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2021, Vol., No.47

  • 1.

    Lee Bokgil's love for his wife and Its Poetic Shape during the Japanese Invasion of Joseon - A Study on the Korean Chinese Poetry and Yeon-Sijo <Oryun-ga> in 『Jeongabibo』

    Lee, Hyungdae | 2021, (47) | pp.5~28 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is an analysis of the nature and meaning orientation of the work of <Oryeon-ga>, which was first reported to academia in 2016. Furthermore, I want to understand the poetry literature history of this work more anew. Created by Lee Bokgil, a rural gentleman in Haenam, <Oryeon-ga> can be understood as a prototype of "A song that People love each other" as an analytical result of prior research. However, if you look at the work more closely, you can see it differently. Consisting of ten stanzas, the work has the characteristics of a poem written by Lee Bokgil to his wife, Ms. Haemi-baek. However, the characteristics of this work are more complicated. This is because the creative situation of this work is not explicitly revealed. Therefore, it is highly likely to be interpreted in a variety of ways depending on the researcher's interpretation point of view. In our study, the author, Lee Bokgil, is different from a prior study that interprets him as a poetical speaker. This work was judged by Ms. Haemi-baek as a poetical speaker. The basis for this work is the compilation of 『Jeongabibo』, the expression of emotion, and the use of words. From this point of view, this work has the poetic nature of the couple's affection, in which Ms. Haemi-baek responds to Lee Bokgil's love poem. Of course, the writer is half-way, but it is believed that the speaker was designated as Ms. Haemi-baek, so it was possible to have this poetic utility. From this point of view, the poems published in 『Jeongabibo』 have the form of a mixed genre poem, and it can be said that the history of Korean classical poetry has been opened.
  • 2.

    Seokcheon Lim Eok-ryung's life and signboard reflected in Shikyoungjung

    Lim Jun Sung | 2021, (47) | pp.29~52 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis is to briefly discuss the events that Lim Eok-ryeong spent in Seongsandong(星山洞) and the possibility of the cultural contents of Shikyoungjung(息影亭)'s signboard as a test. Lim Eok-ryeong lived until the age of 73. He came up from him hometown Haenam to receive the teachings of his teacher, Nuljae Park Sang. He speculates that he had a relationship for the first time when he came to Seongsandong, where Kim, Yoon-je lived, where he studied together at the time. He then passed the national exam and lived in her office, leaving the vice versa of Damyang at the age of 64 and descending to Seongsandong, not him hometown Haenam. There lived his wife Yang and his two daughters. There were junior writers who followed his himself. His Daughter's husband Kim Seong-won built a pavilion for himself, "Sikyoungjung," and spent his old age there. The fact that he remains close to 350 poems that sang the scenery of Seongsandong, I can say that Seongsandong is important in his life. Here, the presenter's attention was the existence of Lim Eok-ryeong's family, namely Yang's wife and two daughters. It can be said that Seongsandong, not his hometown, was possible because he had a family. To this end, in order to elevate the Seongsandong family of Lim Eok-ryeong, which was missed in the previous study, to elucidate, comparing and reviewing the Sunsan-Lim clan genealogy and the Jeju-Yang clan genealogy. The next is the possibility of Shikyoungjung's cultural contents. Sikyeongjeong is one of the representative pavilions representing Damyang, Jeollanamdo, and is famous enough to be called Ildongsamseung(一洞三勝) along with nearby Soswaewon(瀟灑園) and Hwanbyeokdang(環碧堂). The pavilion is not a simple structure, but a central space for cultural activities, and is a place where people of the day shared their conversation. It can be said that the signboard hanging in the pavilion as well as the natural environment in the near and distant places with the center of the pavilion is a prototype of cultural content that can be reconstructed as a storytelling element.
  • 3.

