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2009, Vol.15, No.3

  • 1.

    Das Menschverst ndnis in Ps.8

    이용호 | 2009, 15(3) | pp.10~28 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird untersucht, wie man in Psalm 8 den Platz des Mensch verstehen kann. Was ist in der gegenwärtigen Welt der Menschen? Durch Psalm 8 wird sich der Mensch als Gottes Geschöpfer gezeigt. Außerdem wird der Mensch als ein Wesen, das zwischen schwachen, sterblichen Geschöpfer und gottnahen Geschöpfer steht, untersucht. Für diese Gedanken wird sich zuerst die Gliederung, Form und Inhalt des Psalm 8 untersucht. Und dann wird die Frage nach dem Mensch inhaltlich dadurch begonnen, ob er wie Gott ist, oder schwacher als die anderen Geschöpfer in der Welt ist. Schließlich wird die Beeinflussung der Gen 1-3 auf Psalm 8 für den Platz des Menschen in der Welt untersucht. 1. Die Gliederung, Form und Inhalt des Psalm 8 ist unter diese Umständen zu beleuchten: 1) V. 1: Titel(ד󰕱󰕇󰗡 רוֹמ󰖅󰗬), 2) V. 2a. 10: Der Psalm beginnt und schließt sich mit einem staunenden Ausruf, V. 2a. 10. Diese Einführung ist zwar unüblich, aber in ihrer Form kaum einmalig.(Psalm 84; Jer 10: 6; Psalm 104: 26). 3) V. 3: Nach der Verherrlichung von Gottes Namen auf Erden und seiner Hoheit am Himmel vekündet V. 3 wieder Gottes Macht auf Erden. Doch fällt der Vers inhaltlich nicht nur aus dem Psalm heraus, sondern ist im ganzen Alten Testament einzigartig. 4) V. 4-5: Den Beleg bieten V. 4-5 für die im Kehrvers allgemein proklamierte die Herrlichkeit von Gottes Namen. Der Welt als Beispiel und Erweis göttlicher Macht steht der Mensch in seiner Macht und Ohnmacht gegenüber. V. 4 ist als antithetischer Vordersatz zu V. 5 zu ziehen, obgleich ein Anakoluth einen bestimmten Ertrag bringt. 5) V. 6-9: Wie sich der Akt des Gedankens von seinem bestimmten Hintergrund gelöst hat, um aussagen zu können, was ständig menschliches Sein betrifft, so proklamiert V. 6-9. die Königsherrschaft eines jeden und damit des Menschen schlechthin. Die Tendenz, spezielle Aussagen der Tradition in grundsätzliche umzu- wandeln und so im Besonderen das Allgemeine zu erkennen, tritt in Psalm 8 an zwei Stellen hervor: Gottes Gedanken richtet sich nicht mehr auf ein bestimmtes Einzelereignis, sondern auf das menschliche Dasein. 2. Psalm 8 zeigt eindeutig in zwei Plätzen das menschliche Sein: einerseits als schwache, sterbliche Geschöpfer in der Welt, andererseits als gottnahen Geschöpfer als Königsherrscher. Kann man durch beidens den Wesen des Menschens verstehen? Damit wird die Frage nach dem Menschen nicht durch eine Definition, sondern durch eine Situations- angabe beantwortet: der Mensch steht ständig zwischen der gottnahen Stellung und schwacheren Stellung in der Welt. Diese Stellung ist also eine Spezie des Menschens. Da belegt Gen 1-2(bes. 1: 27-28; 2: 7) diese Stellung.
  • 2.

