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2008, Vol., No.22

  • 1.

    Esthetic Effects and Formal Changes in <Kyungbokgung Junggun Seungduk Gara> and <Bukgul Junggunga>

    ko, Soon-Hee | 2008, (22) | pp.1~24 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    <Kyungbokgung Junggun Seungduk Gara> and <Bukgul Junggunga> are unpublished Gasa. These Gasas were created after the Kyungbokgung (Kyungbok Palace) was reconstructed in 1869. The authors for both of the Gasas were not known. In chapter 2, the esthetic effects and meaning of <Kyungbokgung Junggun Seungduk Gara> were described. The history and reconstruction of Kyungbokgung (Kyungbok Palace) were described briefly and praised. The object of the praise was focused on the Kyungbokgung (Kyungbok Palace). This Gasa could be differentiated by the interest on General Lee, SunShin. In chapter 3, the esthetic effects and meaning of <Bukgul Junggunga> were described. Two Third of the work were spared for the geographical features of China and Chosun and famous kings. One third of the work was spared for the history and reconstruction of Kyungbokgung (Kyungbok Palace) and the labor was praised. It is very hard to understand the work due to the usage of difficult Chinese phrases. It revealed the concept on the national border line between China and Chosun. In chapter 4, the structural characteristics of two works were described. Both of the works used refrain phrases(repeating phrases). <Kyungbokgung Junggun Seungduk Gara> used mechanical for the rule of versification and <Bukgul Junggunga> used Chinese Character Hyunto style. Rule of versification, 4 by 4 phrase and Chinese Character Hyunto style were the characteristic style for Gasa in the civilization period. In chapter 5, the meaning of the Gasa literature were dealt for the two works.
  • 2.

    On the external factors involved in the creation of Goryeo folk songs

    김명준 | 2008, (22) | pp.25~59 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of the current study is to detect foreign elements during formation and development of Goryeo folk songs and investigate their meaning. Therefore, the study examined the origin of Tang music, transmission of China and the history of Goryeo's acception focusing on the role of Tang music on formation of Goryeo folk songs, and reviewed characteristics of Tang music, influence of Tang music on court feast culture of both countries, etc. Examining the origin and transmission of Tang music through the Sui, Tang, Yuan and Ming Dynasties, Sui and Tang created court feast music using a lot of national music, especially music from the countries to the west of China and the mandolin. And this acception of foreign music became an opportunity of creation of classic literature. During the Song Dynasty, court feast music was expanded by importing foreign music like western music and foreign musical instruments like stringed instruments while succeeding feast music of the Sui and Tang Dynasties. Development of Daegok (Great Song), large-scaled art integrating songs and dancing, caused qualitative and quantitative change of classic literature. The court of the Yuan Dynasty actively received music and musical instruments of other races while succeeding feast music of the Sui, Tang, Song and Yuan Dynasties. At the same time, Sangok(a kind of song) and Japgeuk(a kind of play) were introduced. Like this, the fact that China tried to accept cultural assets of various races when they integrated many races and broad regions was a result of their efforts to enhance own cultural level. Korea's imports of Tang music began from the King Munmu of the Silla Dynasty, and Silla's music and court feast were expanded while accepting Gochuiak(advocative music), feast music, and Tang's musical instruments like Bakpan, Daego, pipe, mandolin, etc. Imports of Tang music were very active during the Goryeo Dynasty. During the King Gwangjong, the Goryeo royal court was able to secure royal court dance and Sansa of Tang music as feast music through imports of Gyobangak and Saak, and expand own music using musical instruments like Banghyang, Tongso(a six-holed bamboo flute), Jeok, mandolin, Ajaeng, Janggo, Haegeum(a fiddle), etc. In addition, Tang music of the Goryeo contained western elements as well because Tang music was formed on the basis of western music. Therefore, there are traces of western music in <Yeonhwadae>, <Gamhwangeunryeong>, <Nangdosaryeong>, <Sagangwolman>, etc. Also Daegok and Sansa gave a lot of influences on formation of Goryeo folk songs. Sokak Jeongjae includes more western traces than Sokakgasa, especially <Jeongeup> has foreign features in a sense that Mugo, a tool for dancing, is a foreign musical instrument and musical tone and melody of a mandolin, a western musical instrument, has Tibet's Rolo rhythm. As for <Dongdong>, Abak, a tool for dancing, originated from the west and Changsa(lyrics) originated from Donhwanggok, while as for <Muae>, Horo, a tool for dancing, originated from the west and a record specifies that it is from the west. Therefore, those three works have outstanding exotic elements beyond China. In addition, it is possible to say that Sokakgasa such as <Cheoyongga>, <Ssanghwajeom>, <Cheongsanbyeolgok>, <Isanggok>, <Gasiri>, etc. were influenced from foreign countries in consisting the whole pieces or part of them in terms of origin, music, poetic word, mixture of multiple languages and rhetoric aspects. They have exotic features beyond China because of the following reasons. With respect to <Cheoyongga>, there is a possibility that Cheoyong is a Islam person and its dance is similar to western dance; in <Ssanghwajeom>, use of poetic words, the same style as Japgeuk of the Yuan Dynasty influenced by the west, and Janggu-type music with foreign style; in <Cheongsanbyeolgok>, use of Haegeum, a western musical instrument, the deer symbol is associated with Ghazal, a romantic love poem created in the middle Asia; four phases of <Isanggok> can be interpreted into Sanskrit; in <Gasiri>, use of a refrain originated from the tradition of Daegok of Tang songs. As stated above, Tang music of the Goryeo Dynasty not only was evidence presenting that musical exchange of Asia included the Goryeo Dynasty, but also prepared an opportunity to improve music of the Goryeo Dynasty to a world-class level. As a result, Goryeo Sokyo, luxurious masterpiece of Asian royal court feast art in the Middle Ages, could be created.
  • 3.

