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2010, Vol., No.26

  • 1.

    Review on Kim Chuntaek’s social intercourse and the compilation process of 『Chungooyoungeon(靑丘永言)』

    Kang, Hye-jung | 2010, (26) | pp.5~32 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This study reviews the influence on compilation of 『Chung-Jin』 of those who associated with Kim Chuntaek. Thanks to his outstanding musicality, he could associate with the upper classes of his time. Especially he made personal connections with the figures of Andong Kim family(Noron), and this could have helped compilation of 『Chung-Jin』 through collecting musical works. As seen in the epilog of Joo Euishik and Kim Sunggi, Kim Chuntaek first got hands on a few works that were handed down orally, he tried hard to find more of the author’s works, and finally obtained the collection works from his friends and included the works after reading three times. This process was equally applicable to the case of Jung Chul who had 51 works included in 『Chung-Jin』. Considering the fact that Jung Chul was the leader of Seoin and Seoin had the same genealogy as Noron, it was easy for Kim Chuntaek to obtain 『Songang gasa』 via association with Andong Kim family. The same assumption can be made for the case of Kim Gwangwook, Shin Hum, and Jo Jonsung. It was confirmed that these three people associated with on another, Kim Gwangwook was a grandfather of Kim Sungchoi, and Kim Sungchoi associated with Kim Chuntaek. Thus, it is highly likely that the works of these three were handed to Kim Chuntaek via Kim Sungchoi. For the case of Nangwongun, he possessed his own Gajip 『Youngeon』, and Kim Chuntaek included 30 of his works after obtaining 『Youngeon』. And obtaining 『Youngeon』 could also be possible thanks to association with Andong Kim family. As Yoon Sundo belonged to Namin which was in hostile relations with Noron, it might have been difficult for Kim Chuntaek to obtain 『Gosanyugo』 or difficult to include even if it had been obtained. On the contrary, the fact that Yi Hwang’s <Dosan tewlve songs> is included but Yi Yi’s <Gosan ninse songs> is excluded seems to be a conflict with the above explained Noron’s position. <Dosan twelve songs> were published and circulated widely from the beginning, but <Gosan nine songs> were handed down as a part of a scroll not as a song in the time of Kim Chuntaek.
  • 2.

    Regarding <Gambyeolgok>, the new Gasa work

    Gu Sawhae | 2010, (26) | pp.33~54 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    <Gambyeolgok> is categorized into Gyu-bang Gasa which contains stories including criticism and grievance situation of women from Yangban families. <Gambyeolgok> deals with private laments of seven ladies who had been grown at the same town until they got married. They are reunited 20 years after their marriage sharing the wonderful time and promise to meet again. Judging from the notation and words the characters use and the colophon printed at the end of the book, this work is regarded to be written about February 1892, the period of enlightenment. The structure of this story is divided into three parts such as ‘Seosa(introduction),’ ‘Bonsa(body),’ Gyeolsa(closing), which is the most common type of Gasa works. ‘Seosa’ presents the title and the writing motivation of <Gambyeolgok>. ‘Bonsa’ is divided into three parts again. The ‘Bonsa 1’ shows the way grownup girls leave their parents upon getting married. ‘Bonsa 2’ again separates into two. The first part describes the married families, characteristics and personalities of each seven characters. The second part criticizes women’s lives filled with misfortune and sorrow, and at the same time pictures the hope and expectation about the upcoming new civilized age. In ‘Bonsa 3’ seven characters plead how they suffer from feudalistic restriction and yet reestablish their resolution to respect traditional ethics. In ‘Gyeolsa’ part describes the picture that these seven women resignedly accept their reality as they have to part with each other. This also tries to appeal readers for sympathy about the grievous situation of the women. In short, <Gambyeolgok> is designed to discourse on the grief and sorrow of the women who are destined to follow traditional morality named ‘Samjongjido (patriarchal ideology which is pressured to women)’ in the male-dominated feudalism society. Thus, <Gambyeolgok> contains grievance and difficulties of the women who live just as assistants instead of being subjects of their own lives.
  • 3.