    A study for the aesthetic Characteristics of Myeonang(俛仰)’s Poetry

    Park Jong Woo | 2021, (47) | pp.53~73 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Chinese poetry of Myeonang(俛仰) Songsun(宋純) was not popular for a long time, but it was carried out in earnest after the 1990s. The existing research has revealed to some extent the various materials and themes of Myeonang Hansi(漢詩). Now, it is urgent to expand and deepen the scope of understanding with a diversified approach to the work. This article is a poetic consideration to explain the aesthetic characteristics of his poetry literature through the characteristic analysis of the speaker. The key point of view first identified Myeonang Hansi in connection with the process of his life, and also attempted to consider the representative aspects of aesthetic characteristics related to poetic speakers. The speakers and aesthetic characteristics of Myeonang Hansi(漢詩) were divided into "self-confession speakers and integrity" and "governmental speakers and identity." Serious search for the truth of life and self-identification may not be all of the aesthetic qualities of poetry. In addition, it will be possible to raise the question of whether these two personalities can be clearly distinguished in the beginning. However, the point of view attempted to distinguish the two speakers, believing that they sometimes seem similar, but there are significant differences in their goals. Based on the accumulated achievements, I think it is time to review the characteristics and literature of Honam(湖南) literary group. While reflectively digesting existing research, the analysis of the starting product will explain the characteristic situation of Honam(湖南) literature. In addition, it is a task for us to redefine their literary and historical status in a temporary context linking the early and late Joseon(朝鮮).
  • 4.

    Cultural Assets of Myeonangjeong Song Soon and Its Usability as a Cultural Content.

    Park ki soo | 2021, (47) | pp.75~98 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is written in attempt to revitalize and thus enjoy the cultural assets of Myeonangjeong Song Soon in various ways by seeking the usability of it as a cultural content. Cultural assets discussed in this paper refer to every assets that can consistently create value through culture, which must possess uniqueness, differentiation, and nowness. In this context, cultural assets of Song Soon must be found on integrated point of view that includes not only his literary asset but also Damyang that embodied it and diverse factors that give body to the cultural ecosystem of the region. Song Soon’s cultural assets can be divided into ① Song Soon’s life itself that contains the source story, ② heritage of korean classic poetry, ③ genealogical legacy of scholastic and literary mantles, ④ Damyang as place assets. Purpose of developing cultural contents based on Song Soon’s cultural assets is not only focused on cultural value creation that cultural assets of Song Soon should be excavated and promoted but also on economic value creation. Considering the nature of these purposes and characteristic of cultural assets, it must be discussed based on the specific spacial assets of Damyang. 5W1H that decides the direction and identity of cultural contents is very useful in building an implementation strategy. When we examine the assets that Damyang already secures with 5W1H, it is furnished with ‘When’ and ‘Where’ to a degree, but falls short of ‘Who’, ‘What’, and ‘How’. This essay inspects the use of Song Soon’s cultural assets as cultural content by each part of 5W1H and suggests the factors that must be considered from a strategic point of view. Both value of Song Soon’s cultural assets and assets that Damyang holds as space of implementation are clear. However, effort to implement and consist it as a cultural content should be developed stage by stage in macro perspective, and it is most important to occupy the identity and aim of the business in differentiated ways.
  • 5.

