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2010, Vol.44, No.4

  • 1.

    Research Needs in Librarianship

    T. D. Wilson | 2010, 44(4) | pp.5~18 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Library and information research is often directed towards either the management of resources (e.g., the economics of resource management), their storage and retrieval (e.g., much information retrieval research), and the users of these resources (the whole area of information behaviour. However, the question that is less often asked is, “What research do librarians want to have carried out to help them in their work?” Clearly, some of the topics just mentioned will fall into the priority areas, but what do librarians actually perceive will be of use to them. There is a notion that a research-practice gap exists in the field and perhaps the reason for that is that researchers do not ask the practioners what research will be of value to them. To find an answer to this question on a global basis would, of course, be impossible – at least impossible without the level of funding that would be difficult to obtain from any source. However, it is possible to carry out research on a national level that could prove useful both to practitioners and to the library and information research community. This was the aim of a project, supported by the Svensk Biblioteksförening (Swedish Library Association), which was carried out in 2008/2009. Ideas on potential research projects were collected from librarians themselves, from discussion group archives and from the professional journals in a number of countries. These ideas were then grouped thematically and formed the basis of two rounds of a Delphi process to solicit the opinions of a panel of librarians in different sectors, recommended by their peers as ‘expert’ in their field. The Delphi process was concluded with a workshop involving a subset of the panel. This paper will report on the results of the investigation, which attracted a great deal of interest within the profession in Sweden, and will also reflect on issues that were ranked lowly in the investigation. For example, not a great deal of priority was given to topics relating to the development and use of technology: why was this? And would the same result be found in other countries? One major area of research interest was into the future of libraries and a topic of relevance here, especially for academic and research libraries, is the changing information behaviour of researchers: what, now, do researchers want of libraries? Clearly, technology is playing a role here, but digitized resources and the World Wide Web may not be the answer to every researcher’s need. Research into libraries and research for libraries ought to figure largely in the profession’s view of its aims, objectives and visions of the future: but for it to do so requires a recognition that the work will not be done unless researchers and practitioners come together to determine how to approach the future.
  • 2.

    Measuring (and Increasing) the Value of Academic Libraries

    Carol Tenopir | Donald W. King | 2010, 44(4) | pp.19~31 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The value of the university library to faculty, students, and administrators has long been assumed. In an era of decreasing resources and increasing choices, academic librarians must now find the best ways to measure and demonstrate the value of the library to all of their stakeholders, including faculty members, graduate students, undergraduate students, administrators, and funders. Techniques to assess and measure value can also help library decision makers select the products and services that provide the highest return on investment (ROI) to the university community. It is important to measure and convey the value of the academic library; it is also possible to increase the value of the library to the university by carefully refocusing the academic library’s products and services. In this presentation I will discuss methods and results from a recently completed study in eight countries that measured the value and ROI of e-journals to the grants process. The Return on Investment (ROI) of the e-journals collection to grant funding ranged from over 15:1 to just under 1:1 in 9 institutions. In addition, many other qualitative and quantitative measures of value are as important as derived measures like ROI. Building on that research study, I am now leading a team that includes the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and several university libraries in a project funded by the U.S. Institute of Museum and Library Services. We are collecting data using on the value of a wide range of library services using several methods for measuring the value of what the university library contributes to the institution and its stakeholders.
  • 3.

