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2016, Vol., No.38

  • 1.

    Systematic study of Korean liquor recommending songs

    Jaeheon Kang | 2016, (38) | pp.5~35 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Drinking is a culture that occupies a huge part in human life. As a result, it is true that literary creations continue to appear within such culture. This research seeks to examine the features of poetries that play the role of the unique function called gwonju (offering drinks) among the drinking literature, and in particular, the features of Korean language gwonju songs. The substantive uniformity of the Korean language gwonju songs and the reality of the group of works that inherit the pulse of the poetry of ‘Jangjinju,’ which has long been originated from the eastern literature, will also be studied. First of all, this research examined the thematic consciousness and expression aspect of the Korean language gwonju songs. Substantively, the works all follow the tradition of the thematic consciousness appearing in ‘Jangjinju’ of Lee Baek and Lee Ha during the Tang dynasty. The thematic consciousness that can be organized into two themes, which are ‘the feeling of sorrows coming from vanity of human life’ and ‘the justification of drinking’ pursuant to such feeling, all flow through from ‘Jangjinjusa’ to ‘Gwonjuga,’ a 12 Lyrics Collection. In addition, these works show several of the same expression aspects to show such themes. First of all, vanity of human life is sang through the meaninglessness of post-death originating from ‘Jangjinju’ of Lee Ha. It shows an aspect of exhibiting both sorrow and justification by asking, who would recommend drinking after death. Next, the object of gwonju, ‘Mr., You,’ appears externallyor internally. It can be said that the existence of others was necessary because it was a song playing the role of the function of exchanging drinks by filling the other's glass rather than drinking by oneself by filling one's own glass. Lastly, the act of recommending drinking appears through the language. In addition to the direct orders or suggestions to drink, such as ‘Drink,’ or ‘Let’s drink,’ indirect demands such as ‘Are you not trying to drink?’ appear as well. These phrases are all used as a device to show the actual feature of gwonju. Next, this study examined the power of the Korean language gwonju songs and the possibility of its systematization. The first work of this category that may be confirmed at present is ‘Jangjinjusa.’ The Korean poems of Shin Heum, Cheon-taek Kim, and an anonymous poet and ‘Gwonjuga’ of Park In-ro that were included in Cheonggu-Yeongeon along with this song, were listed in the same collection of poems because they were enjoyed in the same era. In addition, ‘Gwonjuga’ in the 12 Lyrics Collection was also formed in the 18thcentury,whichshowtheaspectofappearingincombinationwiththethreeprevioustypes. Thus, four songs were enjoyed in the same entraining space at a certain time. However, there was a trend of treating these as individual works rather than under one system. This article made attempts to regard these as one independent system. An example of trying to understand various forms of songs under one system can be found in ‘Eobuga.’ It has systematizaed Korean language songs as ‘Eobuga’ in comparison to the Chinese poem, ‘Eobusa.’ In light of such, the Korean language gwonju songs were understood to be sufficiently likely to be systematizaed under one system. Of course, the meaning obtained in the study of each song is huge. However, the breadth and sectors of Korean language poetry can be expanded and the horizon of the literary history can be enlarged through systematization. Thus, the Korean literature history at the latter part of the Joseon era can be expected to become richer when having a macroscopic view regarding Korean language gwonju songs. Moreover, the works that we inherit at present have meaning through its survival, whether or not they have strong or weak power, thus accordingly, other works also have huge value. Furthermore, there is a need to be reminded of the fact that our ancestors enjoyed and created other Korean language gwonju songs even when the existence of ‘Jangjinjusa’ was strong. Therefore, just as ‘Eobuga’ gained a status of an independent collection of works during the Kim Su-jang era, it would be proper to acknowledge the Korean language gwonju songs as an individual system this day.
  • 2.