    A Study of Special Examinations of King Jeongjo based on 「Eogobang」

    HeeTae Kim | 2021, (47) | pp.99~129 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    「Eogobang」 in the collections of Gwangju History and Folk Museum is the list of candidates who passed the special examination that took place in Gwangju-mok in Jeolla-do in 1798 (22nd year of King Jeongjo) and includes the stamp of ‘Eogo (king's decision)’ as it was bestowed by King Jeongjo himself. The title of the poem that was tested in Gwangju-mok was ‘Hayeomyeonangjeong’ related to the 60th anniversary ceremony (1579) of Song, Soon (1493∼1582, pen name: Myeonangjeong) as a government official. By interpreting the poem, ‘Hayeomyeonangjeong,’ it was stressed that Song, Soon passed the examination when he was 20 with the greatest excellence in composition skills at that time, followed the righteous way and was always dedicated to his post while serving four generations of kings, and served his hometown in Myeonangjeong while educating the Confucian scholars. He was particularly recognized for his loyalty to the kings and fairness to the post for 60 years. To celebrate his life, his literary pupils and the governors of neighboring towns gathered together to praise him and carry the bamboo carriage. The poem was written to cherish his spirit as a scholar of Honam. King Jeongjo scheduled a special examination to select gifted minds in the local region, so the scholars came from all over Jeolla Province to attend three out of five tests at Gwangsangwan, a pavilion for guests. 「Eogobang」, the list of candidates who passed the examination, is a record of an examination taken by 69 scholars in Honam and an invaluable resource of the systems and rural societies of that time. Among the 69 students listed in 「Eogobang」, 53 passed the examination. Two of them with the highest scores (Goh, Jeong Bong and Yim, Heung Won) were qualified for the final examination and received 14 puns as rewards. The students with the next highest scores (Bak, Jong Min and Jeong, Joo Hwan) were assigned to the Chambong (9th class) position of Gyeonggijeon and Jogyeongmyo and received 12 puns as rewards. The 16 students with lower scores were bestowed books such as 󰡔Sagiyeongseon󰡕, 󰡔Juseobaekseon󰡕, and 󰡔Oryunhaengsil󰡕 along with brushes and ink bars. The positions of 69 scholars listed in 「Eogobang」 were 49 [34] in Yuhak, seven in Saengwon, 12 in Jinsa, and one in Tongdeongnang. Tongdeongnang is a 5th-class literary position. Considering the family names, there were four from the Bak Family of Bannam, four from the Jeong Family of Hadong, three from the Bak Family of Suncheon, three from the Yi Family of Jeonju, three from the Yi Family of Hampyeong, three from the Jeong Family of Yeongil, three from the Shin Family of Goryeong, three from the Gim Family of Gwangju, two from the Yang Family of Namwon, two from the Yoon Family of Namwon, two from the Yi Family of Yeonan, two from the Noh Family of Pungcheon, two from the Gim Family of Ulsan, two from the Nam Family of Euiryeong, two from the Goh Family of Jangtaek, and two from the Gi Family of Haengju. Considering the place of residence, 23 students were from Gwangju, 12 from Sunchang, six from Naju, six from Changpyeong, four from Namwon, two from Boseong, two from Yeonggwang, two from Jangseong, and two from Jangheung. 「Eogobang」 was first bestowed to Goh, Jeongbong and it was separated from the original letter until it was collected by Gwangju History and Folk Museum. The old document of Goh, Jeong Bong (Pen Name: Suchon) has been confirmed through research and a special exhibition was held on the government examination of Gwangju. An interpretation of the old document has been published and the document has been donated. The authenticity of Gim, Jae Bak's ‘Hayeomyeonangjeong’ and 󰡔Sagiyeongseon󰡕, the government document bestowed to Gim, Chi Bok, has been surveyed. Gi, Hak Gyeong's ‘Hayeomyeonangjeong’ was found in a collection. Recently, the document of 'Eojechaekmun' stating the test questions has also been found. It is hoped that more studies and researches would take place to explore the ways to share the findings.
  • 6.

