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2021, Vol., No.48

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  • 1.

    The aspects of the creation of Sijo by naturalized poets from the late Goryeo Dynasty to the early Joseon Dynasty and its meaning

    CHO JI HYOUNG | 2021, (48) | pp.5~31 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examined the creation of Sijo by naturalized poets from the late Goryeo Dynasty to the early Joseon Dynasty. From the late Goryeo to the early Joseon Dynasty, it was the formation of Sijo, where Shinheung-Sadaebu was the main creative class of Sijo. In this phase, naturalized poets also created Sijo, revealing their political position and world awareness. The fact that naturalized poets, who had no choice but to speak poor Korean, created Sijo, a unique Korean song format, is very special in itself. General Byeon An-yeol from Shenyang, wrote the lyrics of <Bulgulga不屈歌> during the process of replacing the dynasty, expressing his strong loyalty to the Goryeo Dynasty. Seol Jang-su, a native of Uighur who was in charge of diplomacy to Ming China, wrote the lyrics of <Shineonga愼言歌> and warned against caution in his speech and conduct. Lee Ji-ran, who was born in Jurchen and rose to the rank of the Joseon royal family, wrote the lyrics of <Chukrokga逐鹿歌>, expressing concern about the fate of Joseon. The fact that naturalized poets and high-ranking politicians created Sijo with Chinese poetry from the late Goryeo to the early Joseon indicates that Sijo was recognized as an important literary act in the literary field at that time. At the same time, it can be said that Sijo's creation has a personality that deserves pride as a writer. In addition, the openness of the creation of the sijo was already in place from the formation period.
  • 2.

    <Gogong-ga> series and the allegorical configuration of the slave farm during the mid-Joseon Dynasty

    Yongcheol Kim | 2021, (48) | pp.33~76 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine the meaning of the allegorical configuration expressed on the slave farm in the work, targeting the <Gogong-ga> and <Gogongdapjuin-ga> (hereinafter referred to as <Gogong-ga> series), which are believed to have been composed around 1600 years ago. The main direction of this study is the research of meaning of literary history and civilization that configured slave farms and factional strife in <Gogong-ga> series. Through this, it is expected that <Gogong-ga> series, which was built right after the Japanese Invasion of Korea(Imjin-wairan), will reveal a part of the significance that opened up a new era of literary history called the late Joseon Dynasty. In this study, room of the master and the slave in <Gogong-ga> series considered a slave farm. The restoration of the slave farm, which was disrupted and faced with crisis after Japanese Invasion, was a top issue of King Seonjo and Leewonik. It was the contents of the <Gogong-ga> series. In addition, it was confirmed that the literary and civilization historical significance of <Gogong-ga> series was quite heavy, given that there were few works that embodied the slave(Nobi) or slave farms in korean history. Next, I looked at factional strife that the real world outside of the work indicated by slave farm. In the process, I looked at the fact that <Gogong-ga> series was not simply criticizing factional strife, but the only work that tried to eliminate it. And I looked at the historical significance of literary history and civilization of this works.
  • 3.

    Choi, Gyeongchang (崔慶昌)'s Poetry World and Characteristics

    Sun, Ji-young | 2021, (48) | pp.77~110 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Old Meritorious Faction had bureaucratic literary view because of factional politics due to elite society splendid poetic techniques and difficult and distracted modification and new Neo-Confucian literati were opposed to techniques and sought the spiritual world of clear and clean literature of reclusive scholars (處士的) in the period that Gojuk (孤竹) Choi, Gyeongchang (崔慶昌,1539∼1583) lived. However, they tried to express ethical and free nature in the period. This thesis tried to examine the situations of the time, people's view of life, and values through Choi, Gyeongchang's works and seek his style (風格) shown in them. Because styles are the aspect that writers' personality or ideas are complexly embodied in their works, it is thought to investigate and reveal writers' literary status The works were examined by classifying them into a limited time of love, longing for fairylands, and criticism on reality according to subjects. First, there are many poems targeting love (戀情) in the works by Choi, Gyeongchang. The motive for creating the works like this is thought that women's delicate and rich feelings are naturally target of poetic expression because they accord with expression of his own romantic feelings. And the point that he longed for the heavenly world (仙界) is thought to be related to the flow of Sodan (騷壇) that got to imitate (模作) poems of wandering immortals (遊仙詩), one of literary circles of the time. And it is thought that he longed for and praised the transcendental realm as a way to solve frustrations and conflicts of reality. Choi, Gyeongchang (崔慶昌)'s poems have a clean and new (淸新) style (風格). Cleanness (淸) is generally fresh as well as clear and clean and is the style (風格) of poems related to descriptions of scenery or landscape or pure nature and furthermore, clear and beautiful scenes to feel the realm of immortals (仙境) or Seonchwi (仙趣) that transcended the everyday world. And poetic diction (詩語) used in the poems is thought to be characterized by the general use of pleonasm of two letters and image vocabularies and the utilization of everyday words in the works of music bureau ballad (樂府詩) series.
  • 4.