    A Study on Jebong Ko Gyeong-Myung's Poetry of Diplomatic Travel

    Soonyoel Kwon | 2010, (26) | pp.55~79 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Jebong Ko Gyeong-Myung visited Ming Dynasty as a member of diplomatic mission in 1581(14th reign year of king Seonjo). The mission was delegated to ask Ming to correct historical record on Taejo Lee Sung-Gye. At this time, Go Gyeong-Myung was an official of diplomacy. He reported various results of the mission to a king and managed practical affairs of the mission. During diplomatic work, he had much hardship. However, he overcame it and obtained diplomatic achievements. Ko Gyeong-Myung's poetry written during the diplomatic travel is categorized into three stages: First, the poetry written while crossing over Manchuria; Second, that written during diplomatic activities in Peking; and third, that written from when he left Peking until he arrived home. He wrote 64 pieces of poetry during the travel. The poetry he wrote while passing Manchuria displayed exotic feeling very strongly. The representative works are 'Bunsuryong' and 'Almunmyo'. At Bunsuryong, many ambassadors wrote poetry. It was space for repose with significant meaning. From this pass, a stream of water flows to the west, Liao River and another stream flows to the east, the Amnokgang. At the 'Almunmyo', Ko showed severe disappointment with Chinese culture and a pride of our culture. Ko who arrived to Peking had many difficulties in diplomatic activities. Because of inhospitable treatment and strict supervision by Ming government, it was very hard to work. At this time he wrote two poetic works titled 'Yeyebusangseo' and 'Munsungjibulhugangchikchangeumchupjunun'. He described his royalty to his country through these works. And he visited a shrine named Samchungsa around Peking on his way home. This shrine was established to serve the most faithful servants, Chuko Liang, Yueh Fei and Wen Tianxiang in China. In particular, Ko cherished his memory of Wen Tianxiang. Wen is a patriot who led the loyal troops and never yielded to Yien until he was killed. In this poem, Ko regarded Wen as his ideal. On his way home, Ko wrote a poem titled 'Chilgaryungjeseokjipgoku' where he prepared for a strong decision for the future of his country. He decided to make his return another beginning rather than an end. In this context, his diplomatic travel to Ming Dynasty in 1581 became a big watershed in his life. He showed a desire to explore a new way into government and set Wen Tianxiang, a loyalty, as a coordinate for his life.
  • 4.

    A Study on Nuljae Park Sang's Prose Poems

    Kim Dong-ha | 2010, (26) | pp.81~110 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Nuljae Park Sang was known as the man of justice and principle, as well as a man of stern integrity. But he was one of the most prominent writers and poets during the reigns of King Yongsan and King Jeongjo at the time of the Chosun Dynasty. He was highly praised by King Jeongjo, the most academic king in our Korean history along with King Sejong, regarding the poems. He said, "There are only two poets' poems, that is, Park Sang and Park Eun. I think we must consider their poems the most representative poem's model." Furthermore, he was honored as a master of poets in Honam poetic circles. The Nuljaejip, named after his pen name, the collection of his works, contains 1160 pieces of poetry and 12 prose poems including a variety of literary styles, exposing the world to his unique talents. But in spite of his great literary relics, the study of the academic world regarding his works was very poor. Among his many works, I had a special interest in his unique 12 pieces of prose poems. First of all, they have large quantities, just like full-length stories. They are rich in contents, such as the Confucian point of worldly View and historic consciousness, and righteous sense of Mencius. In this thesis, I tried to find out the general characteristics revealed through his 12 prose poems. Therefore, I analyzed the respective prose poem thoroughly, and believed his thoughtful tendency to be typical of a follower of Confucianism. In conclusion, the contents of them summarized into the following five points; praising of the rule of right and yearning of the ideal politics, happiness of the private citizen living in the forests, satire of the current events, patriotism and loyalty to his sovereign, and aesthetics of lyricism.
  • 5.

