. Therefore, this study conducted a standardization study on EIA method through case analysis, field measurement, and expert consultation of the EIA for the ELF-MF near HVTL which is the main cause of exposures. The status of the EIA of the ELF-MF and the problem to be improved are derived and the EIA method which can solve it is suggested. The main contents of the study is that the physical characteristics of the ELF-MF affected by distance and power load should be considered at all stages of EIA(survey of the current situation - Prediction of the impacts - preparation of mitigation plan ? post EIA planning). Based on this study, we also suggested the ‘Measurement method for extremely low frequency magnetic field on transmission line’ and ‘Table for extremely low frequency magnetic field measurement record on transmission line’. The results of this study can be applied to the EIA that minimizes the damage and conflict to the construction of transmission line and derives rational measures at the present time when the human hazard to long term exposure of the ELF-MF is unclear.
  • 11.

    Water Quality Monitoring of the Ecological Pond Constructed by LID Technique in Idle Space

    Changhyuk, Ahn | Song Ho-Myeon | Joon-ha Park and 2other persons | 2018, 27(6) | pp.674~684 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to construct ecological pond using LID technique in order to create naturally comfortable community space in urban idle space. The specification of the ecological pond is 110 m2 of surface area, 0.45±0.02 m of average depth, and bed material is composed of gravel (diameter ≤60 mm), sand (diameter ≤ 2 mm) and bentonite. Rainfall and water depth monitoring were conducted to determine the annual characteristics of inflow of the water for the ecological pond, result of total rainfall was 1,287 mm and showed a seasonal imbalance that accounted for 71.3% (918 mm) during July to August, but the annual mean water depth was kept constant at 0.45±0.02 m due to the secondary water source. Annual trends of basic water quality showed a significant changes according to the season, such as water temperature (5.2 ~ 28.8 °C), DO (5.0 ~ 13.8 mg/L), EC (113 ~ 265 μS/cm). BOD, COD, TN, and TP in physicochemical water quality tended to increase after October, but the ion parameters such as NH3 and PO4 3- were generally low. Phytoplankton indicators Chl-a and BGA (blue green algae) showed a sharp increase from July to August, and green algae (Selenastrum bibraianum, Pediastrum boryanum etc.) and filamentous blue green algae (Phormidium sp.) emerged as a dominant species. The ion parameters (F-, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) were strongly correlated with the Cl- as a conservative substance (R=0.70~0.97, p<0.05). Water quality was influenced by the ambient environment such as seasonal changes or rainfall, and it was closely related to fluctuation of the inflow of the water. In the future, it is necessary to consider ecological connections by referring to the characteristics surveyed in this study in order to effectively manage the water quality and biodiversity of the ecological pond in idle space.
  • 12.

    Application of Stable Isotopic Niche Space to Large River Monitoring: Analysis of Benthic Macroinvertebrates of the Seongchon Wier

    서동환 | HYE-JI OH | Jin Mei Yan and 8other persons | 2018, 27(6) | pp.685~694 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    We measured ecological niche space (ENS) using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of benthic macroinvertebrates to estimate its applicability for large river assessment. In particular, we compared ENSs of selected macroinvertebrates between upper and lower area of Seungchon Weir in Yeongsan River to estimate the impact of weir on biological community. We also measured basic water quality and community indices including benthic macroinvertebrates index (BMI) to estimate their correlations with calculated ENS. ENS was calculated using the Bayesian Stable Isotope in R statistics (package “SIBER”). The results showed that seasonal variations in water quality and community indices were found, but there was no apparent tendency between upper and lower area of the Seungchon Weir in June (before rainy season) and August (after rainy season). However, ENS of benthic macroinvertebrates markedly decreased across the weir in both June and August regardless of changes in water quality. This means the physical change of the stream due to the weir cause decrease of ecological isotopic niche space of benthic macroinvertebrates regardless of water quality, suggesting physical modification by the weir can affect the interaction between habitat condition and macroinvertebrates. Therefore, the ecological isotopic niche space can be a useful supplementary indicator for the river ecosystem assessment.
  • 13.