    Form-Critical Analysis of Psalm 78

    Kim, Rae Yong | 2009, 15(3) | pp.29~48 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper investigates four elements such as structure, genre, setting, and intention of Psalm 78 by utilizing recent form criticism which begins with an analysis of structure on the final texts. For this I investigated its structure and language, words and syntax, and its content with an idea of recent form criticism which explores texts synchronically and diachronically. First, the structure of Psalm 78 is divided into three parts, introduc- tion(vv. 1-8), God's grace and sins of the ancestors of Ephraim(vv. 9-58), and conclusion(vv. 59-72). In particular, the final editor/writer repeats two opposed ideas such as God's grace and sins of the ancestors of Ephraim in vv. 9-58 to emphasize that God did not choose the tribe of Ephraim but he chose the tribe of Judah, Mount Zion, and his servant David. In addition, he seems to have inserted v. 9 into the place between verses 8 and 10. In particular, ם󰖹󰙝󰘰󰔟־י󰗽󰔶(the sons of Ephraim) in v. 9 plays an important role in indicating that those who rebelled against God in the wilderness after exodus are not all the Israelites but the ancestors of Ephraim. Second, Psalm 78 includes several genres such as wisdom, history, legend, hymn, and prophetic warning. Although the psalm have several genres, however, it begins with the form of wisdom poetry, and the speaker of the psalm says that his purpose is to give his instruction to his people (v. 1). Accordingly, the overarching genre of Psalm 78 is a wisdom poem, and the genres such as history, legend, hymn, prophetic warning belong to subordinate genres. Third, it is difficult to decide the setting of Psalm 78, because the psalm includes many ancient traditions such as the exodus tradition, the wilderness tradition, the Zion tradition, and the David tradition. Furthermore, the psalm does not mention any specific date and setting. Nevertheless, Psalm 78 gives us a clue for deciding its date and setting as showing that God chose the tribe of Judah, Mount Zion, and his servant David but he did not choose the tribe of Ephraim. The election of the tribe of Judah, Mount Zion, and David is a main idea of Psalm 78. Accordingly, this accentuation can be related to a very heightened feud between the Jerusalem community and the Samaritan community which began after the marriage of Manasseh to Sanballat's daughter. In sum, its final form is the product of 4th or 3rd century redaction. Fourth, in this context, it is highly likely that the final editor/writer wanted to emphasize that Jerusalem community is the only legitimate community. In sum, investigation of these four elements by utilizing recent form criticism gives us deeper understanding of Psalm 78. Furthermore, it may show us the importance of the analysis of content and structure on final text, in that their thorough analysis provides a different setting and intention.
  • 3.

    Interpretation and application of Ps 82

    하경택 | 2009, 15(3) | pp.49~66 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is, through the study on Psalm 82, to investigate how the Psalms of Ancient Israel are to be interpreted and appled by the modern reader or audience. A history of the interpreta- tion of Psalm 82 lets us know that the interpretations of the Psalm are very diverse and controversial. Particularly in the study on Psalm 82 the interpretation about ‘gods’(Elohim) is crucial for the understanding of the theme and message of the Psalm. There are three main approaches: understanding in the perspective of the history of religions, prophetical understanding as a social criticism and rabbinic understan- ding reflected in the New Testament (Gospel of John). First of all, the religio-historical approach shows us that Psalm 82 provides the criteria for God. Real God establishes the social justice through helping the poor and weak in the society. When the gods fail in their duties, they are deprived of the status and right as a god. In addition, Psalm 82 lets us know what position Israel's God is holding in the world. He is the supreme God who governs the creation world and all that belongs to it. Secondly, in the prophetical understanding the statements of God are read as a social criticism of the prophets. This criticism is aired at the judges or persons in authority who were abusing their power. It is based on laws regulating court procedure. The advocate of this interpretation is A. Deissler. He relates the theme and situation of Psalm 82 to Isa 3: 13ff. The prophetical understanding corresponds to the position of the translations that see Elohim as a judge (e.g. Ex 21: 6; 22: 6-7, 8, 27; 1 Sam 2: 25). Finally the rabbinic understanding leads us to apply the meaning of the Psalm to individuals. This hermeneutical tradition is reflected in the understan- ding of the New Testament. In chapter 10 of John the Jews are about to stone Jesus for blasphemy, because he claims himself God. In the answer of Jesus (John 10: 34) Elohim are explained as those who have received the word of God. They have divine power, but only when they are faithful to their duty and role their divine power is to be maintained and admitted by God. These approaches are not alternative but complementary. Through the investigation of the interpretation of Psalm 82 we can find out that the Old Testament integrates the heavenly and the earthly, and the social and the individual.
  • 4.