    Introduction of <Dongdong> into Goryeo Music as Marine Music and Its Meaning in Music History

    김세종 | 2008, (22) | pp.61~77 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study has a meaning in two different aspects. One of them is the introductory period of Dongdong to Goryro music as marine music, and the other is its musical meaning. As we know, there are various academic studies on Dongdong in that it is the first Dalgeori(monthly events) song in our country, However, private studies based on bibliographical examination on it are very scanty. Therefore, this study is a private study on marine music rather than studies on genre of Dongdong, focusing on bibliography. As a result, this study identified that Dongdog was introduced to Goryeo music as follows: ① In about 1354〜1364 where Japanese enemies frequently invaded our country at late Goryeo, Yutak completed Dongdong and Jangsaengpoga, which was introduced to Goryeo music. Furthermore, ② it succeeded to the custom of 'Chaesi' of ancient Books of Odes which looked at trend and manners of the public based on customary music. And, ③ its musical meaning is that it was developed through the custom of 'Chesi(collecting song)'. The meaning of the words that song wonderful life and custom of the public is found at the spirit of odes that share grief and joy together with the public. Most of the odes have inspirational nature. Therefore, introduction of Dongdong into Goryro music and the spirit of odes had a great influence on production of Yongbiochonga of early Joseon Period, and 'Hyeokjeong' 3 of Jeong-dae-up created under the regime of King Sejong shows its custom.
  • 4.