    A study on extend and transfer of cultural alteration to depend on the exile poetry to Jeonnam in the early years of Chosun dynasty

    KIMJUNOK | 2010, (26) | pp.111~149 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study focuses on how the consciousness and behavior of people who were exiled to Jeonnam affected regional culture and spirit. From old times, Jeonnam was frequently used for a place of exile; especially in the early years of Chosun dynasty, a number of well known government officials were exiled to Jeonnam as results of competing for the power. Because of this historical characteristic of Jeonnam, there is an argument that cultural alteration by the consciousness and behavior of exiled people had influenced regional culture and spirit. That is to say, the argument considers that regional characteristics of Jeonnam, which are loyalty, resistance, civility and artistry,In the early years of Chosun dynasty, under the political circumstance of challenge and response, there were many writers from Jeonnam with flourishing literary works according to their own interests. At that time, they could have chances to contact with the exiled officials. However, poetry literature phenomena show that there were no cultural conflicts; rather, there were literary extend and transfer between two parties. Thus, it is possible that the exiled officials were assimilated into unfamiliar culture and spirit of Jeonnam, or they became intellectual stimulants as a result of close interaction with local people thanks to their social status; but, we cannot conclude in haste that regional characteristics were originated from the people exiled in the early stage of Chosun dynasty. If we continue on the time-periodic research after understanding the aspect of the exile to Jeonnam and the theoretical combination of literature and Confucianism, we could be more clear on cultural alteration between spiritual characteristics of Jeonnam and culture of the exiled.
  • 6.

    A Study on Chacteristics of Maecheon's Folk Poem, <Sangwonjapyeong>

    kimjinwook | 2010, (26) | pp.151~172 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The current study discussed patriotic spirit contained in <Sangwonjapyeong>, a representative folk poem of Maecheon, and acceptance of properties of Joseon poems. First of all, it is emotionally difficult that folk poems reflect patriotic spirit. It is also confirmed from the fact that many folk poems created mostly in the 18th century seldom display patriotic spirit. Maecheon developed folk poems by reflecting this kind of patriotic spirit, and also showed the fact that folk customs should be based on the existence of the nation. In particular, a part in his work titled <Ryulye> in which he suggested facing against Japan with the spirit of desperation is the zenith of patriotic spirit. As another characteristic of <Sangwonjapyeong>, the study discussed acquiring a sense of beauty through realistic description of the site. <Sangwonjapyeong> reflects the on-site concept, one of important characteristics of Joseon poems. The author's attitude that he will tell about the emotion of Joseon people because he is one of them is clearly contained in <Sangwonjapyeong>. <Sangwonjapyeong> shows important feelings such as a sense of solidity and a sense of assimilation coming from detailed realistic description to readers because a clear poetic space, so called, 'now here', is described instead of an 'always such' conceptual world.
  • 7.

    Tak Gwang Mu's Life and His Poetic Realization

    Myung Hee Park | 2010, (26) | pp.173~202 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to identify Tak Gwang Mu' life and how his life was realized through poetry, targeting his twenty-eight poems on twenty-six topics. The aspects of poetic realization were roughly categorized into three parts: first, learning and understanding of Confucianism; second, awareness of the current situation and emphasis on integrity; third, unworldly life and poetry of Yeomlak style. This study examined the process through which Mr. Tak learned Confucianism and how much he understood it. He wrote how Confucianism was known in his poetry and pointed out that the poetry related to Confucianism did not deal with its deep ideas. This study mentioned how much Tak recognized current situation and emphasized fidelity under troubled times. Most of the persons who made friendships with Mr. Tak were public servants of Goryeo and did not recognize the foundation of Joseon Dynasty. They insisted fidelity to their country though they had severe suffering. Mr. Tak valued it. Finally, this study focused on the fact that he lived worldly life after he resigned from a government post, and his poetry of Yeomlak style. As the poetry of Yeomlak style means that there is no worldly spirit, it is comparable to personality of Joo, Don Eee.
  • 8.