    Libraries for Life: A Case Study of National Library Board, Singapore

    Schubert Foo | Chris Tang | Judy Ng | 2010, 44(4) | pp.33~59 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Library 2.0 advocates a socially rich, multimedia enabled, user originated and communally innovative environment that poses significant opportunities for the libraries to evolve and make themselves even more relevant and significant for her users. This paper presents a case study of the National Library Board of Singapore, in playing a vital role to facilitate the realisation of a long-term key national program, The Singapore Memory (SM) Project. SM embraces the attributes of the Library 2.0 environment to enable the nation’s memory to be collected, organised, preserved, discovered, researched, augmented and created. The output of is an evolving collection of knowledge assets on Singapore along a Singapore Memory Content Continuum of existing content that is steadily augmented with new content. The content will be collected across all formats, in any language, from Singaporeans and non-Singaporeans, from any institution and agency, from Singapore and abroad, and from official and unofficial sources. The utopian scenario of SM Project is that any person, community, group or institution who has ever experienced Singapore in any way or has any material on Singapore will engage actively in the contribution, discovery and creation of content for the project, and thus become advocates to further encourage and catalyse more contribution, discovery and creation. The paper outlines the key approaches, concepts and ideas for the project. An important element is the proliferation, exposure and accessibility of the rich contents envisaged in the project. The SM proliferation plan along with examples of how two existing resources, namely, the Singapore Infopedia, a database of articles on Singapore’s history, culture, people and events and NewspaperSG, an online resource of current and historic Singapore and Malayan newspapers, have been designed are presented to demonstrate how content can be exposed, searched and discovered.
  • 4.

    ‘I Only Hate Broccoli’: The Library as Place in 21st Century America

    Wayne A. Wiegand | 2010, 44(4) | pp.61~74 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    By taking a bottom-up “library in the life of the user” perspective rather than a top-down “user in the life of the library” perspective, this paper uses anecdotal evidence from the past and near present to examine the multiple roles the U.S. public library plays and has played as public space in the everyday lives of its patrons. By harnessing “public sphere ” theory discussed in Jürgen Habermas’s THE STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE PUBLIC SPHERE (1989) and by the examining the rich literatures on civic life and institutions that have evolved from it, the author argues that Library and Information Studies discourse has to expand its scope to include research and analysis of “library as place” from a user’s perspective if it hopes to develop a deeper understanding of what the public library does for means to members of the communities in which they reside.
  • 5.

    An Experimental Study Investigating the Retrieval Effectiveness of a Video Retrieval System Using Tag Query Expansion

    Hyun Hee Kim | 2010, 44(4) | pp.75~94 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study designed a pilot system in which queries can be expanded through a tag ontology where equivalent, synonymous, or related tags are bound together, in order to improve the retrieval effectiveness of videos. We evaluated the proposed pilot system by comparing it to a tag-based system without tag control, in terms of recall and precision rates. Our study results showed that the mean recall rate in the structured folksonomy-based system was statistically higher than that in the tag-based system. On the other hand, the mean precision rate in the structured folksonomy-based system was not statistically higher than that in the tag-based system. The result of this study can be utilized as a guide on how to effectively use tags as social metadata of digital video libraries.
  • 6.

    A Preliminary Examination on the Multimedia Information Needs and Web Searches of College Students in Korea

    Eunkyung Chung | 2010, 44(4) | pp.95~114 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Multimedia searching is an important activity on the Web, especially among the younger generation. The purpose of this study aims to examine college students’ multimedia information needs and searching on the Internet. While there is a clear pattern among students with respect to their multimedia uses, searching sources, relevance criteria and searching barriers, some differences exist especially according to searching of different multimedia types such as image, audio and video. For multimedia uses, information/data-focused uses are frequently found in image and video, while the use of audio is mainly for object-focused searches. As multimedia searching sources, audio and video files present a similar pattern of being high in media specific searching sources and low in generic search engines. Browsing through related blogs and homepages is an important part of searching for media files accounting for approximately 20% of total search for each media. The relevance criteria used by study participants when search for image files was primarily concerned with topicality while the contextual and media quality in the audio and video types are also considered important. Searching barriers for audio and video files are categorized into three broad aspects, including access and search quality, preview limitations and collection limitations, while obstacles for image files searching include access difficulties and low qualities of various collection.
  • 7.

