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This paper explores personal names mentioned in the Bible which include divine elements (Yeho-, Yo-, -yah, -yahu, El-, -el). Comparing with the names known from the archaeological findings (seals, seal impressions, bullae, inscription etc.), it analyzes them to understand their general characteristics. In order to examine the change of biblical personal names with divine elements, all personal names in Torah, Deuteronomistic Books and Books of Ezra-Nehemiah are analyzed and the results are compared with 977 names known from archaeological finding in the Iron Age. It comes to conclude as follwing:
1) even though personal names with the general noun for god, Elohim element do not yield prominent characteristic changes, those with the proper noun, Yahweh element are few found in Torah and in Deuteronomistic Books, they become larger when it comes to late period. The fact that names with Yahweh element were widely used in post-exilic period negates the opinion of anachronic understanding of Torah that they reflects situations of the late periods. In the analysis of personal names in the Bible, Torah can be understood as the earlier phase in the process of development of names with divine element of Yahweh.
2) If we compare the results of analysis of characteristics and changes of biblical names of the Old Testament with those known from archaeological findings, it can be said that the Old Testament was described in the central role of the southern Judah.
3) The analysis of change of ratio of names with Yahweh elements and those with Elohim elements indicates that in Torah, names with Elohim elements outstandingly occupy more than those with Yahweh elements(28.5 times), in Deuteronomistic books, the ratio is conversed to (18.7%- names with Yahweh elements vs. 7.7%- names with Elohim elements) while in the book of Ezra-Nehemiah the latter is less than the former (3.8 times). To compare with names archaeologically known, it is said that the archaeological evidences of the Iron Age match not with names from Torah, nor those from the earlier books of Deuteronomistic History (Joshua-Judges-Samuel) but rather with names of the book of Kings and correspond with those of the book of Ezra-Nehemiah.
This thesis analyzes 2 Chronicles 34-35(Josiah text) and examines the metonymic and functions in the text. The metonomies illustrate the Chronicler`s historical theology that visions the holy community of all Israel, embracing Judah, northern Kingdom, the remnant of Israel through inclusive language.
The metonymy theory developed with the focus of linguistic research was examined, and the characteristics and hermeneutic meanings of metonymy expressions described by the Chronicler that 2 Chronicles 34-35 were focused on. The author of Chronicles rewrote the story of Josiah, a history of the past, in a metonymic way of the late Persian era, and presented a new ideology dialectically. The Chronicler emphasizes 'Temple', 'Levi', 'Jerusalem', and 'All Israel' through the repetition of metonymic expressions related to the body, place, and group. These metonymic expressions imply the context in the time of the chronicler, and the role of the Levites as mediator, specially emphasized has the hermeneutic effect of "democratization of the clergy".
In particular, the paragraph containing Hulda's message at the center of the Josiah text in Chronicles(2 Chr 34:22-28) is also a metonymic expression, the second district of Jerusalem and region from which she came from, indicates an area where “refugees” live. In addition, the participation of the people's descendants(2 Chr 35:5, 7, 13) in the Passover which means “people(Min-jung)” as a metonymic expression indicates that Josiah's reform is a reform that includes all classes. It presents that Josiah`s reform is a progressive and inclusive reform that includes. The historical narrative of the author of the chronicles contains the past, reality, and ideal at the time.
Sociological Analysis of “Those who were Driven out of the Land(#r<a"h'-!mi WaK.nI)”:
Centered on Job 30:1~8
Han-Geun Cho Ph.D
Professor, Department of Christianity
The Salvation Army Graduate University
This paper examines the meaning of “those who were driven out of the land” through sociological analysis in Job 30:1~8. They forfeited the land they had cultivated, suffering from famine and starvation. Moreover, conditions of their dwelling places such as pits describe their situation as subhuman, making the text more miserable to portray the reality. The verse 8 “those who were driven out of the land” defines as follows:
First, the extreme poverty of “those who were driven out of the land” was the result of the wicked’s greed who took the poor’s land. The text states that they were expelled from their society and “from the land(#r<a"h-!mi/min-ha'arez).” Therefore, the phrase “#r<a"h'-!mi WaK.nI(nikeu min-ha'arez)” can be said as an expression that well represents their socio-economic conditions.
Second, “those who were driven out of the land” were people who were deprived opportunities to reintegrate into the community. This means that the existing society has exclusive tendencies. This background also reflects the factors of the times that justified exclusivity by emphasizing pedigree roots.
Third, the text contains economic and social discrimination against special classes, suggesting that commandments and social norms which don’t represent the poor's right to live. Therefore, when “those who were driven out of the earth” tried to access to the society by hunger, people called them thieves and shouted them out. This means that the Hebrew code did not work at all to realize the social ethics. Therefore, the descriptions of “those who were driven out of the land” appearing in the text can be seen as a result of social discrimination.