    Transmission Aspects of Folk ballads in Yeongnam District

    Young-Sook Suh | 2010, (26) | pp.203~239 | number of Cited : 19
    Abstract PDF
    This paper investigated the transmission aspects of folk ballads in Yeongnam district. This was performed as the former step to study the comparison of folk ballads between Yeongnam district and Honam district. I surveyed 635 versions of folk ballads and the database of them in Yeongnam district. Yeongnam district have the most versions of folk ballads in Korea. Folk ballads could be classified into 64 types according to the relation of the protagonist and antagonist of works. The most versions was the Ba type (A weaving woman waiting for her husband). The second was the Ea type (A maiden suspected of the unfaithfulness by her brother) the third was the Ia type (A maiden who lost her pigtail ribbon). These are related with love between bachelor and maiden. In the contrast of that, the Sijipsarinore (Folk ballads about the woman's sufferings from her husband's family) including the type Aa which was handed down the most briskly in the Honam district. The reason of these phenomena was that Yeongnam district have been the authentic confucian society. The married women could not sing freely. Yeongnam district could be divided into 3 cultural regions, the north-west region, the north-east region and the south region. Folk ballads were handed down the most briskly in the south regions. On the contrary, the least folk ballads were handed down in the north-east region. This shows that folk ballads in Yeongnam district were created and transmitted in the regions which was exchanged briskly with Honam district. I could find that the folk ballads about the woman's sufferings from her husband's family in the north-west region, the one about the household affairs of women in the north-east regions, the one about the love affairs of maiden in the south, were handed down mostly. Moreover, the mixed types between Yeongnam and Honam were found in the south regions. Those were results of the cultural exchange between Yeongnam and Honam districts. The transmission aspects of folk ballads in Yeongnam districts found by this paper could be confirmed through the comparison of folk ballads between Yeongnam districts and Honam districts. Therefore, the more expended surveys to the whole districts as well as Honam districts should be continued.
  • 9.

    The Gasa composing and transmission at court banquet

    Shin, Kyung-Sook | 2010, (26) | pp.241~269 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this thesis is to define creation base andtransmission of <Hwa-Jo-Ga>. I show the results as follows. First of all, <Hwa-Jo-Ga> was completed in two stages. In the first stage, A court lady Cho Maenghwa wrote this work. In the second stage, Hyomyoung-seja added two line on the beginning of it. Therefore, today's <Hwa-Jo-Ga> is the combined work of a court lady and a royal prince. Second, <Hwa-Jo-Ga> is based on Court banquet of Febuary in 1829 on the period of making the royal prince to do works as king's agent. It was political poetry to express their active approval opinion about Hyomyoung-seja's political activities for restoring the royal power. Third, <Hwa-Jo-Ga> was widely known among the people from Court which was the first writing place. A then, in the process of transmission, It was divided into Gyubang Gasa and fork song and became two different genre. It was handed down in the region of Youngnam.
  • 10.

    A Study on the O Kwang-woon's Cognition about Poetry

    여운필 | 2010, (26) | pp.271~302 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Yaksan(藥山) O Kwang-woon(吳光運) had a cognition that a prose writer should learn the six Confucian scriptures(六經) and classic prose(古文) writings from Pre-Chin(先秦) and Han(漢) dynasty era, and also should follow extraordinary spirits(神氣) and real characters(本色) of that times mind from them.. These views which had been affected from classicist(擬古主義者) in Myeong(明) dynasty became the root for the thoughts on poetry. He found a standard(典範) for writing poems in Han and We(魏) dynasty Kosi(古詩) and the golden age Dang((盛唐) Kosi and Keunchaesi(近體詩). This thoughts also derived from classicists in Myeong dynasty. He regarded as having to be pursued in writing poems is superb sprit(神韻), and secondary is excellent style(風格). And he was cognizant of important things such as the rhythm and rhetoric in writing poems. Also he insisted on having to be regarded as taboo that a poet quoted too much citation from former ages writings and using vulgar words in a poem, These fundamental cognitions comparatively deeper and minuter distinctive thoughts at that time. Such specific characters must to be verified through his poems.
  • 11.

