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2018, Vol., No.42

  • 1.

    The Literary Representation of Yeonjaru Reflected in the Poetry Related to the Title(題詠)

    Kim, Shin Chung | 2018, (42) | pp.5~26 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims at examining what the literary representation of Yeonjaru in Sunchen is. Yeonjaru is a building’s name located at the southern gate of Suncheoneup castle. It was originally founded in Koryo Dynasty and removed in 1930s, under the Japanese colonization. After that it was again restored at Jukdobong park. The subject of the main study is Yeonjaru-related poetry and Yeonjaru story sung as a core material. The discussion of the main subject is divided into three parts. First I digested the transmission situation and important contents of the Yeonjaru-related poetry in the second chapter. Continuously, I examined the formation and variation aspects of Yeonjaru story through Yeonjaru-related poetry in the third chapter. Based on this, I found out the literary representation of Yeonjaru in the fourth chapter. The summary of these contents are as follows. Yeonjaru-related poetry consists of 934 pieces of poems in total, which is mainly introduced by Sungpyeongji. It mostly describes the transience of times and the bitter feeling of parting. I used the Yeonjaru story as the central material, which is connected with the love story of governor Son Eok and kisaeng Ho Ho. So, to be noted is the formation and variation process. The writings of the writers, such as Jang Il in late Koryo Dynasty, Seo Keo-jeong in early Chosun Dynasty and Lee Soo-gwang in late Chosun Dynasty, shows such a process. Through the works of three writers, I found out the types and characteristics of Yeonjary story made on the basis of the meeting and parting between lovers. Furthermore considering the name and location, I found out the love between a man and a woman, encompassing meeting, parting and reunion, as the literary representation of Yeonjaru. These discussions mean the writers considered the Yeonjaru itself as the expressional material, not such an attitude as the cradle and background of the poetry and prose.
  • 2.

    Jeong Heemaeng’s Yongsan Nine Gorges

    Lee, Jongmook | 2018, (42) | pp.27~54 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to study on Yongsan Nine Gorges of Jeong Heemaeng. And Yongsan Nine Gorges is located at Gosan, the foot of Bulgapsan, Yeonggwanggun, Cholla Province. Jeong Heemaeng(1536~1596) was born at Ohryongri in Yeonggwang, but lived in Hanyang. In 1562, he moved to his hometown and built Jukrimjeong. In 1566, he built Chuweondang and Kyennamheon, and he lived there for the rest of his life. In 1589, he built Seonyangjeong and finally completed the Yongsanjeongsa. The next year, he held the meeting of Yonggye. As a result, he was inspired by living in Yongsan Nine Gorges writing about it in many works, including Yongsangi and Yongsanji. This paper introduces the beautiful scenery and gazebos of Yongsan Nine Gorges. Yongsan Nine Gorges extends along the Bulgapcheon, from Bulgap reservoir to Sunyang village. The first gorge has Apcheongdang of Ryu Ho and Chimryujeong of Rhu Ikgyun. The second gorge has Yeondeokwon, and the third gorge has Puksandae, the fourth gorge has Namsandae, the fifth gorge has Jukrimjeong, Chuweondang, and Kyenamheon. In particular, he put in the eight beautiful scenery which was seen from Kyenamheon. The sixth gorge has Seonyangjeong, it also has eight beautiful scenery. The seventh gorge has Samgidae or Pyeksongdae, and has other buildings, that is, Saseonjae and Maeheon. In total, he called them Yongsanjeongsa, The eighth gorge has Yongdudae, together with Gwanodae etc. The ninth gorge has Nakmodae. Jeong’s Yongsan Nine Gorges was inspired by Meng Jia’s and Lin Bu’s unique life. Jeong composed a series of poetry and prose related to Yongsan Nine Gorges. But its characteristics is different from Lee Yi’s style, who built Eungyejeongsa at Seokdam, in Haeju, Hwanghae Province and maintained Gosan Nine Gorges and helped establish Hyangyak. Jeong opened the new horizon. Using the three-three path idiom of Yang Wanli, not the Wuyi Nine Gorges of Zhu Xi, he organized the Yonggye meeting and enjoyed a taste for arts. He left a variety of poetry, prose and paintings which reflected his unusual life. Through these works, I can appreciate the splendid life of Jeong, who captured the beauty of Yongsan Nine Gorges, considered as the unforgettable space.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Life of Songcheon Yang Eung-jeong and His Poetic Essays

