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2009, Vol., No.24

  • 1.

    A Study on Background of Originating Yongbiouchonga under the Reign of King Sejong and Process of Making it Music

    김세종 | 2009, (24) | pp.1~17 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    With the establishment of Chosun Dynasty, the effort to admire true charity of the new dynasty resulted in completion of <Yongbiouchonga>(龍飛御天歌). The process creating it is roughly categorized into two parts: one is for Chinese one jointly completed by three scholars of Gwon Jae(權踶, 1387~1445), Jeong In-Ji(鄭麟趾, 1396~1478) and An Ji(安止, 1377~1464) on April 5. 1445( in the 27th reign year of king Sejong) and the other is for Korean edition completed by scholars from Jiphyunjeon such as Taehujung Choi Hang(1409~1474) in 1447(in the 29th reign year of king Sejong). However, as <Yongbiouchonga> in Chinese was designed to inform the foundation of the new dynasty and honor its charity, the effort to make it music accelerated immediately. That is, four months after it was completed, king Sejong was not satisfied with the performance to Tang's code. Three months after Korean Yongbiouchonga was completed in February of 1447, he listened it performed to Korean and Tang musical codes and decided to use it for public and private banquets. In December of 1449( in the 31th reign year of King Sejong), the king made it overnight with a stick tapping on the ground. (上邃曉音律. 新樂節奏. 皆上所制. 以柱杖. 擊地爲節. 一夕乃定). Music of <Bongraeoui>(鳳來儀) instituted at this time was inherited to volumes 140-145 of 『Sejong-Janghun- Daewang-Silrok』. The <Bongraeoui> consists of as follows: Jeoninja(前引子)․Jinguho(進口號)․Yeominrak(與民樂)․Chihwapyong(致和平)․Chipunghyung(醉豊亨)․Hwoinja(後引子)․Toiguho(退口號). It was recorded in Moo-Bo of Siyonghynagakjungjae <Bongraeoui>, volume 5 of <Akhakgwebum>, but unfortunately, it is considered as music of the past.
  • 2.

    A Study about Transmission and Variation of Wansanga

    Kim, Shin Chung | 2009, (24) | pp.19~39 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    There are two variants of Wansanga, Gasa in Min Ju-hyeon. What is called, they are Jonggabon and Songgokbon. Inquiring into characteristic of these two variants, Jonggabon is the preceding type more related with the original text. Therefore, Jonggabon takes the primary meaning of the writer comparatively, on the other hand, Songgokbon reflects on the manner of the reader in a way. In this regard, I have inquired into the common substance of Wansanga in two types. In succession, I have investigated the phase of variation of the text, opposing two types. As a result, Wansanga has two dualistic constitution, Gihanggasa and Jajeongasa. And I confirmed that it has gone through the variation of popular tradition in a process of enjoyment and reception.
  • 3.

    A research on <Wonsiksiboyoung> the boundary between tradition and modern, consciousness and unconsciousness

    kimjinwook | 2009, (24) | pp.41~70 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    The life of Mae-Chon can be divided into 3 periods. First period is by 1886 before he moved to Gurye Mansoodong, second is from 1886 to 1902 when he built Guansil in Gurye Mansoodong and lived in seclusion, and the last is from 1902 when he moved from Gurye Mansoodong to Wolgok where there is Mae-Chon Temple to 1910 when he wrote a <Jeolmyungsi>(death poetry) and committed suicide. Depending upon this three periods, Mae-Chon's sense of race and history is distinct from each other and his literary works show considerable change. Especially, it is significant work to inquire closely into the view of nature in <Wonsiksiboyoung> which shows the boundary between the second period that he cognized the world as a traditional Confucianist and third period that he accepted the recognition of modern intellectual. Even though Mae-Chon's view of nature in <Wonsiksiboyoung> is not free from the ethical view of nature, <Wonsiksiboyoung> shows modernity which is not in other Chinese poetry and it has a sprout as a ecological poetry. It shows definite distinction from his other poetries. It could be ascertained that this distinction appeared both in the formal aspect and in the thematic aspect. It seems that this is caused by the change of his view of nature. It is not a coincidence but the change of his cognition that he accepted Boo(a Chinese poetic genre) and Young(compose of recite a poem) which he didn't applied in his other poetries and gave salience to the characteristics of epic and prose and he accepted a lot of modern element in the expression and the selection of the subject matter. Consequently, <Wonsiksiboyoung> which as a nature poetry, deviated form traditional nature poetry is on the boundary of tradition and modern. This is the reason that <Wonsiksiboyoung> has definite distinction from Mae-Chon's other literary works. The political discussion on <Wonsiksiboyoung> will provide a clue to the process that Mae-Chon's sense as a writer evolved.
  • 4.