    Composting Method and Physicochemical Characteristics of By-products from Home Garden Plants and Small Herbivore Feces

    Dae-Gyun Kim | 김진영 | Won-Suk Lee and 5other persons | 2018, 27(6) | pp.695~703 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study was conducted to suggest a sustainable farming practice for resource recycling in vegetable gardens of North Korea. In North Korea, farmers are allowed to own private vegetable gardens less than 100 m2. However, usage of fertilizers in private vegetable gardens is very limited due to economic sanctions by UN security council. If North and South Korea initiated the cooperative action in the near future, agricultural sector would be the highest priority cooperation area. Considering the current North Korean situation in agriculture, we would like to suggest a method for producing organic fertilizer manure. For raw materials for producing manure, we selected corn byproduct, which is the most abundant material, and rabbits’ feces, which are easily obtained from individual private farms in North Korea. As we cannot get corn byproducts and rabbits’ feces from North Korea, we prepared samples of corn byproducts and rabbits; feces from many places in South Korea. After statistical analysis of variance, there was no significant difference in the T-N contents of corn byproducts from Gyeonggi, Gangwon, Chungnam, Chungbuk, Jeollabuk and Gyeongsangnam-dos, which indicates that the fertilizing quality of corn byproducts does not vary significantly in the spatial scale of South. Korea. In this sense, if we use corn samples from Gyeonggi province, they would not be very different from those of North Korean regions. Physicochemical properties of rabbits’ feces were different between those eating feed grains and those eating plants only. Hence, we used rabbits’ feces of the rabbits from Yeonchun area, which were fed by plants only. Using three different mixing ratios of corn byproducts and rabbits’ feces, composting was conducted for 60 days. The mixing ratio of 1:1 produced the manure with % T-N of 1.98% and OM/N ratio of 31.7 after 30 days of composting, which is comparable to the quality of commercial manure.
  • 14.

    Evaluation of Discharge-Water Quality Characteristics and River Grade Classification of Jinwi River Unit Basin

    Yong-Chul Cho | 최진우 | 노창완 and 3other persons | 2018, 27(6) | pp.704~716 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study is to examine the characteristics analysis of the discharge and water quality based on TPLMS (Total Pollution Load Management System) in the Jinwi River unit basin, and to propose a management plan by selecting the point that needs improvement of water quality in order to achieve the target water quality. We evaluated the discharge and water quality characteristics, statistical analysis, daily delivery load and daily delivery density, grade classification, for 14 total pollution load site’s from 2014 to 2016 year in Jinwi river unit basin. The average discharge of Jinwi river unit basin is 22.411 m3/s and discharge of Hwangguji River is 32.8% and the water quality characteristics along the tributary river were clarified spatially. As the result, it was analyzed that Seongeun River is an indirect indicator of organic pollutants, Gwanri River is a seasonal factor, Osan River and Hwangguji River both affect water quality. Estimation of delivered pollutant loads at the HG-3 site was 6,470.4 BOD kg/day, 6,846.7 TN kg/day and delivered pollutant loads density increased to 220.9 BOD kg/day/km2, 22.4 TP kg/day/km2 at the HG-4 site. This result demonstrates that the total pollution load site needed to improve water quality of the Jinwi River unit basin was HG-3 site.
  • 15.

    The Variation Analysis on Spatial Distribution of PM10 and PM2.5 in Seoul

    Jeong, Jong Chul | 2018, 27(6) | pp.717~726 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    PM(Particulate Matter) cause serious diseases of air pollution. Most of the studies have analyzed local distribution trends using satellite images or modeling techniques. However, the method using the spatial interpolation method based on the meteorological value is insufficient in Korea. In this study, monthly spatial distribution of PM10 and PM2.5 in January, February, March, and April of 2018 Seoul Metropolitan City were analyzed based on 39 PM monitoring networks. In addition, a distribution map showing the difference between PM10 and PM2.5 was based on the distribution obtained through this study. The regions of high PM10 and PM2.5 emissions were selected. In addition, the correlation between PM10 and PM2.5 was confirmed through the distribution map. This study analyzed the spatial distribution variation results of analyzing PM10 and PM2.5 in Seoul through spatial analysis technique. As a result of this study, it was confirmed that PM10 shows high measured value on the roadside measurement station.