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2009, Vol., No.23

  • 1.

    A Study on Okbong Baek, Gwang-Hun

    Soonyoel Kwon | 2009, (23) | pp.1~24 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Okbong Baek, Gwang-Hun who is one of the most greatest poets in the mid-Joseon Period did a great contribution to development of Tang-style poetry. So he is called one of the Three Famous Tang Poets. And he is also recognized as one of the Great Eight Writers who contributed to the development of poetry in mid-Joseon period. He introduced emotion and rhythms of Namdo people to the frame of Chinese poetry to raise elegance of Chinese poetry in Joseon period and demonstrated that Chinese poetry could be elaborated through Korean people. He was titled the best master in writing a quatrain with five Chinese characters in each line(named Oungelogu) and established a tradition that a position of poet is considered as an occupation. Such tradition began from Park Sang and Okbong completed it via Im Uk-Ryeong. Okbong was in charge of reception of Chinese diplomats in under the 5th reign year of King Seonjo though he was not a noble. It encouraged him to be royal to the king as a literary person as it was very glorious to him. At that time, he was in low grade of position, but he was cordially served and evaluated as a great poet. There have been many studies only on his poetry. However, he was a famous calligrapher of cursive characters in Honam area in mid-Joseon period. So his writing style is called Okbong style. Few of his calligraphic writings left. < Haseojib>, 'Youngho' and 'Jeilgangsan' are still extant as some of his writing. This study suggests that further research on him should be developed for expanded understanding of his life and writing.
  • 2.

    The Family and Family ethics which appears in Sijo -Focused on the 16~17th Centuries Hoonmin Sijo-

    Kim,Sang-jean | 2009, (23) | pp.25~53 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Chosun-dynasty embraced Confucianism society as the family center. The Sijo was the literature which Chosun-dynasty was representative. This research is the family and family ethics which appears in Sijo (especially 16~17th centuries Hoonmin Sijo). The contents divides on a large scale at two. First is a work analysis. With the father and the son, and the elder brother the younger sibling, the husband and the wife analyzed the song one work. In afterwords, with character investigated a work analysis about family ethics. This gets divided at two. The one is 'Hyo moral emphasis[효행의 강조]', the other is 'Respectability and harmony'. The 'Hyo moral emphasis' is the father and son relationship and brotherly relationship appears in the song one Sijo. These Sijo speaks the friendship of the sibling and is one blood line and emphasizes. This means, between the sibling being joined together living well finally the 'Hyo' back, 'The respectability and harmony' are mainly discovered from the Sijo which makes the husband and the wife with subject. Generally, one family relation as perpendicular is being recognized a Confucianism ideology with character. But, the family appears in Sijo, aims to harmony. Of course, the features of the family which is expressed in Sijo, will not be the features of the family which is actual. Because, these Sijo works in goal of edification, to present the proper family as a matter. But, with this research O-Ryoon(五倫)'s aim proper value and should be to think the aspect where it is embodied in 'Family Sijo'.
  • 3.

    The research of Buddhist’s temple-poems

    Kim seoktae | 2009, (23) | pp.55~82 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Man lives in continuous relationship with his surroundings. Surroundings in human life have various layers including natural environment and human relations. Literature also differs its characters according to its surroundings. Especially a Chinese poem whose structure is based on meeting of human and nature can vary in accordance with poet's perception in nature. Most of korean temples locate in nature with beautiful hills and pure water for a background. Therefore many poets and artists have used temples as a place of literature and creation. This paper go into the study of chinese poems connected with temples which are korean brilliant relics and also beautiful nature environment. In general, these chinese poems are called as temple-poems. Not a Confucianist's but a Buddhist monk's temple-poems are studied in here. First, temples represented in temple-poems of Buddhist literature were breathing spaces contrasted to the mundane world. This breathing time pursue mental calmness rather than break after labor. Second, poet, actually who was just a Buddhist monk, thought beautiful nature of temples as the world of Taoists as if he had been one of them. Third, Buddhist monks' duty is to get spiritual awakening through out continuous self-training. That is sön(Buddhist meditation). Temple was surely the place where Buddhist monks got enlightenment and examined themselves. Finally, whole history of Korea and Buddhism is kept in temples. Confucians' temple-poems are mainly appreciating the beauty of nature. On the other hand, Buddhist monks' temple-poems aimed at lofty spirit by entering deep into the nature.
  • 4.

