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2014, Vol., No.34

  • 1.

    The Korean War and Gasa

    ko, Soon-Hee | 2014, (34) | pp.5~32 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This article researched the texts of Gasa which describe the experience of the writer in the period of Korean War. To obtain the texts of Gasa which describe the experience of the writer in the period of Korean War, I have extensively investigated the collections of manuscrips and printing books. As a result, seven pieces of Gasa were corrected until now. These are <hoesimsa>, <Wonhanga>, <Gowhyang-dduhnan-hoesimgok>, <Peeransa>, <narayi-beeguk>, <Chuwolgam>, <Setebigam>. Until now the academia did not pay attention to these texts of Gasa except <Chuwolgam>. First of all, I presented the texts of Gasa which describe the experience of the writer in the period of Korean War. And through the analysis on the contents of work I proved the writer, writing age, the fact that each work was related to The Korean War, and whether the writer is a woman or a man. Next, I analyzed the position of each writer facing the Korean War. Gasa which describe the antipathy to the war itself are <hoesimsa>, <narayi-beeguk>, <Peeransa>. Gasa which describe in the position of Southern soldiers are <Wonhanga>, <Gowhyang-dduhnan-hoesimgok>. Gasa which describe the ideological conflict of one woman are <Chuwolgam>, <Setebigam>. Finally, I probed the literary significance of these Gasa works. These Gasa works has the significance as a documentary literature which typically reflect the tragedy of war and the life of our ordinary people in the period of Korean War. And these Gasa works shows us that traditional features of poetry existence was maintained until recently.
  • 2.

    A study on <Jikjungnok> a new Gasa work of Yi Do Hee

    Gu Sawhae | Kim Young | 2014, (34) | pp.33~60 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    <Jikjungnok> is a Gasa work written by Yi Do Hee, a descendant of Chungmugong Yi in order to educate and enlighten the women in the family. Some Gasa works such as Korean Chungmugonghaengjang and <Jikjungnok> are literary works inherited from the descendent family of Chungmugung Yi in Deoksu Yi clan in the late Joseon. The descendent family of Chungmugung Yi in Deoksu Yi clan in the late Joseon attempted to remind the achievement of Yi Sun Shin through Chungmugongheangjang and also taught the proper behavior and ethical norm for woman in the family through Gasa works. The descendents of the author were engaged in the independent movement when there was a Japanese invasion later, which was originated from pride of the family and patriotic mind to the country. <Jikjungnok> is a Gasa work that has the same character like <Nabuga> inherited in the descendent family of Chungmugung Yi in Deoksu Yi clan. <Jikjungnok> and <Nabuga> are similar in the contents both of which focused on the behavior and ethical norm of women. There is intertextuality in the structure and expression method in both works.
  • 3.

    The National Poetry Movement with Sijo during the Enlightenment Time- Focusing on Sijo in Daehanmaeilsinb

    Kuk, Yun-ju | 2014, (34) | pp.61~90 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the rhetorical characteristics of sijo called Sajo in Daehanmaeilsinbo. Besides, the National Poetry Movement that served as a principle of literary ideologies for these sijo works is explored to determine how the ideological principle was actually realized in sijo, especially in Daehanmaeilsinbo, during the enlightenment time. Most of all, Cheonhidangsihwa, a review based on literary ideologies that was the most systematic summary of a series of streams that advocated the improvement of vulgar popular culture involving plays, hyangyo, and songs in the then newspapers and magazines, was analyzed to divide the theories of national poetry largely into two categories: First, the national poetry is the essence of national language and should be a verse form of the Korean words and language. Second, the national poetry needs to reject literally effeminate personal emotions and preserve national superiority of poets' society on the basis of strong martialism. It has been noted that the rhetorical characteristics were maximized to reinforce the function of propaganda in that it was the most avant garde newspaper in the then national sovereignty restoration campaign. Despite the emphasis of rational education to perform the task of the times, enlightenment, it has been found that the focus was given to eliciting awareness and anger at the situations, inciting personal emotions, and structuring them into collective ones in spreading and enjoying new poems. This is a propaganda for the national poetry movement that took the lead in realizing nationalistic improvement and reform of popular and folk songs enjoyed by the then public. Readers' contributions widely accepted to incite their emotions and induce their positive sympathy as a strategy for public propaganda were analyzed. The rhetorical characteristics of readers' contributions could be found in the quotation to give intensive poetic meanings and double the effects through repetitive use of two or three key conceptual words from the original work presented by the newspaper editor and in the resultant internalization of discourse. Realization of strong martialism can also be found in embodiment of a new hero and in presentation of others and may be standardized through the methods of simplification and exaggeration based on the key characteristics of good and evil. The metaphor of a war was widely used for the strategy to differentiate others and position them as enemies as a means of condemnation. Since the year 1910, sijo has gone through new changes in its position and roles due to the changes of temporal situations and discontinuation of Daehanmaeilsinbo.
  • 4.