    Chonggye Yang Dae-Bak's Sightseeing Tour and Poetic Expression

    Myung Hee Park | 2009, (24) | pp.71~96 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to analyse how Yang Dae-Bak showed his talent of poetry writing, how he represented what he felt in sightseeing through poetry writing, and how it has been evaluated. Yang made tours of everywhere in his country during which he saw and experienced many things. In particular, after traveling Mt. Geumgang and Mt. Jiri, he wrote proses such as 「Geumgangsankihaengrok」ㆍ「Duryusankihaengrok」 and 47 poetic works. This study targets his 30 poetic works on tour to Mt. Geumgang tour and 10 ones on tour to Mt. Jiri. His tour was intended to train himself, not to do something else. It was different from the tour of confucians who tried to find a body of moral at the time when Confucianism was ripening. Therefore, evaluation of his sightseeing tour should consider the aspect. So, when he saw beautiful landscapes during the tour, he just admired them or was just impressed rather than he interpreted it on his own. Finally, this study concluded that Yang Dae-Bak was a literary person who was innocent and pure, and was different from confucians who suggested the importance of moral philosophy.
  • 5.

    A Type of the Image of Flowers in Korean Classic Poems

    박춘우 | 2009, (24) | pp.97~119 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis is studies about types of the Image of Flowers showed in Korean Classic Poems and about opposing system working in them. The Image of Flowers in relation to cognition is divided into one as material existence, and one as a projection of humans consciousness according to whether an object is perceived as the existence itself or as a thing humans' consciousness is applied for. Flowers of a fetish as material existence are mainly working as the connection of god and humans in the context of religious relations. Flowers as an appreciation for enjoyment, on the other hand, are connected with a poet or poetic ego, who enjoys flowers' image itself and represents it with his own interest. As a projection of humans consciousness, a flower with a masculine image connotes male's figure or emblem, or his consciousness. On the other hand, that with a feminine one connotes female's figure or emblem, or her consciousness as well. After studying four types of opposition system in the images of flowers in Korean classic poems, we conclude that flowers as a material existence are opposed to ones as projection of humans consciousness. Flowers presented as a fetish and a masculine image is opposed to those as an appreciation for enjoyment and a feminine image.
  • 6.

    The Formative Process of <Seodong-yo>

    류병윤 | 2009, (24) | pp.121~147 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focuses and develops its discussion on the formative process of <Seodong-yo>, one of the Hyang-ga(鄕歌, folk songs, mainly songs of Shilla dynasty). The record concerning this song is narrative literature. It is a story about Seo-dong who dug up and sold yams as a means of living, and how he came up with a plan to marry the princess and eventually raised his social status. In the story, <Seodong-yo> functions as a turning point. The following is a conclusion regarding the formative process of <Seodong-yo> after examination of the record concerning this song. Based on the records of Samguk-Yusa(三國遺事, Remnants of the Three Kingdoms), <Seodong-yo> is presumed to be the earliest song created amongst the existing Hyang-ga. <Seodong-yo> is a song which altered the 'who' and 'what' from a pre-existing nursery rhyme. Nursery rhymes and folk songs can constantly be modified depending on the situation, and this process occurs even to the present. It is quite possible to presume that the alteration of this song took place around the period of Mu Wang(武王, king Mu) of Baek-Je dynasty as mentioned in the records. This can be sought out from the background when the alteration took place, a violently tensed period between two dynasties, Silla and Baek-je. As it seems to be Seo-dong who changed the lyrics of this song, it is possible to say that the formation of the present <Seodong-yo> is the period of Mu Wang of Baek-je dynasty. 'Ga'(歌) is a song which has a melody and is accompanied by musical instruments, and 'Yo'(謠) is a song that is simply sung. It is rather impossible to confirm the writer of a ‘Yo'(謠) as they are usually the work of many people. Altering the lyrics is quite common. So, it can be presumed that such types of nursery songs were originated a remarkably long time ago. In addition, what Il-yeon, the editor of Samguk-yusa, wanted to impart in the ‘Mu Wang’ section was not about the forming of <Seodong-yo> but the details about the establishment of a temple known as Mireuksa. While he was recording the establishment of Mireuksa and stories related to Mu Wang, he added <Seodong-yo>, a song that was spread by word of mouth, as it had relevance with Mu Wang.
  • 7.

