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2012, Vol., No.29

  • 1.

    Economic Situation and Cultural Direction through the Works of Lyeohang Gagaek - Focusing on the case of Kim Cheontaek and Kim Sujang

    Jaeheon Kang | 2012, (29) | pp.5~32 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    It was Lyeohang Gagaeks who led the group of Sijo singers in the late period of Chosun Dynasty. They are based on the social class 'Lyeohangin'. Lyeohangin was the major member of Seoul population in the late period of Chosun Dynasty and a social class who first lived in Seoul and second, engaged in the public works and had a great economic power. Despite of it, they had the inherent limit in social position - not belong to Yangban (noble class) - and had a status recognition by calling themselves as 'Gungin (窮人)'. Kim Cheontaek and Kim Sujang who led the group of artists in the 18th century are also Lyeohangin who meet these three conditions. Kim Cheontaek had a title of Pogyo but had an economic power enough to have his own house in the residential area of military nobility around the Namsan. Considering the housing status of Seoul at that time, this represents his considerable economic power. Thus his economic situation must be rich and affluent like other Lyeohangin. Based on this economic power, he had the high brow cultural direction which led to the collection of old swords and the creation of the works of drinking and the regular Sijo music. Kim Sujang as Seori, had an economic superiority to Kim Cheontaek. Based on his economic power, he built his house in Hwagae-dong, a place of superb scenic beauty and could be the head of the group of artists. However, such economic power that he had appears on his works with decadent cultural trend. Other than the high toned contents of Kim Cheontaek, such trend was reflected in the creation of variant Sijo music of Kim Sujang who has involved with various women, and appears on his work. Lyeohang gagaek expressed the cultural direction suitable for their aiming on their works based on their own economic power.
  • 2.

    The Lyric Literature of Korean Women Longing for Their Families in Manchuria - Focused on References and Authors

    ko, Soon-Hee | 2012, (29) | pp.33~66 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study is to present the references of the lyric literature of Korean women longing for their families in Manchuria, as well as to identify the authors. Chapter 2 is to present references and different editions with reference to <Song-Gyo-Haeng> (2), <Dap-Sa-Chin-Ga> (3), <Gam-Hoe-Ga> (2), <Byeol-Han-Ga> (4), <Dan-Sim-Gok> (1) and <Sa-Chin-Ga> (1), 6 works in all (numbers in brackets refer to the numbers of different editions). Chapter 3 is to identify the authors of those works and to reconstitute their lives. <Song-Gyo-Haeng> was written in 1912 by a woman (1862 – 1938) from the Gwons of Andong, and <Dap-Sa-Chin-Ga> was written in 1914 by a woman (1894 – 1937) from the Lees of Goseong. It was 1914, when she was 21, that she completed the work.<‘Gam-Hoe-Ga> and <Byeo-Han-Ga> were written by a woman (1855 – 1922) from the Lees of Jeonju. The former was completed in 1913 when she was 59, and the latter in 1915 when she was 61. <Dan-Sim-Gok> was written by a woman who was born as the eldest daughter in a noble family in Seoul (the capital city of South Korea) in 1893 and married into the purple in Yeongnam area (the southeastern region of South Korea) at the age of 18. The work was composed in 1922 when she was about 30. <Sa-Chin-Ga> was written by a woman who was born as the eldest daughter in 1900, married at the age of 20, and leaded a married life for 18 years. The work was composed in 1936 when she was about 37. Chapter 4 is to comment on authors’ lives and the relations amongst works. Most of authors were women of noble birth who had not gone through the hardship of life. As their families went over to Manchuria and joined the independence movement, however, they began to muddle through the bitters of life. Most of them were related to Yeongnam area, the center of lyric literature. Their longings for their families are expressed in their works. The lyric literature of women longing for their families in Manchuria speaks for women who lived in turbulent periods in Korea. Such works are significant in that they narrate the modern history of Korea.
  • 3.