    Study on the literary works associated with Jeokbyeok(赤壁, The Red Cliff) in Mt. Mudeung(無等山) area in the early Joseon Dynasty

    KimDaeHyun | 2014, (34) | pp.91~118 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This article addresses 'Jeokbyeok literature in Mt. Mudeung area' as 'the literary space'. 'Jeokbyeok' refers to the representative literary space in East Asia. A number of 'Jeokbyeok' remain in China, Korea and Japan. In the past, special literary spaces such as Nujeong(樓亭) and Wonrim(園林) had been built in sites of scenic beauty. It is reported that many Nujeong had been built in Dongbokhyeon(同福縣) which was in the same location of Jeokbyeok in Mt. Mudeung area. The literary works regarding natural space of Jeokbyeok and Nujeong such as Mulyeomjeong(勿染亭) are generally called 'Jeokbyeok literature'. Especially, 'Jeokbyeok in Mt. Mudeung area' in Hwasun(和順) is the most representative 'literary space' in Korea. There are plenty of cultural sites such as Nujeong and literary works. This paper is one of the studies on Jeokbyeok in Hwasun in Jeollanam-do province as the Korean representative literary space. The content is mainly concerned with Jeokbyeok literature in Mt. Mudeung area in the early Joseon Dynasty. In the early Joseon Dynasty, Sinjae Choi San-du(新齋 崔山斗) recognized Jeokbyeok in natural space as a literary space. Classical Chinese poetry by Sinjae(新齋), Seokcheon Yim Eok-ryeong(石川 林億齡), and Jebong Go Gyeong-myeong(霽峯 高敬命) illustrates the beauty of Jeokbyeok. <Yuseoseokrok>(遊瑞石錄) by Jebong Go Gyeong-myeong(霽峯 高敬命) or <Yujeokbyeokgi>(遊赤壁記) by Hakbong Kim Seong-il(鶴峰 金誠一) is the typical prose in the early Joseon Dynasty. Every piece of the literary works represents the beauty of Jeokbyeok. However, many pieces show the Confucian(儒家的) academic attitude rather than the secluded spiritual world.
  • 5.

    The Aspiring Awareness Shown in the Translation by Hwang Yun Suk of Sijo and Its Meaning

    Park Myeong Hui | 2014, (34) | pp.119~158 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to identify the motivation for the translation of Sijo, the reality in Hwang's translation, his techniques and aspirations, and the status and meaning of the translated poetry, focusing on translated poetry by Hwang Yun Suk. Hwang Yun Suk recorded his motivation to translate Korean poetry into Chinese in the preface of「Gogasinbuneesipgujang」. As he felt sorry that Korean poems were not widely read, he decided to translate Korean poems into Chinese. He translated a total of 45 poems, of which four poems no longer exist. This study roughly divided the techniques used in translating poems into ‘Chukja Translation’ and ‘Byongae Translation’, and sought the awareness Hwang aspired for in the poetry. In considering the 41 translated poems which still exist as subjects of the study, seven poems can be classified as ‘Chukja Translations’ while 34 are ‘Byongae Translations.’ First, it was suggested that the intention was to deliver the prototype of the poems although there are only seven poems which belong to ‘Chukja Translation.’ Those which belong to ‘Byongae Translation’ were typified into cases where one or two characters were changed, cases where some additions were made, cases where some materials was curtailed and something new was added, and cases where some characters were changed or content was curtailed and it was discussed. In addition, a common thing in the translations was the representation of the creative mind of the translator. His translated poems were of the middle of the 17th century and 19th century and worked as a bridge to create poems of higher quality. In this sense, he was a person with a practical mind in demonstrating his national awareness.
  • 6.