    Archival Description and Records from Historically Marginalized Cultures: A View from a Postmodern Window

    Donghee Sinn | 2010, 44(4) | pp.115~130 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In the archival field, the last decade has witnessed much discussion on archives’ broad responsibilities for social memory. Considering that the social role of archives has stemmed from postmodern thinking suggests a paradigm shift from viewing archives as static recorded objects to viewing them as dynamic evidence of human memory. The modern archives and archivists are products of nineteenth-century positivism, limiting their function to archiving written documents within stable organizations. The new thoughts on the social role of archives provide a chance to realize that traditional archival practices have preserved only a sliver of organizational memory, thus ignoring fluid records of human activities and memory. Archival description is the primary method for users to access materials in archives. Thus, it can determine how archival materials will be used (or not used). The traditional archival description works as the representation of archival materials and is directly projected from the hierarchy of organizational documents. This paper argues that archivists will need to redefine archival description to be more sensitive to atypical types of archival materials from various cultural contexts. This paper surveys the postmodern approaches to archival concepts in relation to descriptive practices. It also examines some issues related to representing historically marginalized groups in archival description who were previously neglected in traditional archival practices.
  • 8.

    From Information to Knowledge: The Information Literacy Conundrum

    Ross J. Todd | 2010, 44(4) | pp.131~153 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The fusion of learning, information, and technology presents dynamic challenges for all librarians, educators and students in 21st century libraries and schools. At the heart of this fusion is the growth of a pervasive, integrated information environment characterized by vast quantities of digital content, open choice, collaborative and participatory digital spaces, and the transition of the web environments from consumption of information to creation of information. This environment heralds important opportunities for librarians and teachers to rethink, re-imagine and recreate a dynamic approaches to information literacy instruction. Drawing on an extensive body of research undertaken through the Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries (CISSL), and published research on both information literacy and constructivist learning, this paper provides a critical examination of the current status of information literacy: its multiple conceptualizations, competing models, viewpoints, and its operationalizations in educational and library environments. The paper will challenge information literacy practices which center on simplistic, reductionist approaches to information literacy development, and the separation of information process and knowledge content. In particular it will address apparent contradictions in espoused conceptions of information literacy which revolve around “knowledge”: knowledge construction, critical thinking, problem solving and the development of knowledgeable people; and information literacy practices which revolve around “information”: a predominant focus on skills of access and evaluation of resources and with less attention given to engaging with found information to develop deep knowledge and understanding. The paper will present a series of challenges for moving forward with information literacy agendas in libraries and schools. 
  • 9.

    Participatory Web Users’ Information Activities and Credibility Assessment

    Soo Young Rieh | 2010, 44(4) | pp.155~178 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Assessment of information credibility is a ubiquitous human activity given that people constantly make decisions and selections based on the value of information in a variety of information seeking and use contexts. Today, people are increasingly engaging in diverse online activities beyond searching for and reading information, including activities such as creating, tagging and rating content, shopping, and listening to and watching multimedia content. The Web 2.0 environment presents new challenges for people because the burden of information evaluation is shifted from professional gatekeepers to individual information consumers. At the same time, however, it also provides unprecedented opportunities for people to use tools and features that help them to make informed credibility judgments by relying on other people’s ratings and recommendations. This paper introduces fundamental notions and dimensions of credibility, and contends that credibility assessment can be best understood with respect to human information behavior because it encompasses both the level of effort people exert as well as the heuristics they employ to evaluate information. The paper reports on a survey study investigating people’s credibility judgments with respect to online information, focusing on the constructs, heuristics, and interactions involved in people’s credibility assessment processes within the context of their everyday life information activities. Using an online activity diary method, empirical data about people’s online activities and their associated credibility assessments were collected at multiple points throughout the day for three days. The results indicate that distinct credibility assessment heuristics are emerging as people engage in diverse online activities involving more user-generated and multimedia content. A heuristic approach suggests that people apply mental shortcuts or rules of thumb in order to minimize the amount of cognitive effort and time required to make credibility judgments. The paper discusses why a heuristic approach is key to reaching a more comprehensive understanding of people’s credibility assessments within the information-abundant online environment.
  • 10.