    Study of Creation Techniques of <Sokmiingok>

    Kim,Sun-Ki | 2012, (29) | pp.67~90 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Song Gang Jeong Cheol(1536-1593) composed <Samiingok> and <Sokmiingok> circa 53 of his age, whose main theme is both for the longing for the King. After writing <Samiingok>, he recited a Chinese poem to express his feelings at that moment; "Thinking a beautiful lover with one melody but a long ballad, I am old but my mind is refreshed." When considering that the speaker of <Samiingok> is an old woman and a bride for <Sokmiingok> respectively, it is evident that Song Gang created <Samiingok> and <Sokmiingok> in terms of both the old body and young mind. In that sense, they are very interesting because the two works show how yearning for the King could be different from the perspective of the opposite characteristics of the old woman and the bride. The purpose of this paper is to study creation techniques that contribute to writing <Sokmiingok> where the young mind of Song Gang is reflected as a bride. I think some noticeable characteristics shown in the creation of <Sokmiingok> are asking-answering narrationㆍbride the speaker making standㆍcompression of time zone and I analyze each of them in three chapters. <Sokmiingok> and <Samiingok> are considered a kind of the relation of twins for each other, and to properly compare the works would make it easier to get creation techniques. As the results, differences are revealed between <Sokmiingok> and <Samiingok>. The speaker in <Samiingok> has the feature of a passive and static old woman, while the speaker in <Sokmiingok> showing a positive and dynamic bride. It is thought that the three techniques effectively help to bring out a young mind, the intention that Song Gang has in his mind.
  • 4.

    Works of Namdo's Old Siga and Research Trends

    Kim, Shin Chung | 2012, (29) | pp.91~114 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Regional literature was recently spotlighted. In connection to this point, I dealt with the result of study about old Siga(詩歌) of Namdo(南道) which refers to the area of Gwangju and Jeollanam-do. In particular I mainly covered Sijo(時調) and Gasa(歌辭) literature in the Joseon Dynasty period that centralized Namdo's old Siga. The main ideas were as follows. First, I analyzed the current state of Namdo's old Siga. In order to do this, I categorized the works of Namdo's old Siga into three groups. The three categories were as follows: the ones written about Namdo by Namdo's regional people, the ones written based on Namdo by people from other regions and the ones written about other regions except Namdo by Namdo's regional people. Second, I examined the research trends about Namdo's old Siga. I gave careful consideration to the details of how the works are excavated and introduced with respect to the period. Then I divided the research done in the light of regional literature into two different groups such as the one studied in terms of organizing the research material and the one conducted with regard to explaining regional characteristics. Based upon this, I pointed out that there was not enough explanation for regional characteristics of Namdo's old Siga for two reasons. The earlier studies are biased and there was a lack of critical mind to account for regional characteristics.
  • 5.

    The Aspects of Activities Presented in Poetry by Miam Yu Hui-Chun During Exile at Jong Sung

    Park Myeong Hui | 2012, (29) | pp.115~142 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This study analysed aspects of activities presented in poetry by Yu, Hui-Chun during exile at Jong Sung and organized the results of the poetry and tasks left. Yu, Hui-Chun wrote a total of 143 poetic works while he was in exile at Jong Sung. First, The poetry was categorized into that with respect to Zhu Xi, that on education for local people and that of friendship with neighbors. First, the study focused on his firm attitude of learning though he was in exile. In particular, he revealed strong attitude of respect to Zhu Xi, a scholar of Song Dynasy through his poetry on studies. Second, it was confirmed that he led education and writing activities for local people. It was discovered in a few poems that the people gathered to learn from him when he was in exile at Jong Sung and he attempted to educate them through confucian projects and writing. Third, he continued to communicate with famous figures. He exchanged a total of 16 poems with Kim In-Hu, which was very impressive. Yu, Hui-Chun and Kim, In-Hu had common things each other in that they attempted to practice what they learned as Salim and they felt closer each other through their practical mind although they were far away. They showed their feeling through short poems. Though Yu, Hui-Chun's poetry at exile did not have significant meaning when it was separated individually, it has a great meaning as it tells about his exile as a whole. Then, poetry on Chinese history by Yu, Hui-Chun and interest in recognition of reality will be further studied.
  • 6.