    The significance of differentiation and differentiation of Manhoingcheongryu

    bae dae-ung | 2021, (48) | pp.111~131 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis examined the aspect of differentiation and significance of ‘Manhoengcheongryu’ works contained in 󰡔Cheongguyeongeon󰡕(by Kim Cheon-Taek). The ‘Manhoengcheongryu’ works of 󰡔Cheongguyeongeon󰡕(by Kim Cheon-Taek) were changed into many different looks in the process of transmission. In this thesis, this changed look was called the differentiation of ‘Manhoengcheongryu’, and the differentiated looks of ‘Manhoengcheongryu’ works were divided into ① a case in which two songs were contained in the same musical piece within the collection of poems, ② a case in which the same work was contained as a different musical piece within the collection of poems, and ③ a case in which it was handed down as the same musical piece, but the contents were differentiated a lot enough to be classified into another group. The results of examining the differentiation of ‘Manhoengcheongryu’ could be summarized as follows. First, in case of the differentiation aspect shown in ① & ②, even when the ‘Manhoengcheongryu’ transmitted till the 19th century showed the different sex of singers, and the name of musical piece was different, it was possible to see the preference for some Manhoengchengryu works in the site of performance. Just as the work quoted earlier, the ‘Manhoengcheongryu’ work initially transmitted was performed after modifying its contents suitable for the preference in the site of performance. Even though the differentiation aspect shown in ③ was a bit different from those two above differentiation aspects, eventually, this case was also closely related to the preference or taste of the enjoyers mentioned earlier. Those differentiation aspects showed the unified look in the 19th century after the contents and musical piece of ‘Manhoengcheongryu’ were differentiated. When the kinds of songs sung in the site of performance were diversified in the 20th century, there were some changes in them just as the existing songs with the unity became a musical piece or a genre. Also, the changes in the site of performance and the changes in the preference/taste of enjoyers probably affected them.
  • 5.

    Contents and Author’s Consciousness in Sogodang Go Dan’s <The 1988 Olympic Games Anthem>

    KIM AYUN | 2021, (48) | pp.133~171 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Sogodang Godan(高端, 1922~2009) composed on The 1988 Olympic Games Anthem, Games of the XXIV Olympiad Seoul 1988(The 1988 Olympic Games) in the fall of 1988, 172 lines of Gasa <The 1988 Olympic Games Anthem>. Accordingly, it is a Modern Gasa in terms of time, Women’s Gasa in terms of author, Event Gasa in terms of content, and long-length Gasa in terms of volume. It has represented the basic ideology of the 1988 Olympic Games, the scale of participation in the Olympic Games, Seoul’s bid to host the 1988 Olympic Games, preparation process, opening ceremony, first half game results, episodes, issues, closing ceremony, achievements of the 1988 Olympic Games and preparation for the 25th Barcelona Olympics understood as a will. The author's consciousness of it can be divided into four main categories: fact-oriented recording consciousness, internationalization and global citizenship, national consciousness and aspiration for the unification of South and North Korea, and pride in the success of the 1988 Olympic Games.
  • 6.