    The Characteristics of Gyubanggasa in view of its Ultimate Concern

    Seokhoe Kim | 2009, (23) | pp.83~113 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is a research on the characteristics of gyubanggasa in view of its ultimate concern. Gyubanggasa is the products of rural gentry's economic situations and social positions of premodern society. The women of rural gentry generally had to marry in their early teenage, almost about 12-16 years age. They also had to live with their parents-in-law and their children, grandparents-in-law and their children. They had to serve this large family. To make worse, rural gentry's economic situations and social positions became worse and worse. Therefore the life of the women of rural gentry was extremely hard. Gyubanggasa is the discussion of their difficult task in their marriage life, and also is the decision of carrying out their task, and also is the communication-and-pause of their inner self.
  • 5.

    The Traditional Patterns for the Style of Gasa and the Direction in Which it was Succeeded to

    KIM, HAKSUNG | 2009, (23) | pp.147~179 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    To examine the question of modern succession to the style of Gasa, this thesis aimed to explore its stylistic identity extending over the various levels such as its form, genre, style and pattern and establish the possibility of its being connected to modern Gasa and the desirable direction based on it. In the process, I knew that a literary style called Gasa depended on with what degree of power to influence a message to convey is effectively described making a literary impression on us and that various descriptive strategies and literary devices and techniques according to it were used. By doing so, I also explored that it did not convey a message in a common and stiff prose style but provided it with sentimental and poetic power to influence not by conveying it simply but by conveying it 'passionately' through the metrical device of tetrameter with the rhythm our people is most familiar with. Examining pattern by pattern the direction in which the style of Gasa was succeeded to in modern times based on its feature, I gauged its new application and potential possibility as modern Gasa.
  • 6.

    The Philosophy Of Hacheon Goh-un Expressed In His Literature

    박병익 | 2009, (23) | pp.181~202 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Hacheon Goh-un(1479~1530) was the main motive that made the Gohs from Changhung grow into a distinguished family in the sixteenth century. Since then, the family had produced literary men such as Goh Gyeong-myeong. Hacheon studied Sung Confucianism and passed the civil service examination. However, he was in adverse circumstances during his government post because he was implicated in the Kimyosawha, a massacre of scholars in the year of Kimyo. I analyzed the poems in Hacheonyugo collecting his posthumous works, which led to the following. He developed his view on Muwang and Baeki in Baekiron, a book about Baeki, with the theory that both sides were right. He expressed the idea that an elder brother should teach his younger brother duty to make him realize his negligence in his book Igyeokmoonjeon. He held the opinion above on the basis that the Sky means rightness and responsibility. Most of his poems were written while he was in a state of despondency after the Kimyosawha. They are characterized by the description of his great determination to put his belief into practice as a government official.
  • 7.