    The research of literary art in <Nongga>

    kimjinwook | 2008, (22) | pp.79~101 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Wibaekgyuui <Nongga> is a pleasure to read literary works. <Nongga> it is enjoyable to read and pleasant to tell readers why the task is a reader's literary researchers. From the angle of <Nongga> carry out aesthetic beauty was discussed. But from inside the literary text <Nongga> US operations are insufficient to find that the judge. So, in terms of the stilted and strange aspect vocabulary well familiar with the beauty of aesthetic A discussion of the double harmony. In terms of style and use of the verb a vocabulary metonymy creative Elaenia generally stepped out of customs, but through ilsangeo literary intimacy and beauty of the phrase is the fact that securing doing <Nongga> literary achievements of the claim. The most common type yeonsijo formal aspects gokgyewa 9 by the friendly and accommodating gokgyereul Elaenia type of destruction that sound strange coming from the harmonious beauty <Nongga> aesthetic based on the claims. <Nongga> thoroughly beauty of the form and content of literary research to find a classic attitude do you think you need in the research literature. Acceptance of the author's works and influence with involved social change beyond the classic literature of this research methodology is now the general idea that the judge in the attempted this task requires a lot of weaknesses, it is true. However, the methodology is clearly needed. Literature is literature itself, as a pleasure-giving because readers. Want a chance to discuss it later than jeongchihan.
  • 5.

    Studies on the Images of Yi Sun-shin portrayed in 19th century literature -focused to Chinese poems-

    박동욱 | 2008, (22) | pp.103~131 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The Great Admiral Yi Sun-shin has been portrayed in various fields of art. This study focused on literatures, especially Chinese poems, and limited the periodical background as 19thcentury, when foreign countries had overpowered the nation. First of all, this study examined the lists of Admiral Yi Sun-shin relevant Chinese poems, collected from the anthologies of Maecheon Poetic Circles. This is the first scholarly attempt to excerpt, collect and enumerate Admiral Yi relevant Chinese poems in quite amount of volume. It is highly remarkable and noticeable phenomena, that there were many Chinese poems created with the theme of Admiral Yi, in the era of 19thcentury when foreign powers had shown their invasive ambitions. This is the time when foreign powers overcame and maneuvering Korean politics and the intellectuals expressed more and more feeling of helplessness since they could not do anything to overcome the reality. Sometimes, they showed angers or expressed self-destructive feelings. They wanted Admiral Yi to revive and sweep away the foreign power, which were sometimes compared to filthy devils, with the help of Geobukseon that Admiral Yi created. There can be three different types of Admiral Yi relevant Chinese poems in this specific era. First is recalling and reflecting on Admiral Yi, and this type is the most general type. The writers visit Admiral Yi relevant places, the brought Admiral Yi relevant images to mind. Second is writing about the absence of hero and the dark and gloomy days of the nation. These poems have certain hues of deplore. Thirdly, some poems proposed and anticipated for great heroes who could win over foreign powers. Historic heroes are consolations and aspirations for people at that time. The general public could hope for the better future with the firm belief to see such heroes once again. At that time, Admiral Yi was not only a patriotic hero who saved the once endangered nation, but also the tutelary deity who could have saved Korea from foreign powers. The people united thinking of him and could salvage themselves from the helplessness and self-destructive feelings by reflecting on Admiral Yi. Even till now, Admiral Yi and Geobukseon is still appealing to general public, maybe the most attractive historic figure of Korea. He will always inspire us as a courageous hero who will be with us forever.
  • 6.

    A Syudy on the Song Kang Chong Chol's Poetry

    Park,Bae-Sik | 2008, (22) | pp.133~157 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims at not newly discovering characters or values in Song Kang Chong Chol's literature, which has been recognized as if it was created on the foundation of different literature view and sentiment, but finding out the homogeneity of inherent essence of his poetry and chinese poem(漢詩) by noticing that his works were ultimately, outcomes of a unitany sentiment of writers. The most noticeable aspect of Song Kang's literary characteristics is also the pragmatic theory that was commonly found out in sadaepu(사대부: a man of noble birth) at that time. This was the reflection of basic thoughts showed in Sadaepu who had respect for confucianism and bureaucratism, and was essential to the standard of value to realize realistic ideal. As a material offering the settlement of trouble, it was a liquor that ofthen appeared in his works. He indulged in liquor advocated intimacy with nature through refined life, but such an attitude was removed from hismind was only empty cry. Song Kang is the very poet that perfectly harmonized the ideological world on pragmatic theory with the sentimental world on the theory of exprssion regardless of form and transcription on the basis of a spirit of literature.
  • 7.