    Analysis of Word Based Classification of U.S. Public Libraries and its Implications

    ji-won baek | 2010, 44(4) | pp.179~201 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to analyze the word based classification used in U.S. public libraries and their implications for Korean libraries. For this purpose, eleven U.S. public libraries using the word based classification system were selected and the specific classification types, their motivation, collection size, methods used in the conversion from DDC, and pros and cons were examined. The result of the analysis shows that the word based classification system may be categorized into the two types: Dewey-free or Dewey-lite and its application methods are different case by case. As a result, the positive impacts and implied problems of the word based classification system for library use and library operation were examined. In addition, the new system's implications on the Korean libraries were also discussed.
  • 11.

    A Study on Creation and Development of Folksonomy Tags on LibraryThing

    Kim,Dong Suk | Yeon Kyoung Chung | 2010, 44(4) | pp.203~230 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzed the development and growth of folksonomy by examining tags associated with 40 bestsellers on LibraryThing.com in 6-month intervals. It was found that tag values do not decrease but grow in terms of quantity and quality. Accordingly, we examined the major significances of the tags and their potential utilization as an expression of subjects. Our findings were as follows. First, the motivations for tagging can be categorized into personal information for search purposes, self-fulfillment such as sense of achievement, display of emotion and sharing of one’s experience with others, or an altruistic objective that emphasizes sociality with a desire that one’s actions might provide social benefits. According to our analysis, 74.12% of tags had a social motivation. Second, the total number of tags and the frequency of usage increased with time. Third, the categories that showed a high increase in tag usage were dates of publication and reading, key words, main characters, and book reviews. Tags related to subjects had the highest ratio. Fourth, among Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), multiple genres, key words and main characters were assigned to books, and specific key words and other properties were added as time progressed. There was also a slight increase in the number of tags consistent with LCSH. Fifth, we found that key tags could serve as a compilation of terms that reflects the knowledge base of the corresponding era. Thus, folksonomy should be continuously monitored for its quantitative and qualitative development of the tags to make improvements on its formative disadvantages, and identify internal semantic significance, be actively utilized in conjunction with taxonomy as a flexible compilation of terms that incorporate the history of a specific era.
  • 12.

    Rethinking Theoretical and Practical Issues of Economic Valuation of Library Services

    Wonsik Shim | 2010, 44(4) | pp.231~247 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This research examines a number of theoretical and practical issues when measuring the economic value of library services. In particular, using two recent studies conducted in Korea as illustrations, the study shows how various measurement decisions affect the final outcomes in the economic valuation of library services and thus points to the need for a more reliable study design. Specific areas of measurement discussed include the following: scope of measurement, application of CVM(Contingent Valuation Method), time vs. monetary value measurement, dealing with outliers, allowing alternatives, and the use of estimation. ROI(Return on Investment) scores or benefit cost ratios vary significantly according to different measurement choices even in the same study. There is a need for collecting qualitative data that complements the quantitative data typically collected in economic valuation studies. The outcome of economic valuation of library services should be considered as one of many representations of library values. Practitioners and researchers should exercise caution in interpreting those results but be able to leverage them to better communicate the value of library services.
  • 13.

    A Study on the Development of Electronic Resource Management System in a University Library

    KIM YONG | 조수경 | 2010, 44(4) | pp.249~276 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    With the rapid growth and development of information technology and the Internet, the amount of information published in electronic formats such as video, audio, digitalized text, etc. and the number of users accessing information online to satisfy their information needs are growing at a tremendous rate. This study analyzes standardized components to construct ERMS and proposes a model of ERMS based on the result of the analysis. The main functions of ERMS in university libraries are: 1) ERMS can manage and control access information to various electronic resources, metadata, holdings, user resources. Also, ERMS can be compatible with an existing library system such as IR(Information Retrieval) system, linking system, or proxy system. 2) ERMS should completely be compatible with acquisition and cataloging systems for effective management and control of integrated information organization and library budget. 3) ERMS should systematically and effectively manage license information on electronic resources. 4) ERMS should provide ideal and effective environment for use and access control of electronic resources in a library and integrated tool to manage and control all of electronic resources. Additionally, this study points out the need to organize committee groups to establish standardized rules and collaborative management of electronic resources among university libraries like DLF ERMI and redesign organizations in a library and a librarian's job description.
  • 14.