    A study on Sojae Nohsoosin's 「Pigoorok」

    박병익 | 2012, (29) | pp.143~170 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Pigoorok, written by Sojae Nohsoosin, is a compilation of 47 poems under 44 titles which were included in his 4th book's collection of works. The contents span from a poem titled 'Going to Jiryeok Mt, use Ganjae's rhyme for composing' through a poem titled 'Writing on the pole named Beokpajeong'. All the poems and records introduced here relate to Sojae Nohsoosin's 67 days whereabouts of life and his thoughts. The Pigoorok compilation was written between May 13, 1555 and July 19, 1555, concurrent with the onset of the Eulmyo Japanese Invasion. Conflict and circumstance entrap Sojae into a situation of having to flee the island of Jindo, just 11 days after the Eulmyo Japanese Invasion. After efforts to repel the Japanese advancement fail, Sojae determines that the preservation of his life is the ultimate act of fidelity he can show towards his King. Effectively banished, he finally leaves the island of Jindo. His journey of sheltering and concealment from the Japanese raiders continued throughout various regions including Jindo, Haenam, Mokpo, Muan, Hampyeong, Naju, Gwangju, Soochang, Okgwa, Gwangju, Yeongam, Seokgyowon, Haenam to Jindo. During his travels, he associated with various group of people. It is considered that his relationships with Lee Yun Gyung and Lee Jun Gyung, relatives of his wife, were especially helpful to him because of their actual influence in Jellado. Additionally, Sojae reaped the benefits of kind treatment by many bureaucrats named Hyengam, or Goonsoo. Throughout Pigoorok, the reader receives a clear depiction of Sojae's life at this time and his extended stay within a Buddhist temple. His associations include respected Confucianists, friendships with Cheongryeon and Gojook and great writers from the Jeolla province, whose style is peppered with that of 'Old China's' Tang Dynasty. From analysis of Sojae's works, we can suppose that he wanted to be a loyal retainer and confidant just like Ch'u Yuan (a Chinese politician and writer), after realizing the horrors of the Japanese invasion, bureaucratic corruption and the suffering agony of people from poverty and drought. Sojae's inner struggle, between his desire to regain an esteemed governmental position and the conflict it poses with personal goals, depicts for the reader his sense of both helplessness and loss.
  • 7.

    A Reappraisal of Naksijo: Centering on Its Pieces in Chungka

    Eo, Jin-Ho | 2012, (29) | pp.171~202 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The term Naksijo first appeared in the Chungzin(1728), an anthology of Sijo. During the late Joseon period, it was used as one of the most influential style of Sijo including musical tone or melody. In taking all the related evidences into consideration, Naksijo in the Chungzin was certainly used as a type of musical compositions ('akgok'), not a kind of musical key or mode ('akjo' or 'Seonbeob'). For most pieces of Naksijo, writers remained unknown. It might be because a focus of the pieces was put on merrymaking or pleasure and entertainment rather than writers' conscious worlds. This became more remarkable in the Chungka. But the Chungka also represented its own characteristics. That is, Naksijo was believed to be one of the main musical pieces in Sijo and to be widely applied to the broader spectrum ranging from Pyong-Sijo to Saseol-Sijo. During the post-Chungka, Naksijo was intimately associated with Saseol-Sijo, which was a response to the change of poetic sentiments throughout the 18th century. In short, Naksijo, despite its incomplete musical features, had a great significance in the historical trend of Sijo from the early 18th century and gave a clue relevant to understanding the world of Sijo.
  • 8.