    The esthetic pattern and character of the ‘Dongdong’ of Koryeogayo

    양희찬 | 2008, (22) | pp.159~184 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study is focused on analizing esthetic pattern of the Dongdong(動動) and showing it's character and the character of preface. Dongdong used Wollyeongga(月令歌) style. But, after analizing closeness of the content and context, it is revealed that Dongdong is divided into six groups, not like usual works that follows classification of four seasons. And, all 12 months don't show seasonable customs. FebㆍMayㆍJuneㆍJulyㆍAugㆍSep show seasonable customs but JanㆍMarㆍApril, natural phenomena, OctoㆍNovㆍDec, arbitrary material. The character of Dongdong is Songdojisa(頌禱之詞) not Eumsa(淫詞). The preface play a role of telling supplication that is original intention to make 12months song. 12months song has big structure ; January → April → August → September → December. 1st paragraph is preface, 2nd is February March April songs that show the relation between teller and ‘noksa’(錄事), 3rd is May June July August songs that show the inclination to the ‘Im’, 4th is September song that is the marvelous place that shows steep change, a wonder of the pattern of Dong dong. 5th is October December November January song. October December November song show concretely mental conflict of the teller who was failed to get concern from ‘Im’(임). This mental conflict is showed in January song also. But it is showed by October December November song because there is no situation of the teller in January song. From this contextual character, it is considered that January song play a role of prelude that makes the following songs to reveal gradually the situation of the teller. Like this, Dongdong has circulation pattern, that is, context is revealed through route, as follows ; preface - January song(beginning) - December song(end) - January song …. The content of 12month songs is a woman's one-sided love to a man. This personal lyricism has became the song of supplication through bonding with group consciousness of preface. This opinion is based on the fact that 12 months songs are using present tense that shows ‘the nature of present time’ and ‘the nature of scene’. The nature of present time draws out an effect that makes all participants of the scene get together mentally and physically through recognizing relation that people exchange blessing. According to this effect, it is considered that Dongdong comfort, encourage, stir up ‘noksa’, chief of the feast.
  • 8.

    Reconsideration on Jeong-Hun's 'Consciousness of U-hwal'

    오선주 | 2008, (22) | pp.185~209 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    In "U-hwalga" of Jeong-Hun's Kasa works the term 'U-hwal' appears total 19 times and the distribution of its use interest to appear all over the whole of life. That is to say this study notice in view of this that examine the senses and practical use of 'U-hwal' and rethink 'Consciousness of U-hwal' on the basis of its. Consequently three senses is as a negative meaning, they are inflected to a positive meaning in case of the position of enonciateur. "U-hwalga" depart not largely from the significant category as well. Precisely he identified his life with the senses of 'U-hwal' and then, positively affirmed his life through ironical expression to begin from between a track of virtual life and the speaking of 'U-hwal'. In other words, Jeong-Hun used the term 'U-hwal' that reinforced the thesis, course and searching for his life. This use of it's term resulted in an expression both a declaration of the ideological and spiritual superiority and an attitude of life as opposed to actuality in the present age. Therefore Consciousness of U-hwal is a discourse that arise from Jeong-Hun's discernment to contemplate the difference of the real wold from his own self.
  • 9.

    Aesthetics of Chinese Poetry by Jeong Geuk-In

    YU Yuk rye | 2008, (22) | pp.211~230 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Jeong Geuk-In is a poet at the beginning of Joseon Period. A collection of his Chinese poems titled < Bul-woo-hun-jib> includes about 57 Chinese poems of quatrain and verse. His Chinese poetry shows aesthetic of relations. His poetry songs admonition, farewell, harmony and longing. Among them, poetry of farewell and admonition have greater gravity in his poetry. Jeong Geuk-In songs love of neighbor and appreciation of king and country in his poetry. He practices the saying by Confucius himself. He loves people and friends in his community. His poetry reveals real expressions as they are rather than symbols and implication. What he is to pursue is expressed in his poetry. He intends to reveal his thoughts and a view of life in his poetry. Mr. Jeong shows truth of spirit most seriously in this poetry.
  • 10.