    Comparative Reading between Shilla Hyangga and T.S. Eliot

    서철원 | 2009, (24) | pp.149~173 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to comparative reading between Shilla Hyangga and T.S. Eliot at the point of religious poetry : rejoice through despair and rebirth through death. the way of readings are three. First, we read the birth of religious issue by comparison between Mojukjirangga(慕竹旨郞歌) and The Love Song of J.Alfred Prufrock. Second, comparing reiterations of religious Time and Space between Changiparangga(讚耆婆郞歌) and Ash Wednesday. Third, comparing the motivations to the Paramita between Jemangmaega(祭亡妹歌) and Marina.
  • 8.

    A Study on Jeong Geuk-In's Poetry of Nature

    YU Yuk rye | 2009, (24) | pp.175~195 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Jeon Geuk-In described natural beauty of gardens and forests through writing poetry while he was living in Taein. His <Sanchungok> contributed to formation of Ganhogadan. In particular, its influence expanded to Song Soon and Jeong Chool. The subjects of his natural poetry were shown in Chinese poetry, Gyeonggichega, lyrics and verses, but they are significantly described especially in <Sangchungok>and <Bulwoohungok>. The nature in his poetry involves rivers and lakes and homecoming after his resignation from a government office. In general, nature indicates the nature explained by Laozi. This study categorizes nature into nature of Confucius and that of Laozi and analyses it targeting the nature in <Bulwoohungok>and <Sangchungok> by Jeong Geuk-In. The nature of Confucius involves rivers and lakes, and that of Laozi involves homecoming. However, Jeong Geuk-In worked for government office and retired into nature. He had two sides of a Confucian who pursued career success and Taoist who sequestered himself from the world. Therefore, <Bulwoohungok>, <Sangchungok>, Chinese poetry and Korean verses he wrote showed such two-sideness. There are various styles of two-sideness in his poetic works and in particular, <Bulwoohungok> describes nature of rivers and lakes while <Sangchungok> describes homecoming after his resignation. Therefore, his literary works definitely show such two-sideness.
  • 9.

    Life experience of Naebanggasa entertainers

    이정옥 | 2009, (24) | pp.197~234 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study is a report based on general and quantitative data about consciousness and entertaining style of Naebanggasa which are appreciated and circulated in Kyungsangbukdo. Its subjects are Naebanggasa entertainers in Kyungsangbukdo. This study is very meaningful as the first report done by the method of questionaires and analysis, which are not popular in Korean literature. I concluded that questionaire survey for the surviving Naebanggasa entertainers is strongly useful if whole investigation of entertainers's consciousness is needed. This study has 44 questions including 13 questions in population statistic variants. The survey subjects are 150 old females in Andong, Kyungsangbukdo. There were no response questions since the old didn't understand the survey contents and I got 100 questionaire papers. The survey period is from October in 2002 to April in 2003, during this period I avoided the busy farming time. The data analysis was made with SPSS and MS-Excel program. Should do the verbal survey by interview and there were no responses due to too many questions. Also this survey might be supplemented because it has overlapping questions.
  • 10.

    The change of Emotion and history of Korean classic poetry

    Jo, Taeseong | 2009, (24) | pp.235~260 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, the discussion about the change of emotion assumes that the notions of feeling, cross-feeling, and emotion are separate. Under this premise, I make a condition of periodization with the class of enjoyment and the background of the age and society in Hyangga, Goryeo songs, Akjang, Gyeonggichega, Sijo, and Gasa. Moreover, I tried to grasp the emotional aspect of the period derived from it. Therefore, by considering the history of the Genre of Korean classic poetry through the change of emotion, I wanted to make a hypothesis that the change of Genre could be influenced by relations among emotional things. For this, first of all, I examine the creation of Genre or general conditions of change. And I could find that 'the difference' of preceding Genre is in the center of these conditions, not the commonality. The present writer thought this difference is the change of emotion. It is right to discuss emotion, feeling, and reason in literature. However, the discussion of emotion which is a notion to unify of emotion, feeling, and reason is insufficient yet because the accurate discussion about emotion is insignificant. In spite of this, the purpose of this study in this article is to search possibilities of writing of the history of Literature.
  • 11.