    A Study on Ecological Thoughts and Imaginations in Gang-Ho Gasa

    Park, Young Ju | 2014, (34) | pp.159~188 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    In the lyrics works(Gang-Ho Gasa) for songs about nature, the life of humans in which nature and humans form harmonious relationships and value consciousness are projected. This paper considered the ecological thoughts and imaginations contained in these lyrics works. The issue of ecology is a universal issue in our lives, which is not limited to a certain period of time. In Gang-Ho Gasa, humans have the status of ‘representatives of nature not rulers’. The lyrics contain humans' consciousness aiming at reaching the ideal state of 'the oneness of objects and I' by being united with the liveliness and order of nature. From these works that contain such ecological thoughts and aiming consciousness, we can newly consolidate our sensations and perception of nature and ecology. Furthermore, we can also prepare the prospective view that must be expanded by the ecological view or ecological poetry of today. This paper can be considered meaningful in that it studied the modern meanings of classics from a new viewpoints.
  • 7.

    Status and Problems of Song Soon’s Poetry

    BAEK SOOK AH | 2014, (34) | pp.189~216 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined the current state and prospect of research on Song Soon’s Sino‐Korean poems. Mainly with regard to previous discussions centering on gasa Myeonangjeongga (俛仰亭歌), this study reviewed the outcomes of research related to Song Soon’s Sino‐Korean poems. This is for closer inquiry into his literary world, and for this purpose, we studied previous research on Sino‐Korean poems. Previous studies largely categorized discussions on nature into three groups: first, Sino‐Korean poems written on nature; second, poems describing the manifestation of ‘Dao道’ in nature; and third, poems on pavilions and travels in nature. Besides, we reviewed studies on Song Soon’s requiems(輓詩), farewell poems, and friendship poems, which were fewer than nature poems but still occupied an important position in Song Soon’s Sino‐Korean poems. First, it was found necessary to recognize the literary meaning and aesthetic characteristic of each poem classified by theme in research on Song Soon’s Sino‐Korean poems. With regard to the manifestation of ‘Dao道’ observed in his Sino‐Korean poems on natural theme, poems in which ‘Dao道’ was manifested were mostly Sino‐Korean poems on natural themes or for social criticism and therefore there should be renewed efforts to find the meaning. For this, each Sino‐Korean poem needs to be classified by theme and its character and aesthetic consciousness need to be pointed out adequately. Next, we discussed the necessity for discussing travel poems and pavilion poems classified by theme. In addition, given insufficient discussions on poems other than nature poems such as requiems, farewell poems, and friendship poems, it is considered necessary to call people’s attention to them. Song Soon’s requiems and farewell poems have been little discussed separately so far, and occasionally they were covered together with nature poems or friendship poems. In this situation, researchers need to take interest in these types of poems and continue discussions steadily based on various materials. When these research tasks are conducted, they may achieve a reflective search for the proper understanding of trend in research on Song Soon’s Sino‐Korean poems, and enhance people’s interest in his poetry.
  • 8.

    A Study on potential of Whajeonga as sources of Culture contents

    PAIK, SUN-CHUL | 2014, (34) | pp.217~250 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    The purpuse of this paper is to study potentional of Whajeonga as sources of culture contents. To this end, In this paper analyzed usage examples as culture contents in main works of classical poetry. And Whajeonnori includes regional features and historical features, However, Today, this had not just chance of modern succession in classical poetry. This study clarified appropriateness and scalability of Whajeonga as sources of culture contents. Firstly, In Making cultural contents of classical poetry, this study suggested Modernization of Sijo, Gasa, Folk song, and Muga. Besides, Modern change in appearance of classical poetry showed positive examples through of the Koryo-gayo and Hyangga. Next, this study emphasized local examples of festival and exhibition as Tourism contents of classical poetrySecondly, In Making cultural contents of Whajeonnori, this study presents possibility of therapeutic communication by healing and solidarity from combination with Whajeonga. Lastly, In Making cultural contents of Whajeonga, this study emphasized building of education cotents, transition to popular contents and transition to industrial cotents. As a whole, This paper institutes necessity of Making cultural contents of classical poetry. Through potentional of Whajeonga as sources of culture contents, we can identify potential of popular spreads and communication of classical literature.
  • 9.