    A Deliberation on the History and Space Perception of Myeonangjeong

    KIM HYUN JIN | 2021, (47) | pp.131~164 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis tried to think about the history and spatial perception of Myeonangjeong(俛仰亭) in depth. It seems reasonable to assume that the meaning of the name'俛仰' took after '君子三樂' by Mencius, which reflects the wish to move on shameless life by overcoming selfishness based on Hoyeonjigi. Myeonangjeong is a 3 section a grass pavilion Nujeong(草亭) built by Song Soon(宋純) in 1533 on Jewol Peak in Bongsan-myeon, Damyang-gun, There was the first fix of it in 1552. Later, it got destroyed over Jeong-Yoo-Jae-ran (1597), and then restored before 1610, It got refixed by descendants in 1654. After that, its existence was found again in the 1700s and 1800s, reviewing old documents and Jeyeong poetry. Then it got refixed in 1930. It got designated as Jeollanam-do Local Cultural Heritage No. 6 in 1972. It got renovated in 1979 and finally refixed around 1989. Like this, this is the brief history of it known and passed down so far. Myeonangjeong's space gets recognized in four different ways. First, it looks at the direction of feel no shame[無愧不怍]. Song Soon's enjoyment of nature, seeking wise man orientation and natural unity got directly connected to the moral life and also to the vastness[浩然之氣] of Mencius. Connecting it to the meaning of Jeongja name, 'Myeonang', the consciousness to live shameless life by overcoming selfishness based on Hoyeonji got reflected in it. Second, it talks about the leading space of Honam region Poetry World[湖南詩壇]. Song Soon's poetry and lyric works became the driving force of creating lyric works for the writers in Damyang including Honam Poetry Group. Myeonangjeong was core space leading the Honam Poetry Group. Third, it talks about esthetic space of 湖南最勝處 and 看人看世. The poets who climbed to Myeonangjeong which boasts of the best view of Honam overlooked landscape there and never stopped their esthetic activity to represent the impressions borne by Seunggyeong, Songsunand, and other preeminences in that space through reminiscences. Fourth, it talks about the background of 御製詩題. In the commemoration of Song Soon's 60th anniversary of passing the highest-level state examination to recruit rank officials, so-called Hoebang-yeon, Honam representatives got gathered to commemorate Song Soon's 60th anniversary. There was a story which tells the representatives of Honam gathered there got him on sedan chair[荷輿俛仰亭]. In order to give the talented scholars of Honam an opportunity to obtain their fame, 正祖 took advantage of the story as poetic subject (詩題) of Dogwa (道科). Since then, it has been passed down and spoken by posterity.
  • 7.

    A Study on the life of Nobong KimJung and the spiritual sphere in his poetry

    Lee kueui | 2021, (47) | pp.165~198 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article was to examine the life of Nobong KimJung (1670-1737), who was active during the reign of King Yeongjo of the Joseon Dynasty, and the sense of direction that appeared in his poems. The background of the creative works are that he was born in a fine grand family. The following is that Nobong himself had an unusual ability. First of all, he had a broad minded since he was young. Second, he had a brilliant mind since he was so young that he could memorize which he read all the ancient books. Third, in many difficult situations after the death of his father, he overcame reality with his strong will. Fourth, he met great teachers or seniors, and his learning and spirit became deeper and wider. The formal features of his poems were first composed mostly of the metrical verses, which are fixed form of verses. Second, his poems emphasize the meaning through repeated letters. Third, the description of the situation in his poem is realistic. In his omniscient point of view, he realistically describes the situation in which he was met with. The realm of Nobong shown in his poem is first self-reflection based on the old sages. Second, he aimed for an open world in a closed space. Third, he aimed for a simple life and an antuque and elegant personality. Fourth, he sought harmony with external objects through human duty. He had a traditional Confucian scholar’s view of universe that pursued humanism.
  • 8.

    A Comparison Study on Poetry of Dongpo and Chusa - Using Texts from Liquor Poetry of Dongpo and Tea Poetry of Chusa