    The Form and the Voice of Dogang-Gogabu-sa

    Chung Kil-soo | 2010, (26) | pp.303~335 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    Jung Yak-yong丁若鏞(1762∼1836)'s Dogang-Gogabu-sa道康瞽家婦詞(A Woman married to a blind man) is a representative short narrative poem in Sino-Korean in the late Chosun. I tried to analyze the form and the descriptive method of short narrative poetry in Sino-Korean focusing on this masterpiece. First, I confirmed that short narrative poetry in Sino-Korean had the three parts, which are the beginning part, the middle narrative part, and the last part. In the course of comparing the beginning part of Dogang-Gogabu-sa and other narrative poetry created before it, I extracted some features of narrative poetry: the creation of typical characters, the pithy description of a scene, and the characteristic reproduction of characters' activities and incidents, which is not mimetic reproduction. Comparing the last parts of those, I discovered the different directions of ‘final voice’. Analyzing the voice of Dogang-Gogabu-sa, I searched the interpenetration of voices and the role change of narrator/scene-narrator/character. As a result, I concluded that Dogang-Gogabu-sa was the magnum opus in that constructing scenes through the overlapping of voice showed a high level of creative skill.
  • 12.

    The banished life of Ja-am Kim Gu & Aspect of "Joy within the Sadness"

    조지형 | 2010, (26) | pp.337~368 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the inner side of consciousness as well as the life during Kim Gu's banishment to the Nan-hae(南海) through Chinese poem works written during from 1488 to 1534 by Ja-am(自菴) Kim Gu(金絿), who was active during the early 16th century. The Kim Gu's theme tendency of Chinese poem works can be mainly organized into five types of ①agony and allergic pain of banished life, ②humane mind and longing for family, ③application and interaction upon live in the Nam-hae, ④landscape sightseeing and musical appreciation, and of ⑤aim to escape the world as well as truthful appreciation. As Kim Gu's banished life continued on for 13 years, he began to gradually adapt to the life in the Nam-hae while showing the aspects of mentally restoring the daily life and actively interacting with people near. Accordingly, Kim Gu spent his period of banished life participating in various meetings along with these people and such courses of meetings were always accompanied by the poem, alcohol, and music. On the other hand, Kim Gu, under protection and help of these people, was able to travel to places around southern sea with beautiful scenery. As a result, such aspects are assessed being the base allowing Kim Gu to write 「Hwajeonbyulgok(花田別曲)」 full of magnanimous appreciation for the arts despite the fact that it was written during his period of banishment.
  • 13.

    Jeong-Sik's <Chooksanbyeolgok> and the meaning of the history of literature

    Jo, Taeseong | 2010, (26) | pp.369~395 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    <Chooksanbyeolgok> was written by Jeong-sik at the Yonggoong in 1728. This study tried to grasp the meaning of the work from the cultural point of view. For this, I examined into the Jeong-sik's lifetime, the content and form of his work and etc. First, I found the meaning of the regional expansion in Gwanyugasa. In other words, <Chooksanbyeolgok> filled the regional loss in the historical point of view. Second, I discovered the fact that <Chooksanbyeolgok> performed an important role in a process of transfiguration of the Gasa. In comparison with the Gweon-seop's work, this is a dominant characteristic. Gweon-seop's <Yeongsambyeolgok> was concentrated on the 'obtaining information', while <Chooksanbyeolgok> focus on the its content.
  • 14.

    A Review of Dosanki(陶山記)

    Lim Jun Sung | 2010, (26) | pp.399~412 | number of Cited : 0