    The Structure and the role of Yahweh-King Psalms(Pss 93-100)

    이은애 | 2009, 15(3) | pp.67~86 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This paper will show that the Yahweh-King Psalms (Pss 93-100) are a coherent collection which was intentionally composed to emphasize the eternal kingship of Yahweh. The structure of the Yahweh-King Psalms reveals how the faith of the Psalter changed from despair in the exile period to the hope for the Yahweh's reign over all. Psalms 93-100 are studied in the context of Book IV and with attention to their role in the Psalter. The Psalms of Yahweh-King are contained in Book IV(Pss 90-106) of the Hebrew Psalter. Pss 93-100, placed in the center of Book IV(Pss 90-106) comprise a literary unit, because their topic is Yahweh as king of the universe, and the psalms are closely connected to each other in style and terminology. The emphasis on the kingship of Yahweh starts in Ps 93 comes to a head in Ps 100, which is intended to be the climax according to form 7+1 in the very deliberate structure of Pss 93-100. Ps 93 and Ps 100 make a pair that in which each is a preface and a conclusion in this collection of hymns. Ps 97, a Yahweh-King Psalm beginning with ‘Yahweh reigns’(JHWH malak), corresponds with Ps 99 and with Ps 93. Ps 96 and Ps 98, which precede and follow Ps 97 extended the sphere of God's reign to all peoples and all creation with the calling ‘praise with a new song.’ Ps 95 and Ps 99 are linked in praising God as the King who saved Israel. Ps 94, which is seen as a separated psalm in this hymns-collection, deals with 'Yahweh as a righteous king' and is well joined to them. This structure shows that the Yahweh-King psalms in Pss 93-100 of the Book IV are intended as a read-book (Lesebuch) for the people who had been exiled far from the promised land and temple, but looked to Yahweh as a king over all lands and nations for saving Israel and for reigning over all nations and peoples in righteousness and love. This psalms-section is an important turning point for the reader overcoming despair over the failure of the Davidic dynasty to the hope for the direct reign of Yahweh-King over this world.
  • 5.

    A Reconsideration of the Concept of Sin in Psalms 6, 102, and 143

    Keun Jo Ahn | 2009, 15(3) | pp.87~107 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores for the concept of sin in Psalms 6, 102, and 143. These psalms are among the seven ‘penitential psalms’ in the tradition of the Christian Church. Surprisingly, they do not express any explicit confession of sins or sense of contrition, while other psalms do include elements of penitence. Against the background of the theological scheme of ‘sin-punishment’ or ‘suffering-result of sin’ in the Old Testament, each psalm has shown that the relationship of God does matter rather than particular sins or sufferings. Psalmists cry out to the Lord in the desperate state of the eclipse of God. We do not know the reason of God's hiddenness from the psalmists. It would be the sin of the people. Yet, the essential problem of the three psalms is not related to sinful deeds of human being but indifferent departure of God. The three psalms commonly implore God to come back. God's return should be made because of God's covenantal love and righteousness. Only thing that the psalmists can do in their existential agony is to depend God's nature so that they may rebuild the covenantal relationship with God. This paper contributes to calling our attention to the personal relationship with God from the dogmatic emphasis of guiltlessness with regard to the concept of sin.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Principles and Particularities of the Translation of Vulgate on the Basis of the Rhetorical Analysis of Ps 4-5

    박철우 | 2009, 15(3) | pp.108~130 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The present article aims to find out the possibility of applying the particularities of Jerome's principles of the translation of Vulgate for the Korean Bible translation, and its usefulness for the Biblical exegesis. This task has been tried in my previous article(‘Particularities of the Translation of Vulgate Considered on the Basis of Rhetorical Analysis of Psalms 1-3,’ published in Journal of Biblical text Research, April 2009, Korea Bible Society). The present article is intended to corroborate the thesis of that article. I tried to achieve it by observing the literary particularities of Jerome's translation(Ps 4-5), comparing it with the texts from MT, Septuagint, PG(Psalterium Gallicanum), PH(Psalterium iuxta Hebraeos), and Nova Vulgata. Jerome tried to be faithful to the Hebrew text of the Psalms. He tried to represent not only the contents of the Hebrew text but also its literary particularities in his Latin translation. He attempted to express the literary excellency of the Hebrew Bible in his Latin Bible transla- tion. The particularities of his translation which we have detected are as follows: 1. He shows a very careful analysis of the literary context for choosing the most appropriate word for it(Ps 4: 2; 5: 2, 9, 11; cf. Ps 1: 3, 5; 2: 1, 2; 3: 2). 2. He tried to express the semantic nuance of Hebrew words (Ps 4: 4; 5: 3, 5, 6, 9, 13; cf. Ps 1: 1, 2; 2: 3, 10, 12). 3. He used effectively Latin complex words for his translation (Ps 4: 2; 5: 11; cf. 2: 2, 5; 3: 2). 4. He tried to represent not only the structural particularities of Hebrew poetry (Ps 5: 2, 7), but also the phonetic ones (Ps 4: 3; 5: 5; cf. Ps 1: 5, 6; 2: 2). 5. He accepted the extant expressions whenever he thought them appropriate for their contexts. But he tried to give freshness to his translation by introducing new expressions, when he thought them appropriate (Ps 4: 7, 9; 5: 5, 11). Such particularities of his translation remind us their importance for new Bible translations, and give us useful insights not only for the Bible translation but for Biblical exegesis.
  • 7.