    Yang Seung-Cheon | 2018, (42) | pp.55~80 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Yang Eung-jeong, who was a bureaucrat and literary artist from the mid-Joseon era, was one of key literati active in the Honam region. He passed the government examination of the civil official division-B class in 1552. In 1556, he passed another higher level examination as the top winner by writing about ‘South-North Winning Measures’ under the theme of “the policy of governing internally well and boosting power externally.” In addition, he served as the Head of Confucian Education Department twice, and was excellent in writing essays, becoming one of the poets which dominated the so called prosperous period. It was the times of King Myeongjong and King Seonjo in the mid-16th century that Yang Eung-jeong was mainly active. That era, which was called the prosperous period, bloomed the activities of writing poems and essays. Figures, who helped create that era, were mainly those literati from the Honam region or closely related with Honam. Among them were the founders of the prosperous period, and opinion leaders of that time. Yang Eung-jeong is seen as one of the founders of the prosperous period. Yang Eung-jeong left three poetic essays, which are <Archery>, <Shrine of Taebaek>, and <A great master craftsman does not abandon wood>. <Archery> was written based on the Meaning of Archery of 『The Book of Rites』 ; <Shrine of Taebaek>was based on Taebaek of 『The Analects』 ; and <A great master craftsman does not abandon wood> was based on Daejang of 『Mencius』. The writers should be influenced by their times since their literary works are the outputs of their spirits and understanding. The three works, which were set in the times of King Myeongjong and King Seonjo in the 16th century, is filled with the patriotism of Yang Eung-jeong. <Archery> recommends the archery for noblemen and scholars as a way of promoting their spirit in confusing times, and wishes that they were models every inch equipped with literary ability and martial arts. <Shrine of Taebaek>, quoting the historical facts, rationalizes the enthroning of King Seonjo to prevent the confusion of the government due to the issue of succession to the throne. <A great master craftsman does not abandon wood> suggests to kings that they should put the right man in the right place not to disregard talents. Yang Eung-jeong did not leave many poetic essays. However, his works, after the essay <Yeongho> of the greatest essayist Choe Chi-won from Silla, is regarded as an important part of the poetic essay genre of Korea which was handed down to Goryeo and Joseon from the previous times.
  • 4.

    The Meaning and Role of 4 Hyangga Works in the Reign of King Gyeongdeok

    Park, Inhee | 2018, (42) | pp.81~108 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper reviews Hyangga works written in the reign of King Gyeongdeok, <Dosolga>, <Jemangmaega>, <Anminga>, and <Changiparangga>. <Dosolga> and <Anminga> are songs to fit the characteristics of Pyeonmok that they are contained in. By the way, <Jemangmaega> and <Changiparangga> are contained together. In existing discussions, the works were understood with a focus on their relation with the authors, Wolmyeongsa and Chungdamsa, and the songs, introduced together, also were treated with a focus on the authors. This paper examines <Dosolga> and <Anminga> with a focus on King Gyeongdeok who made the two songs written, rather than on the authors, and, based on it, considers the reason why <Jemangmaega> and <Changiparangga> were introduced, as well. Based on King Gyeongdeok, ‘Iilbyeonghyeon(二日竝現, two suns appearing in the sky)’, the motivation for creating <Dosolga>, could be seen as an expression related to the appearance of the royal lineage of King Naemul. Considering that, <Dosolga> could be understood as a political message that King Gyeongdeok sent to his subjects, as a result of derailing the appearance of the royal lineage of King Naemul with a political compromise. <Anminga> that is a song related to the birth story of King Hyegong is a message that King Gyeongdeok sent to his princes and subjects and shows that subjects should play a large role in the country's peace. In doing so, he intented to admonish his subjects. Ilyeon introduced <Jemangmaega> because Wolmyeongsa made ‘Iilbyeonghyeon’ disappeared but the process of creating <Dosolga>, by itself, didn’t correspond to Gamtong-pyeon. He dealt with <Jemangmaega> because he could supplement the story, insufficient for Gamtong-pyeon, by showing Wolmyeongsa’s faith through introducing the story that <Jemangmaega> was written. King Gyeongdeok mentioned <Changiparangga> in order to expect <Anminga> stressing subjects’ role from Chungdamsa. Therefore, by mentioning <Changiparangga>, King Gyeongdeok indirectly expressed what he wanted a song to Chungdamsa.
  • 5.