    Two Enigmas in Choi Bu's Pyohaerok

    Bokkyu Lee | 2008, (22) | pp.231~257 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This paper addresses two problems concerning Pyohaerok by Choi Bu that have been unnoticed or neglected so far in the academic circle. One is on the existence of dual title: Jungjo Mungyeon Ilgi and Pyohaerok. It is doubtful whether the two titles were intended to mean the same or only one title was meant to be appropriate. The other concern is how Choi Bu, a member of Confucian magnates who followed Jeompiljae Kim Jongjik, actually responded to the life-threatening experience of going adrift at sea and what it truly meant to him on the spot. The existing studies seem to overlook a possible significance of these questions, often bypassing the truth. 1. Why did he originally entitled the book Jungjo Mungyeon Ilgi, but why was it posthumously retitled to Pyohaerok? According to Joseon Wangjo Sillok, King Seonjong recommended him to write a journal. Choi Bu, under obligation, narrated his experience in a form of journal to dedicate it to the king, so that the title included 'journal.' But a question arises: why did he restrict himself then by entitling his journal Jungjo Mungyeon Ilgi instead of directly mentioning the days or experiences lost at sea? Did he think little of his wreckage experience? Very unlikely. Literature has it that Choi Bu told those who came to comfort him all the stories of his boat's going adrift at sea after wreckage, even to the extent that he came to be slandered afterwards. All these facts considered, it is more likely that he had to use two tactics for narration: candidness before his friends and a lesson-gathering, royalty-proving attitude before the king's court. The reason why the book came to adopt the title Pyohaerok after his death is deemed to hint at the awareness that the inappropriateness or the limitation of the first title should be anyhow overcome. 2. How did the author respond to this crisis of life and death? In the existing studies, Choi Bu's scholarly nonchalant attitude unlike that of the crew members was underscored. It is beyond our imagination, however, that he only sticked to a rational attitude as a Confucian magnate rather than rely upon a religious supplication. Facing an extreme danger, in fact, the Confucian magnates in Joseon tended to respond religiously contrary to our common belief, which makes us in limbo so far as Choi Bu's reluctance to pray for heavenly salvation. A scrutiny into Pyohaerok indicates, however, that Choi Bu was not an exception since there was a scene where the author's religious appeal was present without doubt. In front of death, Choi Bu prayed to Heaven, not merely trying to rationally cope with the crisis. It is noteworthy that the academic circle has not properly addressed the problem yet. The reason might be a prejudice regarding the relationship between Confucianism and Confucian magnates and their religion. The prejudice could extend to the biased belief that there is no idea of God in Confucianism, all the magnates thus being naturally atheists. The religious attitude of Choi Bu is different from that of shamanism since it is differentiated in terms of perceived cause of suffering, the nature of prayer and so on. First, he ascribed the cause of suffering to his own sins. Second, his prayer is not just for personal benefit, unlike the shamanistic tradition. More precisely, it is a petition for the lives of 40 other crew members since he prays for mercy making it clear that the lives of innocent people should not be claimed. This prayer of Choi Bu's as a Confucian magnate runs up to a redemptive prayer, which is believed to set an example for today's elite.
  • 11.

    Enjoyment method and modern transfiguration problem of Naebang-Gasa -forcusing current Naebang-Gasa of Gyeongsangbuk-do-