    Requirement of Cult Reform in Deuteronomy and Kings' Reform

    Eunwoo Lee | 2009, 15(3) | pp.132~150 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to compare the descriptions of cult reform in Dtn 7: 5; 12: 3 and them in Exodus, Judges, Kings, and Chronicles, to examine the feature of each description, and to investigate if they are deuteronomistic or not. For this purpose, this author will compare and analyse parallel texts requiring the destruction of foreign cultic materials. Therefore, the main method of this study is to compare and analyse the vocabularies in these texts. The main objects of this study are nouns related with undesirable cultic entities and verbs related with the demolition of them. The texts of the destruction of cultic installations in Kings have verbal correspondences with the counterparts in Deuteronomy. However, the fact that similar expressions appear in Exodus, Judges, and Chronicles, makes this study more complicated. Some scholars try to link them in Exodus with Deuteronomist, but it is not easy to decide the order of similar texts in Exodus and Deuteronomy. The explanation on the texts of cultic reform in Chronicles is not so simple as well. It is too simple to think that Chronicles was influenced by Deuteronomist(s), because these expressions and vocabularies are much more related with the former. In addition, the relationship between the parallel texts of destruction of cultic entities in Kings and Chronicles seems to be much closer than that between Deuteronomy and Chronicles. It is also problematic to put Gideon's cultic reform story into the context of Deuteronomist. The comparative study of the expressions and vocabu- lary in these texts seems to make it irrelevant to ascribe these texts to the Deuteronomist. Through this study, we will understand the texts on the reform of cult better and closer. Furthermore, we can grasp one of the weak points of those scholars who still support the so-called Deuteronomstic theory.
  • 8.

    Enclitic Mem in Archaic Biblical Poetry

    Seung-Il Kang | 2009, 15(3) | pp.151~164 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The enclitic mem is well attested in some Semitic languages such as Ugaritic, Akkadian, Ugaritic Akkadian, and classical Ethiopic. Its existence in biblical Hebrew, however, has not been recognized until fairly recently because it became confused by the Masoretes with other morphemes with mem, e.g. the masculine plural suffix , the pronomi- nal suffix and the preposition. This essay seeks to identify some cases of enclitic mems in archaic biblical poetry. It is, therefore, by no means a comprehensive research on the enclitic mem throughout the Bible. The reason why this specific group of texts is chosen is because these poems are one of the oldest texts in the Old Testament, and thus, they usually preserve some archaic features of the Iron Age Hebrew. This study shows that the enclitic mem did indeed exist in biblical Hebrew and may have functioned as a focusing morpheme to emphasize or to bring attention to the word to which it is attached. Meanwhile, it is very difficult to prove its metrical function on account of the fact that it is not clear whether the enclitic mem could always account for one syllable by itself. However, in light of the prevalence in biblical poetry of וֹמ, וֹמ, and the prepositional forms with the enclitic mem, the Hebrew poets in all probability took into account of metrical factors when using the enclitic mem in their literary works. I hope this essay will set the stage for further in-depth analyses of the enclitic particle throughout the Old Testament that would bring to light such a hitherto little known feature of biblical Hebrew as the enclitic mem. Further studies would also investigate a possibility that the enclitic particle could be used in poetry in place of other emphatic devices in Hebrew such as the infinitive absolute or inversion of the word order.