    A study on Conviction and Recognition of Reality of Husan Chung Yoon-young - Focused on the Delivery Period -

    Park Chong-hoon | 2018, (42) | pp.109~134 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In 1881, the spirits movement spread throughout the country. At that time, Chung Yoon-young(鄭胤永) was identified as a behind-the-scenes figure who had two wings. In September 1881, he was exiled to the Hamgyeongdo Iwon(利原) and returned to his hometown in the spring of 1883. Through the works reflecting the perception of the contemporary reality and the unbelievable beliefs, it revealed the consciousness of the consciousness of exile, the legitimacy of speckle and the jumper. He paid much attention to the humanities geography of the Buggwan(北關). It has made poetry of history, customs of the time and life of people. Finally, he traveled all over scenic spots around the exile and left a few works. He portrayed the scenes he encountered when he was exposed to superb scenery, but also embraced the reality of reality and the desire for a breakthrough in it. The literary accomplishment and sublimation of the exporters is a different approach than the ordinary explosive. It was possible that this description was possible because of his unshakable conviction.
  • 6.

    Tosolga(兜率歌) as a Ritual Song for king and Kingdom

    Jeong, Jin-hee | 2018, (42) | pp.135~156 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, Tosolga(兜率歌), known as a sort of korean classical poetry Hyang-ga(鄕歌), was discussed as a ritual song for king and his kingdom. According to the story about Tosolga(兜率歌), documented in Samguk yusa (Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms), it was performed at kingdom rite to calamity, two suns appeared in the sky, by monk Wolmyeong(月明師). It affected the flower to judge and choose the real sun, and consequently, Maitreya manifested as a boy monk after only one sun remained as before. Tosolga changed the Buddhist flower ritual, scattering flowers for praising Budda, to the non-Buddhist rutual in which the flower could tell the good from bad through its own pure mind. The manifestation of Maitreya meant that the king is the cakravartin, a Buddhist ideal ruler. This study argued that the flower and Maitreya in Tosolga is the symbols of Kukseondo(國仙·花郞·風流) rather than Buddhism. Tosolga shows that Hyang-ga(鄕歌) was used as a ritual song for the king and kingdom. From this point, Tosolga can be a clue to solving the literatural problem on the relation of ritual songs for kingdom and traditional folk songs.
  • 7.

    A Review of Dasan’s Seclusive (幽人) Space Appearing in <Hwasojanggongdongpa (和蘇長公東坡)>

    Hwang, Min-Sun | 2018, (42) | pp.157~184 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    <Hwasojanggongdongpa (和蘇長公東坡)> is an original work of Dasan’s ideal seclusive space for the ideal space of the early exile. In particular, Dasan is trying to realize his life as a human being by writing about Dasanchodang and the Ideal Space during this period. Therefore, this study tended to see the ideal seclusive space of Dasan through <Hwasojanggongdongpa (和蘇長公東坡)>. Therefore, the attitude not to flee the reality but to do the best and try to be true (務實), and a poor scholar’s willingness not to be burdened with poverty and but willing to protect the preciousness through sequestration was contained in his ideal seclusive space. Thus, before <Hwasojanggongdongpa (和蘇長公東坡)> was implemented in Dasanchodang, it is a work containing a section about the initial conception of the ideal seclusive space thought by Dasan, and it is thought that it plays an important role in understanding Dasan's perception of the forest landscape and the perception of the ideal space more deeply.
  • 8.

    A Couple’s Memories about the Life of a Local Intellectual during the Latter Half of Joseon - Nobutan by Mrs. Kim of Suncheon and Dapbusa by Kim Yak-ryeon