    Kim Hee Sung | 2021, (47) | pp.199~233 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper looked into the literary world and spiritual world of Dongpo and Chusa, poets who share similarities in various genres, through their exile poetry. In exile poetry, this study focused on the liquor poetry of Dongpo and the tea poetry of Chusa. Both poets enjoyed drinking alcohol and tea as intellectuals who mastered Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. However, Dongpo was familiar with the Taoist ideology combined with Buddhism because he controlled resentment and inspiration through liquor. Chusa had a strong Buddhist color because he favored tea. Whereas Dongpo boosted romance and conviviality using liquor, Chusa controlled the purity of mind with tea. Since liquor is extroverted and tea is introverted, the personality of the two persons is reflected in the symbolic background. Therefore, Su Shi’s poems have the conviviality of liquor based on the Taoist spirit embracing Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. Chusa’s poems have divine energy with a Buddhist overtone. While paying attention to this point, this paper examined the poetry worlds of the two poets using texts from the liquor poetry of Dongpo and the tea poetry of Chusa. Poems provide important clues for understanding the spiritual world and ideology of Dongpo and Chusa in depth. Accordingly, Dongpo studied poetry to expand his literary world. Chusa studied poetry to reevaluate his literary value that had been neglected because of calligraphy. The dense economic language is the essence of Chusa’s poetry pursuing substance over splendid skills, and this ethos especially stands out in poems written in Jeju Island. Meanwhile, Dongpo’s poems show a romantic tendency based on universal imaginations. This poetic tendency presents a philosophical state that is aloof about the mundane world while staying close to reality in the place of exile. Contrary to Chusa’s strict exclusion of skills and pursuit of ultimate substance, Su Shi exhibited an outgoing temperament that adequately delivered the content and reason through rich imaginations and skills.
  • 9.

    A Study on Exile Sijo of Lee Hang-bok (Baeksa)

    kwon, hyun-ju | 2021, (47) | pp.235~260 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Lee Hang-bok (Baeksa) was quite experienced in state affairs that he was appointed as the Minister of War after the Japanese Invasions of Korea for five times, but he was involved in the deposal of Queen Mother Inmok and ended his life in Bukcheong, the place of exile. Baeksa left a total of six pieces of sijo. This study regarded them as exile sijo and analyzed their characteristics. Before analyzing Baeksa’s sijo, this study examined the reason he was sent into exile in Bukcheong and the course to the place. The incident, the deposal of Queen Mother Inmok, began from Yoon Yoo-gyeom’s appeal, and he criticized her father, Kim Je-nam, to insist on her deposal. Because it would be easy to insist on the deposal of the Queen Mother when Kim Je-nam is sentenced with the banishment penalty(追刑) by additionally charging him for treason. He also referred to a narrative in the 󰡔Spring and Autumn Annals󰡕 and argued that King Gwanghaegun shall cut off Queen Mother Inmok and that Queen Mother Inmok told King Gwanghaegun to become a ‘commoner.’ In response to this, Baeksa argued against Yoon Yoo-gyeom’s appeal, which insisted on the deposal of Queen Mother Inmok through the story of Emperor Shun. However, Baeksa’s request to King Gwanghaegun for filial duty was intentionally misinterpreted and he was sent into exile as a result. Through exile poems, Baeksa expressed loyalty reflecting his anger and also criticized the world that made him an exile. For there are not many previous studies on Baeksa and his literature that focused on his exile poems, this study intended to analyze Baeksa’s feelings as an exile in relation to his exile in Bukcheong and poems.
  • 10.

    A Review on the Dongshi "Muninpyeyuga" by Gosan Yun Seondo

    Lim, Kwi-nam | 2021, (47) | pp.261~286 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Dongshi (東詩) is called Gwacheshi (科体詩), Haengshi (行詩), Gongryeongshi (功令詩), or Donginshi (東人詩). It is the unique poem style that was originally created as an answer for the National Test [Gwageo] but soon used as a concept encompassing Gwachesh (科體詩). This dissertation aims to examine Muninpyeyuga (門人廢蓼莪), a Dongshi by Gosan Yun Seondo (1587-1671), a representative writer of Shijo Shiga Dongshi literature in the first half of the 17th century. To this end, the researcher divided works that accepted 「Yuga」in『Shigyeong (The Book of Odes, 詩經)』 published in the literature anthologies according to the times they were written such as the first half and the second half of Joseon Dynasty. And then the acceptance pattern of that period was reviewed. Next, it was reviewed how 'Yuga' in "Shigyeong" was implemented in Hanshi by Yun Seondo through the expression technique of 『Sikyung』realized in his work and the antithesis technique of Hanshi. In particular, it was analyzed how the old story of "Pyeyuga' of Wangbu reflected in his Dongshi was shaped as a poem in his Dongshi and confimred the degree with the content analysis. Through this, the internal and external characteristics of the work were synthesized and summarized, and the significance of Yun Seon-do's works in the history of filial piety literature was demonstrated.
  • 11.