    The Phase and Meaning of Hell Appearing in Gasa(歌辭) in the Late Joseon Era

    Kim, Ki-Jong | 2016, (38) | pp.37~69 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study explored the phase of figuration process of hell appearing in Buddhist Gas a and its meaning of the times. According to hell related motifs and content propensity, Buddhist Gasa singing about hell can be divided into the following three types. In the first type there was no hell related motif, there are works in which only poetry words of ‘hell’ appear, and the earliest Buddhist Gasa, Gwisangok in the 17th century and Seowangga and Hoeshimga, etc. come under this type. These works warn hearers who only adhere to mundane affairs and indulged in absorption of tam-jin-chi through poetic words such as Palhan-Palyeol-Dosan-Geomsujiok, etc. The second type contains works of describing reasons of ‘punishment’ and phases. Those Gasa under this type introduce various kinds of hells, and describe painful figures in different hells in detail. Works containing all of motives of ‘a journey to the other world,’ ‘judges of ten kings of hell’ and ‘punishment of hell’ come under the third type. Among these types of work s, ‘Hoeshimgok’ style Buddhist Gasa distinguish male and female from convicts receiving Siwang’s judge in a work. Virtues of good deeds and items of evil deeds appearing in these works come under usual ethical principles that should be kept and deterred in Confucian society. It can be said that notable reduction of punishment motifs of hell in ““Hoeshimgok”” style Buddhist Gasa was due to the fact that these Gasa’s directivity and/or Interest lied on these ‘reasons of going to hell.’ Content characteristics above are related with Buddhist world’s realities of groping at the time to survive in Confucian society. The reason that ‘Hoeshimgok’style Gasa in the 19th century emphasizes not ten evils for reasons of going to hell as mainly presented in the Buddhist scriptures and previous Buddhist Gasa, but usual ethical principles that should be kept in Confucian society is not different from a case of transition of the times by reflecting common sense of Neo-Confucian society and pursuing a way of coexistence.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Additional Works of『Added-Decreased Yeomrakpunga(增刪濂洛風雅)』by Park Se-chae

    Kim Dong-ha | 2016, (38) | pp.71~103 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Jin Lu Xiang(金履祥, 1232-1303) was one of the prominent Neo-Confucianists of the early Yun Dynasty. He compiled and published the book named as Yeomrakpunga(濂洛風雅). The book is a selection of poems written by the representative Neo-Confucianists of the Song Dynasty. With the adoption of Neo-Confucianism by the Chosun Dynasty, this book was introduced to intellectuals and was widely read until late Chosun period. And in the mid-seventeenth century, it was newly edited by Park Se-chae(朴世采, 1631-1695). The name of the book is Jungsanyeomrakpunga(增刪濂洛風雅). So, another book was created, considerably different from the original one. Through this book, Park tried to represent the literary aspects and the phases of the time. This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part, I compared Yeomrakpunga with Jungsanyeomrakpunga based on the two compiler's literary aspects and Neo-Confucianist's ideology. And I studied the editing of Jungsanyeomrakpunga. In the two part, I examined the characteristics of the additional works added by Park Se-chae. For this, I analyzed the contents with respect to four points: encouragement of mental cultivation, expression of common intention, moral doctrine, and the embodiment of truth in nature. Zuzi's works consist of more than half the total volume of works. This symbolizes that Park Se-chae added to the original works in order to strengthen the doctrines of Zuzi. Due to these facts, I have concluded that Park Se-chae added to the orginal works for the reinforcement of Zuzi's doctrines, and the promotion of mental cultivation. After the two was between the Chosun Dynasty and the Ching Dynasty, the social atmosphere and national crisis werw connected.
  • 4.

    The Elegy Poetry of Ernest Thomas Bethell in Daehan Maeil Sinbo

    KIM AYUN | 2016, (38) | pp.105~140 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Elegy Poetry of Ernest Thomas Bethell(Korean name: 배설(裵說)) in Daehan Maeil Sinbo. Bethell was born on November 3rd 1872 in Ashley Bristol, UK. He went to Kobe, Japan in 1886, and then he was engaged in foreign trade there. However, the Russo-Japanese war broke out in 1904, he came to Korea as a special correspondent of Daily Chronicle. But Since The Independent(founded in 1896) ceased publication in 1899, thus, English-Language newspaper is no longer being published in Korea. For this reason, he published Korea Daily News in English and Daehan Maeil Sinbo in Korea. That year Korea Daily News and Daehan Maeil Sinbo resisted against The Waste Land Concession Requested by Japanese Colonialism, this matter caused deep conflict between Bethell & Embassy of Japan in Korea. After that the overall tone of Korea Daily News-Daehan Maeil Sinbo were critical of the Japanese Colonialism. So He was a sticky issue for the UK and Japan, because the two countries were leagued together(The Anglo-Japanese alliance, in 1902 and 1905). Finally, in 1907 and 1908, the UK and Japan jointly charged him as a agitators who stir up divisions between Korean people and Japanese government are dangerous and took some of the articles in Korea Daily News-Daehan Maeil Sinbo as a evidence in court. After the 2nd round of trial(1908), he lay on a bed of illness in early March 1909, and died of a dilation of the heart on May 1st 1909. The next day, he was buried in Yanghwajin Foreign Missionary Cemetery. The his funeral was attended by a large gathering of Korean mourners. Daehan Maeil Sinbo Company put advertisement in their newspaper from May 5th to 10th, and encouraged newspaper subscribers to send elegy to remember UK journalist Bethell’s death to their company. Thus, newspaper subscribers sent 6 Elegies written in Korean: 「ᄋᆡ고ᄋᆡ고」(May 6th), 「ᄇᆡ셜씨 상ᄉᆞ에 통곡」(May 9th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 30th for each poetry, but having the same title). This paper revealed that the contents of 6 Elegy Poetries consisted mostly of Invocation of the spirits of the dead, the dead’s specific achievements, praising and lamenting the dead, the cause of death, having resolved his deep sorrow, resentment over his death, the grief of survivors who had lost him, blessing wishes for survivors themselves and pledging to the deceased. Based on that, this paper analyzed the significance of the Elegy Poetry of Bethell. Firstly, the Elegy Poetry of Bethell takes the forms of communication between the dead and survivors for the literary figuration of death and makes changing social attitudes and behaviors of survivors for enlightment, self-cultivation and independence throughout survivors’ speech acts. Secondly, the Elegy Poetry of Bethell was published in Daehan Maeil Sinbo, and shared the contemporary task such as enlightenment, self-cultivation, independence with subscribers. Thirdly, the Elegy Poetry of Bethell continues the tradition of Korean Elegy Poetry started from 「Gongmudohaga」.
  • 5.