    The Process of the Formation of <CHEONGKWACHEONG>

    Youn,Dug-Jin | 2014, (34) | pp.251~276 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims at the restoration of HYANGGA's musical mode. There is very few data on HYANGGA’s performance, and only a handful of musical scores remains. Would we ever be able to sing HYANGGA again? Can we only read works of HYANGGA with the help of borrowed Chinese characters? Fortunately, Japan has preserved the old songs from the 7th~8th centuries, SAIBARA, which was originated from Korea. SAIBARA has the same characters as GAGOK, the classical song of CHOSUN dynasty. SAIBARA has very slow tempo and its dominant mood is gentle. The scholar-officials (sadebu) were the main audience of the GAGOK. The officials enjoyed the songs accompanied by geomungo, and the majority of GAGOK pieces were accompanied by geomungo. <CHEONGKWACHEONG> is also a song accompanied by geomungo. The close relation between GAGOK and <CHEONGKWACHEONG> was demonstrated by CHOSUN dynasty scholar-officials who were enthusiasts of geomungo. They testified that the modes of singing GAGOK, slow-moderate-fast THAEYUPs, came from <CHEONGKWACHEONG>. We can infer the relation between SAIBARA and <CHEONGKWACHEONG> from the clear association between SAIBARA and GAKOK. The common factor between SAIBARA and <CHEONGKWACHEONG> may be the type of performance, and this factor can be determined by the geomungo. In this study I try to clarify the common factors between the three singing modes by examining the historical records and musical scores from CHOSUN dynasty. Further studies should involve investigation of the equivalent resources from Japan and China.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Principles of Formal structure of Sijo - Focused on Aesthetics of the Short Front-Long End and the Long Front-Short End Formations

    Lee Kyoung Young | 2014, (34) | pp.277~310 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    If we divide sijo into 6 phrases and examine its rhythm of the first and second metres, it shows mostly the short front-long end formation in the beginning and middle verses. It is statistically identified, and this short front-long end formation is judged to perform aesthetic functions as follows:First, as the center of gravity of poem is placed in the back rather than in the front, it gives stability. While the modification of adnominal phrase is mostly expressed short by being arranged in the front, verbs describing behavior are mostly placed in the back and contributes to increasing stability of the sentence. In addition to this, the short front-long end formation performs considerably significant aesthetic functions such as emphasis and completion of meaning. Performing an emphatic function in a poem is closely associated with embodiment of major images. Completion of meaning is related with unique features of verses in sijo. Although sijo verses are used like lines in free verse, it shows totally different attributes from line. It’s because the beginning, middle and last verses have a completed image first and each verse has another small meaning structure and two phrases. On the contrary, the principle of the long front-short end formation has totally different aesthetic functions from the short front-long end formation such as lingering imagery effect and arrangement of the center of poetic gravity in the front. For instance, in the case of inversion for lingering imagery, it is desirable the back part is not heavy, so we follow the principle of the long front-short end formation. In addition, it may perform aesthetics of completing change. What aesthetic effects are there in 3-sound fixity of the first phrase in the last verse and in the form of more than 5-sound? Tension and relaxation, turn effect, and setting up the key topic in the second metre may be included here. This research by no means tried to mention restoration of the number-of-letter logic about which Donam said. It served as a momentum to investigate that the aesthetics of sijo, which has been created for a very long time from ancient sijo which became the poetic object to modern sijo, has never simple but independent domain. And by making good use of this and bringing out advantages only sijo has, if it can also be quoted to the creation of sijo today, the meaning of this research would be more valuable.
  • 11.

    Establishment and utilization method of Travel Gasa - based electronic cultural atlas

    Lee, Hyungdae | 2014, (34) | pp.311~342 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis discusses design and utilization method of cultural atlas with a theme of Travel Gasa among various subjects of electronic cultural atlas. There is much attention to Travel Gasa these days due to change into knowledge information society and development of tourism industry. The reason is that it will be easy to have public utilization of knowledge information and to conduct a interdisciplinary research if it is established as electronic cultural atlas. Therefore, this thesis reviews concept of electronic cultural atlas, building method of Travel Gasa- based electronic cultural atlas, utilization of research method, methodology of public cultural contents, virtual actualization phase and etc.
  • 12.