    A Study of China-Korean Cultural Exchange and Mutual Cognition in Early Ming Dynasty Based on poetry interaction and poetry & painting exchange

    Fei Fang | 2021, (47) | pp.287~321 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The exchanges between China and Korea have a long history. The envoys between the two countries in the early Ming Dynasty witnessed and participated in the establishment and development of relations between the two countries. This paper will mainly focus on the communication between Confucian scholars and officials with a higher status in Korea and people of the Ming dynasty, involving Korean scholar’s acquaintances with Ming official envoys in Korea and with Ming people they met while travelling in China. This paper gives priority to analyzing Korean literati’s understanding of the Ming Dynasty in poetry and essay exchanges and the causes behind cognition variation, thus revealing the interaction and exchanges between literati of the two countries in politics, thought, culture, and art, and reproducing a three-dimensional picture of cultural exchange between China and Korea in the early Ming Dynasty. Through poetry interaction and prefaces & postscripts writing exchanges with envoys of the Ming Dynasty Guozi Xuelu Zhang Pu, Guozi Dianbo Zhou Zhuo, and Liaodong envoy Sang Lin, Korean literati showed their favorable cognition of Ming dynasty in clothing, military generals and Confucian officials, the doctrine and impact of Ming Dynasty, etc. Envoys of the Ming Dynasty and the Korean literati communicated in poetry and painting art through poetry writing to each other, poems inscribed on painting and presenting painting as gifts, thus deepening the friendship and mutual cultural cognition of the two countries. When Korean envoys travelled to the Ming Dynasty, they saw the mountains, rivers, customs and culture of the Ming Dynasty with their own eyes, and forged a deep friendship with people from the Ming Dynasty. They showed more admiration for the Ming Dynasty and a high recognition of traditional Chinese culture in their poetry singing interaction with Ming scribes. Of course, as “others”, these Korean scholars also had aunique perspective and viewpoint in observing China. They selectively accept and criticize Chinese Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. When the Korean envoys travelled to China of the Ming Dynasty, they associate with monks and Confucian scholars and experienced the immortal culture in the land of Denglai, for which they showed more criticism. Besides, they also expressed a derogatory attitude towards Buddhism, while admiring Confucianism. The frequent exchanges and mutual cognition between Chinese and Korean scholars have made positive contributions to eliminating barriers between the two countries and the development of traditional friendly relations.
  • 12.

    The Experience of Exile of Jeongjae(靜齋) Lee Dam-myeong(李聃命) and <Sarochingok 12piece(思老親曲12章)>’s Structural Features

    Lee, Seung-jun | 2021, (47) | pp.323~356 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study reviewed the <Sarochingok 12piece(思老親曲12章)>’s Structural Features Based on the experience of Exile of Jeongjae(靜齋) Lee Dammyeong(李聃命) <Sarochingok 12piece> has been understood to be a work that shows the characteristics of the late Joseon Dynasty. The rationale is that it is based on filial piety and that it has a weak composition as a Linked Sijo(聯詩調). However, this view does not develop an understanding of the Structural Features of the work. Most of all, Lee Dam-myeong's exile regarding the background of the creation of <Sarochingok 12piece> was not specifically examined. The exile of Lee Dam-myeong can be largely divided into Changseong and Nampo. In Changseong, he was in a desperate situation where he could not be expected to be released. However, it was released due to severe drought in Pyeongan and Hamgyeong provinces. He moved to Nampo and was dramatically reunited with his mother. This aspect can also be seen through the Structural Features of <Sarochingok 12piece>. Based on the perception of exile, the composition of <Sarochingok 12piece> consists of ‘Can't Meet Mother -> Accepting his situation -> Waiting for a reunion with mother.’ This aspect shows that <Sarochingok 12piece> is loose in binding the chapters, but overall it has a Structural method. And this is the result of Lee Dam-myeong's exile and mother's relationship.