    Long and Short Vowels in the Basic Chinese Characters for Secondary Education of Pyongchukja in『Baekryonchohae』

    KimYoungkook | 2016, (38) | pp.141~160 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Kim In-Whoo (1510-1560), a civil service minister and scholar of the early Joseon Dynasty, compiled 99 Korean and Chinese poems which were selected from quatrain with 5 words to each line, free verse with 7 words to each line, quatrain with 7 words to each line and 4 stanza with 7 words to each line into『Baekryonchohae』along with Korean translation which was used to teach Chinese poetry. Although Pilamseowonbon, Dongkyungdaebon and Parkeunyongbon, good representative books, had different collection orders and Pilamseowonbon does not contain stanza No. 100, they are the same books. With regard to the sources, 6 poems were from Goryeo, 3 from Joseon, 3 from Sheng Tang, 3 from Zhong Tang, 6 from Wan Tang, 10 from Song, 1 from Yuan and 1 from Ming. Three stanzas were from Du Fu and Bai Juyi respectively. This book was compiled according to how to write poetry, not according to how good the poems were. As『Baekryonchohae』was a textbook for Recent poetry, its important aim was to teach balance in Pyongcheuk and Rhyming, and antithesis. For that aim, this book was composed of training examples on how to write Chinese poetry through compatibility between verses with 5 words to each line and verses with 7. 535 Chinese characters were used in『Baekryonchohae』and 1239 characters, or 88.5% of Chinese characters used, were easily accessible for education. In『Baekryonchohae』, the correlation between Pyungja, which are short vowels in the 1800 characters for Education, and Cheukja, which were long vowels, was 87.8%. If students are able to differentiate the long from the short vowels in learning the 1800 characters for education, they could understand Pyungchukja in『Baekryonchohae』easily.
  • 6.

    Writing technique and Didactic characteristics of Kim Sang-yong's Oryunga 5 poems

    오선주 | 2016, (38) | pp.161~184 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article is to investigate the didactic characteristics of Kim Sang-yong's work of sijo, Oryunga 5 poems. It is a matter of common knowledge that Oryunga is a didactic siga with a strong objective in its nature. This conversely means that a work which meets the objective should be embodied, of which the process and the method are investigated in this article. In particular, in view of the point of the Yeonsijo Oryunga it noted in the system of constructive arrangement and figuration principle. As a result, the relationship of father and son and of the ruler and ruled are considered as core items and the relationship of husband and wife, of brothers, and of friends are as an extension in Oryunga 5 poems, which are classified roughly into the family ethics and social ethics. 'Necessity' and 'selectivity', two relational properties in the work, play the major role in being classified in such way. And is a relational properties are further enhanced the dualistic system of Oryun. That the five items of Oryun has been integrating constantly separated by the relational properties, it the pattern has been emerging as the organizing principles and laws of Oryun. Finally, Oryunga 5 poems is the work that reproduce the organizing principles and laws of Oryun. And it is figure the sense of discipline and study passing at the same time, didactic characteristics of the objectives of this work.
  • 7.

    Comparision between the self - elegy poetry of Lee Yeon - jik and Zhang Dai

    Lim Jun Chul | 2016, (38) | pp.185~212 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study compares Self-elegy poetry of Zhang Dai(1597-1684?) and Lee Yeon-jik(1631-1698) in the thematic tradition. They lived in different time and space, Zhang in late Ming and early Qing Dynasty, Lee in late Joseon. But they share a very similar thematic consciousness, which is royalty to Ming Dynasty and hatred to Qing Dynasty. Through the comparision of two works, this study achieved the conclusion like below. First, Lee's royalty to Ming Dynasty is more obvious and constant than Zhang. The difference between the two poets represents the diffference of attitude to Ming and Qing between intellectuals of two countries. Second, Zhang's work is more indirect and allusive, while Lee's work is direct and straightforward. The reason why Lee's work is self-representative can be considered with the writing style of self-elegy of Joseon writers. The difference between Zhang and Lee still is only an individual case. But this case shows how the self-elegy in China and Korea share the same origin and developed into different writing styles by choosing different ways.
  • 8.