    Lee, sang-won | 2018, (42) | pp.185~212 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper presents an analytical examination into the first response songs between a couple, Nobutan and Dapbusa, whose authors are Mrs. Kim of Suncheon and Kim Yak-ryeon showed differences in their memories of their life and the ways that they embodied them in a literary fashion even though they were a couple. In Nobutan, the old lady Mrs. Kim of Suncheon depicts his life in sighs as the title means “an old lady’s sighs.” The content of this work, however, focuses on how she took care of her husband in his state exam and managed the household affairs around it. This work is thus located between Jatangas, which is about wives’ lamentation about their misfortunes, and Bokseonhwaeumga, which is an altered Gyenyeoga focused on the management of household affairs among women’s roles, in the category of women’s quarters Gasas. Dapbusa is Kim Yak-ryeon's response song to his wife’s Nobutan. It focuses on his ostentation of his life as a man based on the model of Namaga, which is an integration of dreams and desires among the upper-class men during Joseon. It inherits the tradition of Namaga in its entire framework but shows many differences from it in its details. Unlike Namaga, which emphasizes exciting play, pleasure, and splendid office life, it reduces this content considerably and instead expands the content about his life after resignation, which comes at the end briefly, heavily. In fact, the content about his life after resignation accounts for more than a half of the pages. These differences between Nobutan and Dapbusa derive from differences in memories and cultural conventions between husband and wife. The differences in conventions between women’s quarters Gasas as part of women’s literature and Namaga as part of men's literature are eventually attributable to actual life differences between men and women.
  • 9.

    A Study on Seokju Gwon Pil’s <Gamhoi 3su>

    Soojeong Hwang | 2018, (42) | pp.213~234 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study speculated on Seokju Gwon Pil’s <Gamhoi 3su>, focusing on truthfulness he intended to express in his poems. Gamhoisi means sentimental poems to express what one feels while reflecting the past. Gamhoisi is entitled as usual feelings, lyricism, and Gamhoi for lyric poems which are ambiguous to be entitled. Seokju’s <Gamhoi 3su> expresses strong pathos on the situation and attitudes as an intellectual. Most of the Seokju’s Gamhoisi dealt with criticism on reality and lonesome feeling through a traveler’s inmost thoughts. In particular, <Gamhoi 3su> honestly described anxiety and criticism about the situation depending on his feelings. We could make a guess of truthfulness of Gamhoisi through truthful feeling the poet showed in <Gamhoi 3su>. Usually, Gamhoisi expresses evanescence of time, the frailty of human life, poverty and political misportune, <Gamhoi 3su> published in pathos on the situation, stoical recognition and parody of reality, and virtuous integrity. That is, <Gamhoi 3su> has meaning in that it was intended to make us meditate on the situation and attitudes as an intellectual beyond the poet's political misfortune and depression.
  • 10.

    Kim Deuk-seen’s Poetry Criticism

    Hur, Yoon-jin | 2018, (42) | pp.235~256 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis investigates Kim Deuk-seen’s poetry criticism based on his forty-eight critical works of The Anecdotes from Jongnam(終南叢志). His poetry criticism consists of the two tracks: theory of criticism and theory of creation. Firstly, Kim’s theory of criticism supposes that criticism be an objective evaluation of a literary work, regardless of external factors such as fame and social status of the author. The objectivity of criticism can be achieved in the dialect of thought of the critic on conflicting perspectives. Secondly, Kim’s theory of creation emphasizes the alterity of literature; literature cannot be perfected by the potential and thought of the creator himself. To overcome his own limits, the creator needs the operation of agency such as the Heaven(天機) or the Creator(造化). He also needs the repetitive reading of historical/literary canons to reflect on his own works. The repetition of reading is a process in which the creator accepts his own limits and renews his previous knowledge. Kim defines reading as a process and methodology through which human being can overcome the problems of the world and himself and transcend even death.
  • 11.

    The Wording Aspect of the ‘Setting Sun’ Image in Paek Kwang-hun’s Poetry

    KimYoungkook | 2018, (42) | pp.257~278 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Paek Gwang-hun(1537-1582) calmly expressed his original emotion in short wordings of poetry through an aesthetic porch according to rhymes. He converged images of feeling with scenery to achieve his poetic intention. This study intended to analyse rhetorical types he used in his poetry that have never been examined in existing studies. Paek Gwang-hun used materials for poetry properly according to situations and conditions to express quatrain more beautifully and naturally. In addition, as he pursued for eternal images through implication, he made the images interpreted symbolically and have deep aftereffects. He used words of setting sun, an angle, a bay and sunset in his poetry to imply “setting sun” image of transiency, calmness of hills, rivers, fields, sorrow and endless missing. He arranged words of ‘setting sun’ and ‘sunset’ without spill in the structure of four words and three words, a fundamental wording type of a quatrain with seven words to a line and used the ‘setting sun’ image that connected two letters as the head with three letters as the tail to accomplish poetic aesthetics.