    Consideration Different Versions of Takraga written by Kim Jong-jik

    YOON Chi Boo | 2012, (29) | pp.203~232 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis is a study on different versions of Takraga written by Kim Jong-jik, a quatrain with seven characters per line which expresses climate and products of Jeju. This study intended to know lineage of original version and different versions. Some documents listing 14 poems of Takraga are extant - Jeompiljae collections kind for works of Kim Jong-jik, Second Anthology of Korean Literature kind published by King's order, Tamraji kind contained in Record of Jeju, Namsarok or Namsayilrok kind where experiences of officials stayed in Jeju were recorded, and Simjae collections kind where literature and history are recorded for lifetime by an author who lived in Japanese ruling period. Jeompiljae collections kind have 7 kinds of versions such as Gyeongjin version Jeompiljae collections, Gichuk, Giyu, Gisa, Yimjin, Jeongsa, and Muin. There are changes of letters focused on simplified letters between different versions. Second Anthology of Korean Literature kind has 4 kinds such as National Library of Korea version Second Anthology of Korean Literature assumed as first edition in Eulhae letter, Palace Library version of wood printing blocks in Pilseoche letter, photoprint version of Gyeonghee publishing company, photoprint version of Gyeongwon publishing company. Tamraji kind has 4 kinds such as Tamraji by Lee Won-jin , Tamraji in first edition by Lee Won-jo, Tamraji in Tokyo university version, and Tamraji by Damsugea. There are partial changes of letters between different versions. Namsarok kind has two kinds such as Namsarok in Palace Library version, Namsarok in Cheongeumyujib version - the latter was made by arranging the former again. Namsayilrok kind has Namsayilrok by Lee jeung - this is a different version near Namsarok kind. Simjae collections kind has Simjae collections by Kim Seok-ik and this is a different version of Tamraji in Tokyo university version. Among them, Jeompiljae collections is a different version most near original version - this version shows high completeness so that misprint even one cannot be found.
  • 9.

    Yukga transmission in Lee of Gyeongju family and its significance in history of literature

    Lee, sang-won | 2012, (29) | pp.233~256 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Yukga style sijo(육가형 시조) began as "Jangyukdang Yukga(장육당육가)" by Lee Byeol(이별), and since then, his family consistently composed "Punggye Yukga(풍계육가)" by Lee Jeong(이정), "Seogye Yukga(서계육가)" and "Okhwa Yukga(옥화육가)" by Lee Deuk-yun(이득윤), and "Sanmin Yukga(산민육가)" by Lee Hong-yu(이홍유). The purpose of this study is to investigate this transmission of Yukga(육가) in Lee of Gyeongju Family. "Punggye Yukga(풍계육가)" is the first one worked in Lee of Gyeongju Family after "Jangyukdang Yukga(장육당육가)", a work thoroughly succeeding to "Jangyukdang Yukga(장육당육가)" in that it contributed to complete unity with nature with thorough forgetting of the reality. Although "Seogye Yukga(서계육가)" and "Okhwa Yukga(옥화육가)" have not been passed down as of present, their characteristics can be estimated to some degrees by relevant materials. The two works are separate two Yukga(육가) at an interval of ten years, and might deeply reflect desires for cloistered life from the world because they were written after moving to Seogye(서계) and Okhwa(옥화) due to the death of the mother and the inauguration of Gwanghaegun(광해군), respectively. "Sanmin Yukga(산민육가)" expressed some dissatisfaction toward the world along the Yukga(육가) tradition of Lee of Gyeongju Family but represented the author as a lonesome life abandoned from the world, indicating that the strong sense of identity in the previous Six-Stanza had been considerably weakened. Yukga style sijo(육가형 시조) written by the four generations of Lee of Gyeongju Family may be combined to the series of "Jangyukdang Yukga(장육당육가)", but it is important that they exist with their own historicity. "Punggye Yukga(풍계육가)" by Lee Jeong(이정) is a work that relatively thoroughly succeeded to "Jangyukdang Yukga(장육당육가)", but is partially overlapped with works of embodying lives of hermits. "Sanmin Yukga(산민육가)" by Lee Hong-yu(이홍유) partially shows the author's worry related to his adverse circumstances expressed in works of poor local nobleman in the 17th century. Such characteristics indicate that the Yukga(육가) of Lee of Gyeongju Family was written somewhat with the context of the general ambience of the poetry of the time.
  • 10.