    A Comparative Analysis on Copyright Limitations for Libraries in Major Countries

    Hee-Yoon Yoon | 2010, 44(4) | pp.277~301 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Since the England's Parliament revised the British copyright law and enacted the first copyright exception specifically for libraries (user or service) in 1956, copyright exceptions applicable to libraries have been an important part of world copyright laws through the last few decades. Copyright exceptions for libraries are a critical legal tool to preserve intellectual and cultural heritage, promote equitable access to knowledge and information to the public, and to support learning and research. Based on these reasons, this study analyzed and compared the current state of copyright structure and limitations or exceptions for library in six major countries(United States, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Japan, and Republic of Korea).
  • 15.

    A Study on the Development and Application of a Model for Evaluating the Comprehensive Library Advancement Plan(2009~2013)

    Sung-Jong Cha | 2010, 44(4) | pp.303~331 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    With the full execution of the Comprehensive Library Advancement Plan(2009~2013), related bodies and participants, including national administrative agencies and local government, are increasing and the policy environments are intricately being expanded as well. However, there has been insufficient research on the general aspects of library policies to analyze and evaluate the current circumstances. The objective of this study is to analyze both the problems and suggestions in the areas that need improvements implementing this comprehensive plan. Accordingly, we designed a formative model for evaluating the policy process relating to the comprehensive plan, and then modified and supplemented the developed plan based on the Delphi method utilized by library policy experts. We conducted an empirical evaluation of library policy officials who have established and implemented the comprehensive plan. We then used the evaluation results to assess the effects of the factors regarding the accomplishments reached each policy stage.
  • 16.

    An Analysis on Relations Between the Services of Public Libraries for Babies and Toddlers and Bookstart Program

    Sooyeon Kim | 2010, 44(4) | pp.333~352 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzed the services of libraries for babies and toddlers and the possibilities of service expansion through Bookstart program as a cooperative system for libraries. This study shows how users change their way of using libraries and their perceptions of the services of libraries for toddlers by implementing the questionnaire method and the analysis of library statistics. Results show that most of library users (98.8%) expressed the need for Bookstart program. Respondes also said that libraries, rather than other institutions, should be the place where the program is to be implemented. By analyzing the perceptions of library users, we also find that they think that the age of the first use of a library is more appropriate for toddlers than kindergarten-ages. We also found that library users who participated in a Bookstart program had a positive change in the way they used libraries. After participating in Bookstart programs, many changes occurred with respect to the perception of babies, reading habits of parents, and users’ perception of libraries. After introducing Bookstart program, one city library’s membership enrollment rates of babies and toddlers increased from 7.1% to 26.2%. But the rate for another city that did not participate in the program was shown at 4.3%. This study suggests that the introduction of Bookstart program would bring changes and expansions to the functions of libraries and the sometimes inflexible attitudes of library users. The study examined Bookstart program as a cooperative system for libraries by changing the perception of library users and activating the services of libraries for babies and toddlers.
  • 17.

    A Study on the Development of Digital Library Anxiety Scale

    박주범 | Dong Youl Jeong | 2010, 44(4) | pp.353~371 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Library anxiety has been recognized as one of the representative fields that concerns user's affectivity in library and information study. Considerable library users have been discovered to experience library anxiety according to researches. Although digital libraries are becoming more popular changing drastically from traditional libraries, few studies have addressed the measurement of digital library anxiety(DLA). The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a multidimensional digital library anxiety scale(DLAS) based on previous research in library anxiety and digital libraries. It will become possible to define the construct of DLAS, provide its underlying dimensionalities, and find out how much they explain the construct. Through the exploratory factor analysis, DLAS has been developed with 39 items representing seven distinct factors which were interpreted as affect, resources, know-how, security, language, technology, and task explaining 51.165% of DLA. Also, DLAS' characteristics about demographic variables and use pattern were found through the T-test and ANOVA analysis for each factor.
  • 18.