    이정옥 | 2008, (22) | pp.259~282 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    1971, CHO, Ae-Yung initially from her book 'current Naebang-Gasa' Used the terminology which is, neither the what kind of interest was visible from the Korean classical literature academic world. Until currently the Naebang-Gasa relation research of the most which is accumulated in the academic world suspicion do not try the fact that the Naebang-Gasa data are data of Chosun Dynasty especially as is not to become accomplished, consequently Naebang-Gasa , or about the Naebang-Gasa only category of classical literature of one past perfect style the fact that has become the discussion is fact. But the sample from, like is investigated and put out the Naebang-Gasa an economic development and an informationalization revolution and even in hump one simultaneous strong point freezing, to pass by a Korean war time, accomplished a strong victory and power even until the 21st century present time had became came the enjoyment. Also 90's enters and resurrects classical literature shows in new enjoyment method and a new possibility. Namely, Gasa with from literature lightly is a possibility of culture as item of feminine festival function of doing further the Gasa. For that literary expressive aspect and enjoyment method of the Gasa inevitably, changed. Naebang-Gasa is not any more the literature of past perfect style knows the current style inland but literature present progressive form. Of course only the Gyeongsangbuk-do part area is becoming the enjoyment even area, enjoyment age group also most very old woman capacity does. But recently about the listening academic world and Naebang-Gasa creation and cultural research of the region government interest, and owes in the enjoyment ceremony which pride of the enjoyment people are higher and strength of the Naebang-Gasa reconstruction can be today.
  • 12.

    Fishermen's Image and Meaning in Korean Poetry

    Kyu Ick Cho | 2008, (22) | pp.283~313 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Fishermen in literary works are ideological beings, regardless of the East and the West. The primary meaning of fisherman is a man who catches fishes, and the new meaning or concept which may be a man to save the people suffered in the bitter human world was originated from it. At the same time, it was extended to the meaning of 'a man who gets along like a Taoist hermit with supernatural power' or 'a wise man who rose above worldly logic'. Most of fishermen in Korean classical poems are personae made by noble and illustrious officials to disclose their real lives or directing point of life. They concerned about worldly affairs, in spite of wishing to retire among rivers and lakes. So, thematic consciousness of literary works is realized through a structure of one-to-one correspondence between host and guest. For that reason, most of fishermen in the classical poetry are ideological beings i.d. spurious fishermen. Because the spot of fishermen's lives was sea remote from land, and epic field frequently changing between living and dying, poets and painters described fishermen better than farmers. We can see the changing figure of fisherman's image following times and fashion, however, its substantial side remains unchangeable. Like this, so long as the connotation of the work catching fishes is various, fisherman who rouse up people's sympathy continuously is the right being that is unchangeable, however changeable the world may be.
  • 13.

    A Study on <Ilminga> -Focused on author's consciousness and space consciousness-

    Yeonsuk Cho | 2008, (22) | pp.315~336 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The existing studies on the <Ilminga> have been inclined only to the exterior of the work. Therefore, this study laid the emphasis on researching the interior of the work and considered the author's consciousness and space consciousness presented in the work. The author's consciousness can be divided into two major categories ; politician's consciousness and poet's consciousness. The author recites the life as poet who pretends to be an Ilmin in the world. Nevertheless, this is only a persona of 'Ilmin', the real innate existence and unconscious self of Anima shows strong consciousness of government officials. In addition, he attempts an ontological conversion by pursuing the vertical space in his given horizontal space. Through an excelling inclination towards the space where the sky, the moon, and mountains exist, he confers the meaning of revival to his space and realizes the substance of desire and wish which are presented by 'Bookguel' and 'Chuksungsoo' in the end. Therefore, it can be concluded that <Ilminga> is not a song that simply addressing the tranquility of Ilmin. It is a song of desire and wish which presents the strong resentment of the author who could not be an Ilmin.
  • 14.

    A problem of the mood of zen[禪趣] in the Korean zen poetry

    Jo, Taeseong | 2008, (22) | pp.337~354 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    The zentic poetry is not a branch of zen poetry. I think it is a term using when we speech a work is the best zen poet. Namely, the mood of zen[禪趣] is to be a ultimately state of zen poetry. Under this point of view, there is no need to prescribe the zentic poetry to a branch of zen poetry. Of course, if the zentic poetry is excepted in the existing system of zen poetry, it will collapse down the system. But I think this collapse demand to the new classified system of zen poetry, and I will put off with the next study on the new classified system. And I suggest to make as the critic basis of zen poetry.