    A Study on Early Poems of Youngjae You Deuk-gong - Focused on Hangaekgunyounjib

    박종훈 | 2009, (23) | pp.203~238 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    Youngjae You Deuk-gong was a poet leading new poetic style in 18C. His early poems in Hangaekgunyounjib were famous not only in Chosun also in Ching. Searching his early poems means approaching poetic world of an individual and understanding an aspect of new poetic style in 18C. Youngjae's early poems mainly contained sorrow and lamentation. However these poems weren't buried in sorrow and lamentation, they showed pointing of ingenuous life similar to poetic style of Dojam or Weeungmul. Also Youngjae's unique poetic style indicated not mountains, waters and farms in ideas but realistic style that he described figures of farm in concrete life. We can confirm Youngjae's concern about history because he wrote a lot of poems for retrospection and history in remains. Although these poems assumed a sorrow mood, they contained considerable information of geography and history of Chosun. In poems for retrospection and history, he was interested in lives of the present and he wrote poems animated realism and the feeling of movement. It is result of awareness that this time become a page of history. Formally his poems outstand for pursuing Tang's style. He used Dubo's writing style that a style of Chinese verse came to head in form with pursuing musicality using a particle in classical Chinese and repetition of word, amplification of reverberation through poetic diction disposition, using the canon of composition and antitheses, serving the “Four Tones” of classical Chinese and so on. Of course he had an unique style indicating affectionate remembrances about things and his mind indirectly. Works with characteristic poetic style from novel ideas excelled in putting up ancient history. However he didn't arrange only ancient history. Through this he said his thought in a roundabout way or mixed up reconditely. Besides in process of poetical imagination, connecting novel ideas witty and naturally can be praised. He created a lot of works which surpassed for novel ideas and wit. He quoted just a little part of ancient history and authentic precedents and twisted them for opposite meaning.
  • 8.

    direction of tradition and succession of Ganghogasa

    sonjongheum | 2009, (23) | pp.239~266 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In the early 20th century, when Japanese imperialists started to conquer the world, the Gasa literature failed to work properly, except the Naebanggasa. Especially the Ganghogasa, composed by Korean scholars, could not be maintained due to the arrival of the new style, free verse, from Western culture. After the year 1945, Gasa eventually disappeared from the Korean history since it was considered as an old form of literature in the new Korean education. Although the 20th century was a period of time in Korean history when the literature of Gasa and Ganghogasa declined, they were enjoyed through reading and writing till the middle of the 20th century. The reason for this was because literary works in the form of Gasatype, a printed book, and Naebanggasa had spread all over the country. After that period, the rural literature collapsed due to the rapid progress of industrialization, and finally ended up as a loss of enjoyment involving the Gasa literature, thus making of enjoyment disappear from rural literature and, Gasa just became by-products of the old Korean literature in history. Nevertheless after the time of early 21th century, the Gasa literature and Ganghogasa have seemed to revive. Actually nowadays many pieces of work in the form of Gasa in 4.4 Jo or 4 Umbo with various topics are disseminating all over the country through the internet, and a new trend of life called Well-being also helps Gasa to revive. Since literatures written in the form of Gasa show the same topics with modern people‘s lives such as Sijibsari, sympathy between an old and modern people could produce a root of the new revival of Gasa literature. In addition, Well-being trend providing people more opportunities for contact with nature and expectancy about expression of nature based on the form of Gasa boost the restoration. Thus it is expected that Ganghogasa, also called Well-being Gasa, would play a role in Korean literature as a new modern trend.
  • 9.

    A study for ‘Sokmiingok’ true character

    양희찬 | 2009, (23) | pp.267~291 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Jeongcheol's 'Sokmiingok' is a love song that is based on innate and extremely devoted a loyalty to a king. In this work, the main context and writing motive is the worrying heart of speaker who want to get a news from her lover(the king). The purpose of this study is to find out esthetic cohesion of context, through arranging the content of work by time order, and analyzing the meaning of expression. Every act of this work has been done in the past time except this ond day schedule. It is the first step to understand structure of this work. The concrete and practical description is the figuring technique that generate speaker‘s innermost feelings effectively. Expressions are accorded with writing purpose and an idea consistently. And cohesion of the context can be showed from continual enumeration of acts that is in the flowing time. At the end, two speakers are figured by two heart of one man. Main speaker is the one who speaks innermost feelings. The other speaker play a role that does main speaker‘s ‘speech’ and show real situation of main speaker in the last part.
  • 10.