    Study on the Semantic Extension of the Concept of Metadata

    NamTaeWoo | seungmin lee | 2010, 44(4) | pp.373~393 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    In the current information environment around the library community, metadata is recognized as a sophisticated and powerful tool that can manage and represent information resources. However, with the discreet use of the concepts of metadata and metadata standard, there is no clear boundary that differentiates metadata standard from simple resource description and traditional bibliographic structure, leading to confusion as to what a metadata and metadata standard is. To consider these issues, this research discussed what metadata and metadata standards are based previous definitions of metadata. Based on those definitions, the fundamental concept of metadata is reestablished to be properly used in the library community.
  • 19.

    An Analysis of Multimedia Search Services Provided by Major Korean Search Portals

    Soyeon Park | 2010, 44(4) | pp.395~412 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to perform an evaluation of multimedia search services provided by major Korean search portals: Naver, Nate, Daum, Yahoo-Korea, Paran, and Google-Korea. These multimedia search services are evaluated in terms of the metadata of search results, search functionalities, searching methods, other functionalities, and display options. Every search portal offers image and video searching, whereas only Naver, Nate, and Daum offer music searching. Advanced searching methods and functions are mostly developed and supported in image and video searching rath than music searching. Naver, Nate, and Daum support various searching functions which search portals abroad have not developed. Google-Korea supports advanced searching functions. Search portals provide a limited number of metadata in search results. This study could contribute to the development and improvement of portal's multimedia search services.
  • 20.

    A Study on the Perceived Importance of Digital Information Resources in Public Libraries

    CHANG, DURK HYUN | 2010, 44(4) | pp.413~433 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to portray the current condition of digital reading rooms in public libraries in specific terms of information resource constituencies. With the growth in numbers of public libraries in Korea, emphasis was also put on digital information services using digital reading rooms in public libraries. However, it is also recognized that these digital reading rooms are merely traditional reading rooms with equipment. In this regard, the objective for the study was to identify and describe the types of electronic information resources in order to determine the rationale for the development of digital information resource management in public libraries. The focus was especially put on investigating the quality and the degree of perceived importance of electronic resources. Data for this case study was collected from four relatively big public libraries in three cities. The investigation was conducted by the document reviews and surveys and interviews with librarians and patrons. The study found that digital resource management should be put on a new stage, especially in terms of education and reliable information for the regional community. The study also added some suggestions for the future development and refinement of electronic resource management in public libraries.
  • 21.

    Research on Improvements of the Legal Deposit System for the Preservation of Online Electronic Book

    jang bo Seong | Young Joon Nam | 2010, 44(4) | pp.435~456 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This research compares and analyzes the legal deposit of national online electronic publishing and related laws that were recently amended in order to preserve the exponentially increasing number of electronic books(e-books). Based on the analysis, it also seeks ways to initiate a legal deposit system of e-books in South Korea. The research, therefore, defines the exact range and types of e-books. This research proposes three conditions to introduce the legal deposit system in order to preserve South Korean e-books. The first is to establish a clear definition and classification of e-books as data subject to legal deposit for preservation purposes. The second condition is to establish a legal system in order to deposit and collect network(online-exclusive) type e-books. The final condition is to reflect the opinion of publishers and to create security measures against any loss of the companies.
  • 22.

    A Study on User-oriented Evaluation of Book Collections under a Regional Library System

    박영애 | Jae Yun Lee | 2010, 44(4) | pp.457~477 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Currently, collections with public libraries are evaluated only on the basis of simple data, such as the use volume of collections with individual libraries, and interlibrary lending (ILL) results. To promote the ILL of regional libraries and raise the use of collections, however, the evaluation of collections should be expanded from individual libraries to regional libraries. This study aims to propose user-oriented methods for evaluating the library collections within a regional library system by using four kinds of data: collection, acquisition, circulation, and ILL application data. The results of this study show that the proposed method can reveal the positions of each library within a regional library system, and also the characteristics of a library's collections and users' needs more precisely.