    Imitated Death and a Painful Memory ― Elegy for Myself Series of 12 Poems by Lee Myung-oh

    Lim Jun Chul | 2012, (29) | pp.257~284 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to introduce Elegy for Myself series of 12 poems by Lee Myung-oh(1750~1836). Elegy for Myself successfully expresses the painful memory by effectively using the tradion of the self-elegy poetry. By using the narrative of imitated death, the poet tries to express his father’s false execution as well as his own under-estimated talent. And his relates his death with other one’s tragic death, by which he raises the question of group, not of individual. This is the unique part of Lee Myung-oh’s self elegy. Self elegy works by Lee Myung-oh have three characteristics. First, They are the longest self elegy poetry. Second, they successfully express painful memory. Third, they have spiritual feeling of solidarity with other dead people. And like other self elegy writers do, Lee also wrote another autobiographical work, which serves as a great reference for understanding the self elegy poetry. Self elegy poetry by Lee should be known as unique works to construct a new history of self elegy poetry. And his poetry made self elegy works in Chosun one of much more various ways of expression.
  • 11.

    The research on the literature activity written by Korean-chinese letter in gwang- ju (Focus on the gwang-san area)

    chang Sun Hee | 2012, (29) | pp.285~308 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study is the research into the literature activities written by Korean-Chinese letter done after modern age in Gwang-ju. Especially, I concentrate on the literature activities done in Gwang-san area in Gwang-ju. It is because I consider that literature activities written by Korean-Chinese letter done after modern age in Gwang-ju are actively done in Gwang-san area. As a result of this research, because of its geographical and historical background, I judge that Gwang-san area is the main center that many literature activities written by Korean-Chinese letter are done when the Honam literature thrive. I study Park Sang, Ki Dae-seung, Kim Un-geo and so on who work in this area in the middle of the Choseon Dynasty. I study Oh Jun-sun and Park No-sul, the pupils of (No-Sa) Ki Jeong-jin, who work in this area during the modern transition. I think that an in-depth study and more data about them are followed.
  • 12.

    The Meaning of Adaptation of Pansori and Production of Kasa in Jaehyo Shin's Works

    ByungHeon Chung | 2012, (29) | pp.309~334 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Jaehyo Shin is one of the most important figure in pansori history. There have been many various studies about his life and achievement. These studies generally point out that his adaptation of pansori was based on rationalism and the pursuit of rationalism was based on his intelligence. Through his work, pansori became a national performance. First, this study examines the aim of his adapted pansori based on earlier studies. The result is that all of his adapted six pansori works are coincide with the nature of pansori since they depict the process of satisfaction of people in need. Next, it is assumed that his Kasa were made in various different ways, such as reorganizing former works, adding some parts, and creating in his own way. Especially, it is noteworthy that he tried to block poetic images, which pansori pursues, in his way of reorganizing or adding former works. Instead, he tried to seek the spread of shamanistic atmosphere by repetition. It can be also seen in pop music of these days, therefore it clearly shows that Jaehyo Shin explored various ways of language expression and tried to adapt them in his work.
  • 13.

    Myeon[俛] and Ang[仰], the Two Eyes

    Jo, Taeseong | 2012, (29) | pp.335~358 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    I tried to read the Myeonangjeong-Ga[俛仰亭歌] by the two eyes in this article. The two eyes are Myeon[俛] and Ang[仰]. But I have noted to the Center[中] and the person stand on the center between the sky and the earth. In this process, I could to make sure that the aesthetic elegance of Myeonangjeong-Ga[俛仰亭歌] was completed by the minuteness of its structure. This structure was a direct projection of Song-soon’s Confucianism. In other words, he aimed to an union of the communication meaned to the sky and the earth. He tried to recognize the being of ‘I’ moving independently. This point is a reason reading of Myeonangjeong-Ga[俛仰亭歌] anew.
  • 14.