    The Korean acient poets accept the "beauties" image of Qu Yuan

    丁海玲 | 2016, (38) | pp.213~239 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    There are many types of women images created in the Fu of Qu Yuan ,in which the image of ‘the beauty’ is the most representative one.This image can be traced back to the ‘the book of songs’,in which it referred to person in real life.Qu Yuan was the first one who consciously compared‘the beauty’ to the good politics and capable and moral monarch in the Chinese poetry history, for which he suffered many setbacks,however,his spirit was highly admired by people.The image of ‘the beauty’ has a profound impact on the literature in later times and at home and abroad, and become the literature model imitated and learned by writers in all ages. When the works of Qu Yuan entered into the Korean literary circles with ‘the selection of literary works’, the political environment in Korea was similar to the Chu country. The writers and celebrities in Korea had to look for some mental consolation under this unrest and corrupt social environment.Qu Yuan’s loyalty and patriotic to his country in his works was highly respected. His personality reflected in his choice of death and his pursuit of good relationship between the monarch and his ministers deeply influenced the Korean writers in all ages. They wrote lots of poems which imitated or paid respect to the works of Qu Yuan. Lots of works used ‘the beauty’ image as their content during the Korea and North Korea periods, which greatly promoted the development of Korean Chinese literature and poetry.
  • 9.

    Bodhi[悟道], Zen poetry and its Classification system

    Jo, Taeseong | 2016, (38) | pp.241~265 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The main purpose of this article is to explore the classification system of current Zen poetry. The classification system is that to be able to establish more firmly the literary value by inclusion in the system all of the output to which it belongs. therefore This article tried to analyze the existing the classification system, and to present a more alternative the classification system based on it. To do this, first we looked at again for the realization of the core subjects of Zen poetry. And it was leading the operation to look for its poetic boundaries. Also it discussed that these values could be implemented in any way through Zen poetry. Finally, this article proposed a phase of ‘Seonchwisi’ as the focus of Zen poetry. Of course, in the meantime research results it has been evaluated as the best value in Zen poetry. However, by inclusion in Artificially system, it rather reduced its value. If Zen poetry that is ultimately to be a poetic heights oriented ‘Seonchuisi’, now it should be the specific poetic ideal, not a classified name.
  • 10.

    Characteristics of Garam Lee Byung Ki’s Sijo Criticism and Significance of Ancient Sijo Collection

    Cho, Haesug | 2016, (38) | pp.267~297 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article is studying Garam Lee Byung Ki's discussions on sijo and ancient sijo collection titled [역대시조선](Collection of sijo of all time) in order to review his academic orientation and his researches' achievements and effects. Through this study, following fact became possible to identify; when it comes to re-illuminating 'tradition', Lee's theories on sijo and his sijo movement is closely related with writing sijo, but also with researching ancient sijo. The core of contemporary theories on sijo and sijo criticism of his time, which was accomplished by Lee with his extensive knowledge and in-depth analogy, can be summed up into few points. First, sijo is poetry not with a fixed form but just with a 'guideline', which makes it free and flexible. Second, sijo needs to be separated from music and renew its content while maintaining its form. Third, authors of sijo should be able to express their feelings frankly. Lee Byung Ki didn't consider sijo to be versatile or some of its aspects having absolute value, though he emphasized the merit and significance of sijo as a classical poetry. He tried to re-establish sijo as living literature by its flexibility of form, by describing scenery and be lyric and by selecting main ideas that can be meaningful to one's era. Also he pioneered specific and detailed sijo criticism which presents specific degree and point that makes a piece of sijo aesthetically beautiful. Before him, sijo criticism was generally abstract and ideological. Lee's overall understanding on sijo like this can be discovered in his book [역대시조선](Collection of sijo of all time), where he collected and selected pieces among ancient sijo. This book is providing explanation about important words, backgrounds of authors and creations. Furthermore, confirmation of concrete data was done on pieces of an unidentifiable era or author. Pieces of which lyrics were confused among people was corrected through comparing and contrasting different versions. Lee Byung Ki was being practical and pragmatic when it comes to sijo. His theory on sijo and sijo criticism were based upon practical acts such as speeches or contributions. [역대시조선](Collection of sijo of all time) showed a way to succeed sijo by proving excellence and aesthetic of ancient sijo as fixed verse. We have to make his attempt and concerns to be continuously ongoing by connecting ancient and modern sijo and putting strenuous efforts on writing and studying about sijo.