    The research on the literature activity written by Korean-chinese letter in Jang-sung after modern age - focus on the poetry party -

    chang Sun Hee | 2009, (23) | pp.293~322 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study is the research into the literature activity written by Korean-chinese letter in Jang-sung Because Jang-sung is located in the center of the Honam, this city plays a key role of economy, administration and culture in the Honam Before modern age, Jang-sung acted the crucial part of Confucianism and literature in the Honam. After modern age, many literature activities written by Korean-chinese letter had been conducted in Jang-sung. for example, Jang-sung chunchu meeting(1954), pungyoung meeting(1965), damsu meeting(1979), Gwansun meeting(1982) and the poetry contest(2003) The organization object of poetry parts in Jang-sung is not only the study of poetry ,but also teaching and learning Confucianism. this is the unique characteristic of the poetry part in Jang-sung
  • 11.

    A Generic Meaning of Didacticism and Didactic Gasa

    Kyu Ick Cho | 2009, (23) | pp.323~356 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Didacticism of Gasa works is a factor relating to various steps or elements like the writer's intention, the work's content and structure, readers' reaction. The existing opinion which Gasa is a didactic genre was a logic to be tied to the category of monistic genre concept to excess. Gasa can be said as a genre fused into with a new category 'didactic' and existing generic categories. As a matter of fact, the theory that Gasa is a didactic genre is an opinion which recognizes or involves its complex generic attribute. There are some Gasa works singing instruction or didacticism in overwhelming weight. Those are the works strongly expressed theme of didacticism. However, Gasa works paraphrasing the items of didactic texts like Dongmong-Seonseup, Sohak are not simply moral texts. At the same time, Gasa works explaining the duties of married women are not simply didactic texts. It is certain that the situation inevitably to recite a poem putting into the contents of moral training shows up, putting on a lyric surface. Although the contents of instruction can be overwhelming in the aspect of importance, those Gasa works are different from Dongmong-Seonseup or Sohak. It is the reason that Gasa author's aesthetic intention is put in the work's style or form, and the space to insert author's inner mind is bigger than the didactic texts. Some senior scholars said that lyricism was predominant in Gasa works of the early Joseon dynasty, didactic Gasa works appeared on the stage in the late Joseon dynasty. Some scholars regard the lyricism as didacticism. However, those views are the products that they saw only one side. Gasa's complex generic attributes are involved in their opinions, we have to see it with a comprehensive viewpoint for grasping the whole aspect of Gasa genre. It is the reason that it is proper to synthesize them after dividing into inner and external categories, when we see it in the generic aspect. In that case, inner category is continuing disposition as durable instruction or didacticism, external category is disposition of diachronic change or synchronic variation. Either contents or themes, the case of outstanding didacticism is a result that instruction as an expressing factor sided with another instruction as a fundamental factor. A general basis of Gasa genre is didacticism to dwell in existent phenomena or recognized facts, categories of literary genres like 'lyric, epic, drama' are nothing but expressed aesthetic factors. It is worth considering intention of creation or theme though we understand the didactic Gasa works.
  • 12.

    A Study on Elegant Appearance of Sumjin River Reflected in Chinese Poetry

    황수정 | 2009, (23) | pp.357~383 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines refined appearance of Sumjin River reflected in Chinese poetry. It is to speculate Sumjin River and understand refined appearance through Chinese poetry. First, it is found that traces of sad life are reflected in Chinese poetry. It has true aesthetical meaning through which we can understand distinctive living styles at and historical facts around Sumjin River. Second, imaginative power based on mythological ideas was reflected in it. The river as a divine space originated unique aestheticism through literary imagination of poets, which was represented in mysterious romanticism. At that time, poets in Gurye intended to represent aspirations of the people in poetry. Third, deeply satisfying feelings of four seasons in the river as a place of elegance were reflected in the poetry. The Sumjin River which is famous for its clear and fresh water could encourage poets to have more abundant emotion and lyricism.