    Reviewing the implications of Dosansip-igok

    ByeongIk hwang | 2012, (29) | pp.359~391 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Meanwhile read superficially Dosansip-igok’s verses again, results can be summarized like this. Dosansip-igok’s eonji(言志) 3 “to say that the Unsophisticated wind(淳風) died is truly false” contents that “seonbi do not seek a government position, sages of the world should pursue higher studies”. Eonji 4 ‘I remember leaving for a more beautiful one person’ means that Ideal munwang Zhou era as a model, who has good mind of benefited to the people and the servants are equipped to obtain the trust of the thick of political ideals and hope that holds. Eonji 6 “How much more ‘fish jumping kite flies’(魚躍鳶飛), ‘heaven shines bright cloud shadows’(天光雲影) emphasis that nature of the earth, and the mysterious origins of the universe to find profound sense, for no continuous inquiry and reflection should strive to learn his way. In Eonhak(言學)2 "We have bright eyes and ears, we should not live as deaf and blind.", the ‘bright eyes and ears’(耳目聰明男子) means profound knowledge in the world can realize who has been granted, albeit a small feat"(so-ong(邵雍) "gyeokyangjip(擊壤集), the mission emphasized the responsibility and said as intellectuals. Hence, 'Do not live as deaf and blind’ means that If a person does not work on a regular basis to study and eventually become like blind people say that your long bordered said. In other words, people who want to learning and polishing the endless quest to seek truth through the justification, always bright and wise in his own world of knowledge should be emphasized that the said. Eonhak 5 "we would not be limited time to live greener," the Holy Ghost or the season in January does not change the properties of earth lasting nature, as a purely human being has been granted Generally a good heart that seek to maintain the body is stressed. Generally Dosansip-igok eonji six contains that seonbi ran academic and living eco-friendly life concentrating on self-discipline. Another virtue ruled the world, the king and his servants and political ideals and profound harmony between reason and to try to enlighten the pale scholar awards are presented. In other words, two ahead of a government post office seonbi pursuit higher than two should focus on the academic world to deepen and orientation holds that the Party. After the 6 'eonhak' "The man must learn to seek the wisdom to have a position, ie, good nature, an attitude of wisdom and enlightenment, devoted to steady" academic intellectuals as such terms have to be emphasizes responsibility and commitment.
  • 15.

    A regarding on a newly discovered work, <Maesan-byulgok(梅山別曲)> of Gwajae(過齋) Kim Jeong-Muk(金正默)

    Gu Sawhae | 2012, (29) | pp.395~424 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focused on Jeong-Muk Kim’s, who was a Confucian scholar in the late Joseon Dynasty, work <Maesan-byulgok>. <Maesan-byulgok>,which recited about a life in nature, is a new lyrics that has not been known until now. Therefore, the original context of <Maesan-byulgok> was introduced and were examined in this paper. The author Jeong-Muk Kim was a descendent of Jang-Saeng Kim who succeeded the scholastic mantle of Yul-Gok Lee in the Joseon Dynasty and he was a Confucian scholar who devoted himself to his studies during his entire life in nature. He was a scholar in the family Nakron among the school Noron, and he strived to protect the authenticity of Taoism while studying issues related to people’s mind. In his recently discovered work <Maesan-byulgok>, written while looking at the natural scenery of a village named Maesan where he lived, he realized that eternal essence was contained in the hidden side of the scenery and said people to bring up their minds. The narrator in the work is pledging himself to adapt to nature in the reign of peace and live a peaceful life while enjoying Tao. The nature appearing in <Maesan-byulgok> is not simple nature but an idea that contains the truth of Tao in its hidden side. This lyrics work is characterized by the fact that the work was combined with the issue of minds pursued by him.