Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.74

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pISSN : 1225-7184

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2019, Vol.28, No.2

  • 1.

    Non-parametric Trend Analysis Using Long-term Monitoring Data of Water Quality in Paldang Lake

    Hangsoo Cho ORD ID , Noh Hye-Ran ORD ID , Ju Yeon Son ORD ID and 4 other persons | 2019, 28(2) | pp.83~100 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study, we conducted a non-parametric trend test (Seasonal Kendall tests, LOWESS) and Cross Correlation.We aimed to identify water quality trends using the weekly data for 9 variables (Water Temperature, EC, DO, BOD, COD, T-N, T-P, TOC and Chl-a) collected from 4 sites in the Paldang Lake from 2004.01 to 2016.12. According to the Seasonal Kendall test, Water temperature increased but EC, T-N and T-P decreased trend. LOWESS showed that BOD was gradually decreased from 2013 to 2016. but COD gradually increased between 2012 and 2016. As a result, it was confirmed that the period between 2012 and 2013 was a turning point in the increase of COD along with the decrease of BOD at all sites in Paldang Lake. Results of Cross Correlation showed that there was no time difference between all of Water variables and Sites. In this study, it is necessary to analyze the cause of the transition period and to monitoring the water quality more precisely for better water quality management in Paldang Lake.
  • 2.

    Analysis on Socio-cultural Aspect of Willingness to Pay for Air Quality (PM10, PM2.5) Improvement in Seoul

    Kim, Jaewan ORD ID , Tae Yong Jung ORD ID , Taedong Lee ORD ID and 1 other persons | 2019, 28(2) | pp.101~112 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Over the last few years, air pollution (PM10, PM2.5) in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) has emerged as one ofthe most concerned and threatening environmental issues among the residents. It brings about various harmful effects on human health, as well as ecosystem and industrial activities. Governments and individuals pay various costs to mitigate the level of air pollutants. This study aims to empirically find the willingness to pays (WTP) among the parents from different socio-cultural groups - international and domestic groups to mitigate air pollution (PM10, PM2.5) in their residential area. Contingent Valuation Methods (CVM) is used with employing single-bounded dichotomous choice technique to elicit the respondent’s WTP. Using tobit (censored regression) and probit models, the monthly mean WTP of the pooled sample for green electricity which contributes to improve air quality in the region was estimated as 3,993 KRW (3.58 USD). However, the mean WTP between the international group and domestic group through a sub-sample analysis shows broad distinction as 3,325KRW (2.98 USD) and 4,449 KRW (3.98 USD) respectively. This is because that socio-cultural characteristics of each group such as socio-economic status, personal experience, trust in institutions and worldview are differently associated with theWTP. Based on the results,the society needs to raise awareness of lay people to find a strong linkage between the current PM issue and green electricity. Also, it needs to improve trust in the government’s pollution abatement policy to mobilize more assertive participation of the people from different socio-cultural background.
  • 3.

    The Characteristics of Black Carbon of Seoul

    박종성 ORD ID , Jeongho Kim ORD ID , Inho Song ORD ID and 6 other persons | 2019, 28(2) | pp.113~128 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The concentration and coating thickness of black carbon (BC) were measured along with fine dust in the fall of 2018, at the Seoul Metropolitan Area Intensive Monitoring Station (SIMS). In fall, the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 was 23 ± 12.6 μg/m3 and 12 ± 5.8 μg/m3, respectively, lower than that in other seasons. The BC level, measured using an Aethalometer, was 0.73 ± 0.43 μg/m3, while the levels of elemental carbon (EC) and refractory-BC (rBC), measured by semi-continuouscarbon analyzer (SOCEC) and single particle soot photometer (SP2), were 0.34 ± 0.18 μg/m3 and 0.32 ± 0.18 μg/m3, respectively. As such,the concentration level differed according to the measurement method, but its time-series distribution and diurnal variation showed the same trends. The BC concentration at SIMS was primarily affected by automobiles with higherlevels of BC during morning and evening commuting times due to increased traffic congestion. rBC, measured by SP2, had a peak concentration and coating thickness of 84 nm and 43 nm,respectively. Notably,the coating thickness had an inverse relationship with particle size.
  • 4.

    Specificity of Majangcheon (Chuncheon) Based on Fish Community

    Lee Hankyu ORD ID , 이광열 ORD ID , 장창원 ORD ID and 3 other persons | 2019, 28(2) | pp.129~140 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Majangcheon is a small agricultural stream which is located in Chuncheon-si, Gangwondo. To understand ecological characteristics of Majangcheon as biological habitats, we surveyed its physical environment and fishes from June 2016 to September 2016. The altitudinal difference between lowest and highest point ofthe stream was 3 meters and the first-order stream under a map drawn on a scale of 1:25,000. The flow rate of stream was slow in overall with 0.09-0.48 m·s-1. More than 50% of clay were found in all points except for the point St. 3 in the riverbed structure surveyed. A total of 2,532 individuals of 22 species in nine families were collected from Majangcheon. Of them, stillwaterliving species (Acheilognathinae andCarassius auratus) and floating species (Zacco platypus and Oryziassinensis) were mainly collected.In Majangcheon,thus, both of stillwater-living and floating fishes were specifically coexisted. The correspondence analysis, based on fishes collected from Majangcheon and past research, showed that Majangcheon is closer to the flat streams in Gyeonggi-do rather than the mountainous streams in Gangwon-do but it appeared as an independent group from those of two regions. As a result, Majangcheon is a stream with specificity of fish community.
  • 5.