    Baeksu(白水) Yang eung-soo(楊應秀)’s sense of value for life- Focusing on his Hansi(漢詩)

    Sangbong Lee | 2021, (48) | pp.173~198 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Existing studies focused on Yang Eung-soo's reading method, the fact that he practiced mindfulness for one year to miss the deceased the death of his teacher, and the perception he had about the study of Hwadam(花潭). His reading method, the contents of the <Chukjang Diary(築場日記)> that he left behind, and his views on the study of Hwadam(flowers) can all be seen as a reflection of his perception of life and learning. Therefore, in this paper, I looked at his ideological basis that made such a life possible, focusing on the hansi-korean poems written in chinese character-he left. Yang Eung-soo gave up the civil service exam at the young age of 24 and had a scholarly personality to devote himself to his studies, and this inclination remained intact in his few poems. Among the themes of the poems he left behind, many sang about being faithful to the contents of the scriptures. In particular, he emphasized not only insisting on benevolence and justice with words, but also putting into practice the contents of the scriptures such as 󰡔Sohak(小學)󰡕. In addition, he inherited the teachings of 󰡔Seokyung(書經)󰡕 and 󰡔Book of Rites(禮記)󰡕 that 'the sky is unselfish and fair' and expressed a free mind in his poems, free from greed for one's own destiny. And this mindset was developed into the content of 'Heaven and Man are originally one', which appears in 󰡔Book of Change(易)󰡕·󰡔Book of Rites(禮記)󰡕·󰡔Book of Mind(心經)󰡕 did. Yang Eung-su thought that it was important to get rid of '人慾' from the human mind in order to achieve the teachings of '天無私' and '天人一也' in the scriptures. So even in his poems, he expressed that in order to realize that the human heart(人心) and the dao heart(道心) are not two, we need to get rid of greed. However, it was not easy to achieve the state of the sage by making steady efforts. After immersing himself in Neo-Confucianism, he has cultivated and restrained himself for a long time, but there are still many things that need to be studied and practiced. Therefore, in his later years, even if he could not completely get rid of his greed, he also wrote a poem that pays attention not to lose the original intention given by heaven. Not only in modern society but also in the 18th century, when Yang Eung-su was active, social success represented by rising in the world and gaining fame was what most scholars were aiming for. However, Yang Eung-soo gave up such social achievements and jumped into the academic path of Neo-Confucianism, making it the most important goal of his life to achieve mental and physical training and academic achievement. His attitude toward life is reflected in his poems as well, so his poetry seems to leave a deep impression compared to the works of other ordinary poets.
  • 7.

    The Nature of Japga 2(Dankook University Version) and the Classification of Collections of songs by the Type

    Lee, sang-won | 2021, (48) | pp.199~231 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Yulgok Library of Dankook University houses Japga, a well-known collection of Gasa works, and another book with the same title. This study called it Japga 2 to tell it from the old Japga(Japga 1) and investigated its characteristics in details, highlighting a need to revise the viewpoints in the classification of collections of songs by the type. Japga 2 is a collection of songs including 186 Sijochang Saseols, four Gasas, and two Japgas. It has the following characteristics: first, the works in this collection seem to record Saseols sung at real sites of performance as they were; second, it is similar to Namhuntaepyeongga on the surface, but its characteristics encompass those of the collections of songs in the line of Namhuntaepyeongga and other collections of songs. This collection thus includes a good number of exclusive works; third, the publication of the collection is estimated around 1900; and fourth, it makes no distinction between Gasas and Japgas even though they are mixed under Chunmyeongok. Japga 2 offers harmony between Sijos, Gasas, and Japgas. Such a case used to be categorized as a collection of Sijochangs, which is demonstrated by the practice of calling Namhuntaepyeongga as a representative collection of Sijochangs. This derived from a practice of dividing collections of songs from the latter part of Joseon into collections of Gagokchangs and collections of Sijochangs. This dichotomy, however, has limitations with explaining the dynamic changes of Sijos and Gasa. As Sijos and Gasas underwent dynamic changes between Jeongga and Sokga, there is a need for a structure to understand collections of songs to peek at these changes. Such a structure should focus on the ways that Sijos and Gasas were combined with Gagoks or Japgas. A combination of Sijos and Gasas with Gagoks poses a high possibility of a Jeongga collection of songs. A combination of Sijos and Gasas with Japgas poses a big possibility of a Sokga collection of songs. This places importance on the reason behind "Japga" in the title Japga 2. In this case, "Japga" was used to signify "Sokga," which means that Japga 2 should be classified as a Sokga collection of songs rather than a collection of Sijochangs.