    Some Presuppositions and Aspects for Love poems developing study in Korea

    Jo, Taeseong | 2014, (34) | pp.343~368 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This writing is tried to present some standard of developing aspect of korean affection poetry projecting time space called post-modern which is remembered as social emotion. because It is judged that clear viewpoint about our affection poetry is weak until now. this problem is started from reason that ‘Love’ could not be defined by any objective standard in affection poetry. thus, This writing endeavor to present objective definition of ‘Love’ and viewpoint that can research our developing aspect base on this definition. absolutely, It is possible to argue about Love’s (being one generation) and validity in affection poetry. Under this viewpoint, affection poetry’s symbol emotion in our age is concluded ‘resignation’ or ‘waiting’ and ‘sadness’ by them. so Love in this age is at least presented as sadness in literary side. our affection poetry’s emotional feature through this situation is not existed itself whatever post-modern or modern but It can say that complex feeling is expressed through it. However, these conclusion has a ability to mistake that Love presenting in affection poetry is fixed. meaning of Love seems to be affected by cultural(or ideological) in post-modern, but most of case was expressed to tragic emotion. it is difficult to say that tragic emotion affected from them is social emotion. That is to say, If it in post-modern seek personal inspiration’s maximization, it in this age seek social sympathy’s maximization. the reason is expected to be revealed more clearly in processing to research detailedly subjects of affection love in our age.
  • 13.

    Haengdang Yun Bok and Aesthetics of Narrative Poems

    Choi Han Sun | 2014, (34) | pp.369~418 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis aims to keep track of the life of Haengdang Yun Bok(尹復) and the aesthetics of his narrative poems. He was born as a son of Choi Bu(崔溥) who was a disciple of Yun Hyojeong, and learned scholastic tradition of his family from his elder brother. Yun Hyojeong(尹孝貞) played a great role to hand down Yeongnam Study to Honam province. He entered a government service at the age of 27 and experienced various jobs in and out of court. Especially, when he took office as a Busa in Andong, he and his family members associated with the great scholar Toegye(退溪), which contributed to Honam Study. Haengdang's poems succeed to the tradition of Honam narrative poem and became a model for the next generation. The theme of his poems focuses on the standardized model and moral discipline, respect for the classics, emphasis on the goodness and righteousness, respect for doing homecoming and introspection and admiration for the virtue and self-cultivation. His narrative poem displays mainly his opinion with narrations such as (1) if we do certain things (2) we must do what (3) when somebody do something (4) while we do something (5) even if we do something (6) we must do something. Also his supple and breathtaking style fascinates the reader's attention with developing power. The other method of his writing includes the characteristics such as (1) insertion (2) statement (3) expansion (4) conclusion in order. Finally, the lyricism in his poem cannot be ignored. These characteristics is the one which can be distinguished from other poets. Even if his poem is the poem which deals mainly with narrative, considering that it is a branch of lyricism, his poems can be recognized as the explanatory, lyrical poem, not as the abstract or connotative poem.
  • 14.

    Study for Education – Edification of Gwang-ju Fortress : around poem about Gwangju Confucian temple

    Han, Yae-won | 2014, (34) | pp.419~448 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Gwangju needs to establishing own identity as cultural aspect in civilization exchange, the twenty-first century. This study is one of ideal work for building own identity image utilizing data of lost Gwangju fortress. Gwangju fortress have been lost for over 100 years. The literature materials of Gwangju fortress was studied before and the result was edited as <Gwangju fortress>. Especially, this paper includes life style, culture and education of Confucian temple in Gwangju fortress using many poem literatures. Education of Confucian society was politics as administrative and judicial role but it is very small part. However, Edification of people in the society was main political activity of the central government, so how to make and maintain this local school is good chance for interpretation of their proposal and contents. The contents of Gwangju Confucian temple are education for Confucian intellectuals and edification for moral values of community spirit. The ideal society in the Joseon Dynasty period of Confucial scholar is ancient chinese kimgdom. They realized pure education of public morals