    Developmental Aspect of Chinese Poetry in Gurye from the late 19th century to the early 20th century

    ChoiJaeNam | 2009, (24) | pp.261~294 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the developmental aspect of Chinese poetry in Gurye from the late 19th century to the early 20th century. It is designed to identify it in a nationwide base instead of local base, which will be a process to acquire a main aspect of Korean Chinese poetry. The results are summarized as follows: First, we examined poetry with historical mission and repentance. Poets in Gurye expressed their mission and self-esteem against historical crises, through which we understood passionate spirit of literary persons who had to endure the period of depression. Because of such circumstances, they felt limited and regretful. Poets of Chinese poetry in Gurye at that time intended to maintain their national pride through literary activities. Such regret and distress were sublimed in their poetry. Second, we examined poetry where acceptance and pride of its geographical environment were exhibited. Gurye is a jumping-off place in geography, which gave it a chance to encourage literary persons to be engaged in their writing. Rather, there were some cases that hermitic life was pursued. It exhibited the taste of the people who live in superior natural beauty and enhanced the quality of poetry based on acceptance and pride in Chinese poetry. Third, we speculated poetry where literary exchanges were shared. Through the poems, we could examine taste and elegance exhibited through exchange of local literary persons with literary persons in other areas. At pavilions and temples which were frequently loved as places of meeting, we could sympathize with graceful taste of people in Gurye. They pursued diversity of writing poetry through organizing various poetry clubs. Thus, this study could identify the aspect of Chinese poetry through various views beyond a simple speculation of local culture and it is expected that it will be a good chance to understand the trends of Chinese poetry in Korea.
  • 12.

    A Study on Songok Lee Dal's Representative Techniques

    Han seong geum | 2009, (24) | pp.295~318 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Songok Lee Dal, a poet of Samdangpa in the middle of Joseon Period, was famous for superior representational method of poetry. He was highly admired by many people including Huh Gyun, one of his students, because of his superiority in describing poetry. The reason why his poetry was admired is that his poetry is outstanding in configuration of poetry. Mr. Lee Dal's outstanding method to express poetry lies in techniques and choice of words. He used visual description of images to objectively express objects. The poet attempted to present what the characters in poetry wanted to express only with objective scenes instead of attitude as a narrator. And he inspired objects through projection of emotion into natural things. Thus, when emotion of speakers is indirectly revealed through natural features, meaning implied in poetry is expanded and a trailing note of imagination is presented. His another technique of poetry is excellent word choice. He used a lots of sound symbolic words to represent rhythm. His poetry used various sounds to reinforce poetry to which his emotion was projected to have a subtle effect. And he omitted predicates for static description of natural features, which inspired readers to have imagination. As above, Songok controlled voice and emotion of poetic speakers as much as possible to give inspiration and strong tail notes to readers. As he has excellent linguistic sense, that is, ability to manipulate languages, he is considered to have led the poetry style of Dang Dynasty in the middle of Joseon period.
  • 13.

    Developmental Aspect of Chinese Poetry in Gurye from the late 19th century to the early 20th century

    황수정 | 2009, (24) | pp.319~348 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the developmental aspect of Chinese poetry in Gurye from the late 19th century to the early 20th century. It is designed to identify it in a nationwide base instead of local base, which will be a process to acquire a main aspect of Korean Chinese poetry. The results are summarized as follows: First, we examined poetry with historical mission and repentance. Poets in Gurye expressed their mission and self-esteem against historical crises, through which we understood passionate spirit of literary persons who had to endure the period of depression. Because of such circumstances, they felt limited and regretful. Poets of Chinese poetry in Gurye at that time intended to maintain their national pride through literary activities. Such regret and distress were sublimed in their poetry. Second, we examined poetry where acceptance and pride of its geographical environment were exhibited. Gurye is a jumping-off place in geography, which gave it a chance to encourage literary persons to be engaged in their writing. Rather, there were some cases that hermitic life was pursued. It exhibited the taste of the people who live in superior natural beauty and enhanced the quality of poetry based on acceptance and pride in Chinese poetry. Third, we speculated poetry where literary exchanges were shared. Through the poems, we could examine taste and elegance exhibited through exchange of local literary persons with literary persons in other areas. At pavilions and temples which were frequently loved as places of meeting, we could sympathize with graceful taste of people in Gurye. They pursued diversity of writing poetry through organizing various poetry clubs. Thus, this study could identify the aspect of Chinese poetry through various views beyond a simple speculation of local culture and it is expected that it will be a good chance to understand the trends of Chinese poetry in Korea.