The purpose of this article is to make clear the fact that the person(s) who received the Spirit of YHWH was(were) used as the new symbol of the presence of YHWH after the disappearance of the temple; and to achieve this purpose I observed the theological elements which enabled making the temple and the person(s) as the symbol of the presence of the YHWH, using historical-critical approach.
In the pre-temple period, the visible symbol of YHWH's presence was the ark. And in the period of monarchy, the symbol was the temple and YHWH was believed to always be in existence in the temple. The historical event that the Jerusalem temple was destructed and the monarchy fell down in 586 BC, means not merely the fall of the royal authority of Judah. That also means that the Israelite community could not find the presence of YHWH in the temple and that the presence of YHWH in the temple was replaced by the man or people who received the Spirit of YHWH.
The editor(s) of the Dtr. history and the latter prophetic books used the man or people who received the Spirit of YHWH as the new symbol of presence of YHWH when the temple, the old symbol of presence of Him, disappeared in history. The editor(s), as if he(or they) used the visible temple through the invisible Name of YHWH and the Glory of YHWH, used the visible man or people as the symbol of the presence of YHWH through the invisible Spirit of YHWH in the period the temple and monarchy existed no longer, looking forward the reconstruction of the temple.
The Name of YHWH and the Glory of YHWH were the theological expressions which enabled the temple become the symbol of the presence of YHWH in the thought of exilic and post-exilic period. The Spirit of YHWH was the theological expression to the new symbol of the presence of YHWH and it, together with the Name of YHWH and the Glory of YHWH, insured YHWH's being with Israel even in the time of exilic and post-exilic period.
In Dtr. history, the presence of the Spirit of YHWH manifested the function of selection, ratification and power of God and it was restricted to minimal individuals. But in latter prophetic books, it was promised to grant the Spirit of YHWH to all people and nations and its characteristics were changed to be static and everlasting.
The editor(s) of the Dtr. History and latter prophetic books used new forms, presence of the Spirit of YHWH and pouring of the Spirit of YHWH, in order to present judges, prophets or all people as the new symbol of the presence of YHWH. This new form is applied even to the charismatic leaders in the Book of Judges and to the prophets in the latter prophetic books. The traditional thought of anointing was replaced by the presence of the Spirit of YHWH or the pouring of it in the Books of Judges, Ezekiel, Isaiah, Joel, and etc. This shows the conversion of acknowledgement which seeks for the Spirit-received man or people as the new symbol of the presence of YHWH after the time of 586 B.C. when the temple was disappeared. This study, dealing with the Spirit of YHWH theo-epistemologically, beyond semantically, in the paradigm shift of the exilic and post-exilic period, could be presented as a model study on the Holy Spirit in the Old Testament.