    Economic Efficiency of the BAT Standards in a Multi-pollutant Environment

    Taek-Whan Han ORD ID , Lim Dong Soon ORD ID | 2019, 28(2) | pp.141~151 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Korea has passed the Act on the Integrated Control of Pollutant-Discharging Facilities in 2015, and the integrated environmental management under the BAT standard is underway. To summarize the nature ofintegrated environmental management, itis the regulation by the integration of the management of the multi-pollutant source and the technical standard of BATs. In general, inenvironmental economics, regulation-based on technical standards are known to be inefficient. This paper attempts to evaluate the efficiency of BAT standards from an economic point of view. A simple multi-pollutant model demonstrates that the inefficiency of the environmental tax with imperfect information in a single pollutant situation is amplified under multi-pollutant conditions. The simultaneous introduction of BAT and IPPC can be partially explained by this logic. It is also highlighted by the strengthening of BAT standards by EU, as a countermeasure to the potential deterioration of air quality caused by the change of effective environmental taxes accompanying the fuel and emission price changes.
  • 6.

    Exposure and Risk Assessments of Multimedia of Arsenic in the Environment

    Ki_Tae Sim ORD ID , 김동훈 ORD ID , Jae-woo Lee ORD ID and 4 other persons | 2019, 28(2) | pp.152~168 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The element arsenic, which is abundant in the Earth’s crust, is used for various industrial purposes including materials for disease treatment and household goods. Various human activities, such as the disposal of soil waste, metal mining and smelting, and combustion of fossil fuels, have caused the pollution ofthe environment with arsenic.Recently, guidelines for arsenic in rice have been adopted by the Korean ministry of food and drug safety to prevent health risks based on rice consumption. Because of the exposure to arsenic and its accumulation in the human body through various channels, such as air inhalation, skin contact, ingestion of drinking water, and food consumption, integrated multimedia risk assessment is required to adopt appropriate risk management policies. Therefore, integrated human health risk assessment was carried outin this study using integrated exposure assessment based on multimedia (e.g., air, water, and soil) and multi-route (e.g., oral, inhalation, and dermal) scenarios. The results show that oral uptake via drinking wateris the most common pathway of arsenic into the human body, accounting for 57%-96% of the total arsenic exposure. Among various age groups, the highest exposures to arsenic were observed in infants because the body weight of infants is low and the surface areas ofinfant bodies are large. Based on the results ofthe exposure assessment,the cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated. The cancer risk for CTE and RME is in the range of 2.3E-05 to 6.7E-05 and thus is negligible because it does not exceed the cancer probability of 1.0E-04 for all age groups. On the other hand, the cancer risk for RME varies from 6.4E-05 to 1.8E-04 and from 1.3E-04 to 1.8E-04 for infants and preschool children, exceeding the excess cancerrisk of 1.0E-04. The non-cancerrisks range from 5.4E-02 to 1.9E-01 and from 1.5E-01 to 6.8E-01, respectively. They do not exceed the hazard index 1 for all scenarios and all ages.
  • 7.

    Assessment of Biological Water Quality Using Epilithic Diatoms in the Upper Region of Nakdong River

    Choi Jae Sin ORD ID , 채현식 ORD ID , Han Soon Kim ORD ID | 2019, 28(2) | pp.169~182 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study assessed biological water quality using epilithic diatoms in the Yeong river, Naeseong stream and Wi stream in the upper region of the Nakdong river from May to October 2016. Epilithic diatoms were not mobile, so they could reflect long-term water quality. The sampled epilithic diatoms were identified a total 158 taxa which were composed to 2 orders, 3 suborders, 8 families, 34 genera, 143 species and 15 varieties. Dominant species were Achnanthes convergens and Achnanthes minutissima at Yeong river, Nitzschia inconspicua at Naeseong stream, and Achnanthes minutissima, Cocconeis placentula var. lineata and Navicula minima at Wi stream. As a result of the CCA, Electrical conductivity, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were important factors determining the diatom species composition in the upper region of the Nakdong river. The correlation between diatom indices (DAIpo & TDI) measured to be high in the correlation coefficient (0.87) from the result of correlation analysis. In the result of the assessment of biological water quality using DAIpo and TDI, Yeong river was rated as class A at most sites. Naeseong stream was rated as class C to D at all sites except for N1 which was rated as Class A. Wi stream was rated as class B to C for DAIpo of W1, and TDI was rated as class D. The assessment of biological water quality at this site showed inferior TDI result compared to that of DAIpo. DAIpo and TDI of W2 were rated as class A to D, and the water quality has changed a lot. W3 and W4 were mostly rated as class B and C respectively.