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2010, Vol.16, No.4

  • 1.

    Cultic and Ethical Holiness in Leviticus

    Roh, Se Young | 2010, 16(4) | pp.10~32 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This article is to discuss about the relationship between the cultic holiness and the ethical holiness in Leviticus. No one denies that there is the cultic holiness in Leviticus. What we want to solve here is whether holiness in Leviticus is ethical or not. Mary Douglas argued that the ultimate purpose of holiness is ethical and holiness is the symbolic vehicle for ethical values. By assuming that our modern ethical notions are apt to be highly individually responsible, however, Antony Cothey argues that holiness in Leviticus is not ethical, because holiness is obtained not by human's endeavor or responsi- bility but by God's grace. Even the cultic solution is not the way to holiness, but the way to place Israel in the covenantal relationship. In order to prove his thesis, Cothey discusses two concepts of sins and uncleanness in Lev 4-5. Such sins and uncleanness are inadvertent, on the one hand, and contagious, on the other hand. These concepts show that sins are not related to the modern ethical meaning. Accordingly, holiness in Leviticus is not distinguished ethical requirements from cultic ones, but presents them jointly while ignoring many ethical categories that we usually regard as essential. Although doing one of God's commandments told not to do in Lev 4-5 may be an inadvertent sin, however, Cothey fails to see that it causes ethical problems in the community. Sins, such as taking another's property by deceit, extortion and lie, are ethical sins. False witness and careless oath in 5:1 and 4 are definitely ethical crimes which are breaking the wellbeing and trust within community. According to 5: 1 and 5: 5-6, the sinner who confesses his/her own sin, has to bear the sin (or be subject to punishment) by bringing 'asham and hattath offering to Yahweh. As we know, personal sins and/or uncleanness contaminate person and sanctuary. Due to such contami- nation, God may be absence in sanctuary, abandon and finally destroy the community. Accordingly, individual and community have to be purified and forgiven by God through the cultic activities. In this sense, the contagiousness of sin and uncleanness does not weaken individual responsibility, but rather emphasizes on it. The other cases which emphasize on personal responsibility are sins that commit Sabbath and intentional sin. Those who commit these sins have to be cut off from the community or put to death. And anyone, who contaminates the community because of disease such as leprosy, has to dwell outside the camp until he/she has been cured. These examples are important cases which bear individual responsibility in order to maintain the holiness of the community. As Cothey pointed out, holiness is not earned by human endeavor, but given by God's grace. This cultic system given by God makes Israel maintain and restore the covenantal relationship to God. We, however, remember that the cultic system given by God is not limited in restoring /maintaining the covenantal relationship, but extends to the presence of God in the community. In this sense, holiness in Leviticus is basically begun by the cultic system and finally accomplished by God's presence. At the same time, the Holiness Code shows that human has to obey God's commandments which are related to ethics (20:8). Leviticus includes not only the cultic holiness by God's grace, but also the ethical holiness by obeying God's commandments.
  • 2.

    The Features and Roles of both Ezra 9-10 and Nehemiah 13

    Kim, Rae Yong | 2010, 16(4) | pp.33~53 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    This paper investigates roles of Deuteronomic laws in both Ezra 9-10 and Nehemiah 13, which play a role as a conclusion of the books. For this, I analyzed their structures, languages, and syntax and then compared the results of the analysis to each other. They are as follows:First, there are some similarities between Ezra 9-10 and Nehemiah 13. They all begin with a law related to mixed marriages(Ezra 9: 1-2; Nehemiah 13: 1-2), which plays a role as a base for both Ezra's reforms and Nehemiah's reforms and legalizes their reforms. In particular, laws in both Ezra 9: 1-2 and Nehemiah 13: 1-2 are based on Deuteronomy 7: 3 and 23: 3-6. In this view, their reforms are thoroughly based on the laws in the book of Deuteronomy. Second, both Ezra 9-10 and Nehemiah 13 have their own specific characteristics. According to Ezra 9-10, Ezra did his reforms very passively at first, but Shecaniah's earnest request made him active. In particular, the law which appears in Ezra 9: 1-2 is repeated in the Ezra's prayer, so it becomes a strong basis for Ezra's reforms. His reforms are completed by the help of the Jerusalem community and a successful result of his reforms is presented in a list in Ezra 10: 18-44. Accordingly, Ezra 9-10 plays a role as a conclusion that describes how Ezra's reforms have been done and completed. Nehemiah's reforms appear heavily in Nehemiah 13, which includes Nehemiah's five reforms, three of which are related to Amon and Moab. Accordingly, his reforms are concentrated on the two peoples. In particular, Nehemiah 13 is placed after Nehemiah 12, which mentions the dedication of rebuilt walls of Jerusalem, and mentions that on the basis of the law in Nehemiah 13: 1-2. Nehemiah solved the problems of Tobiah and Sanballat, who were enemies obstructing Nehemiah's rebuilding. Accordingly, Nehemiah 13 plays a role as a conclusion emphasizing that Nehemiah's reforms were perfectly completed. In sum, both Ezra 9-10 and Nehemiah 13 show how the author describes the conclusions of both the book of Ezra and the book of Nehemiah. Therefore, the study on these conclusions is very important because this study shows the method of historiography of the book of Ezra and the book of Nehemiah.
  • 3.

    The Meaning of the Chronicler's Genealogy in the Jewish Community for the postexilic period

    So Hyeong-Geun | 2010, 16(4) | pp.54~70 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Genealogies in ancient societies were not fixed material, but fluid material that could be changed according to the social environment and the needs of the times. It is clear that genealogy in 1 Chr 1-9(= "genealogische Vorhalle") also reflects the chronicler's time. The Prophet Samuel, son of Elkanah was from the tribe of Ephraim in 1 Sam 1: 1, but according to 1 Chr 6: 27-28 he was from the tribe of Levi. This problem is resulted from the needs of the time by the chronicler. In the time of chronicler the only membership of the tribe of Levi could play a role as a priest (Esra 2: 62-63). Therefore it was said that the genealogy of the family of Samuel was modified. In 1 Chr 1-9 there are materials of religious(1 Chr 6), political(1 Chr 3), and military(1 Chr 5; 7: 1-5, 6-10, 30-40) purposes and etc. For example, the genealogy of the religious sphere in 1 Chr 6 concerns legitimacay of the successor to an office(priest). The genealogies of 1 Chr 1-9 are complicated by various materials. Consequently the chronicler copied his source material as copier, edited his source material as editor, summarized his source material as summarizer, and interpreted his source material as interpretor. The purpose of the genealogies in 1 Chr 1-9 is manifest in the theme of legitimacy and continuity as revealed in the thought of priesthood and theocracy. The description of David-Solomon in Chronicles was idealized, since David is described as temple-preparator and Solomon as temple-builder. The image of David-Solomon as ideal kings is associated with the idea of Jerusalem Temple, which was the most important existence in the time of chronicles. In addition the Aaronite priesthood is centered in the genealogy of 1 Chr 1-9. The genealogies of 1 Chr 1-9 are intended to speak of Israel in the World (by the world genealogy in 1 Chr 1), Jerusalem in Israel (by the expectation of the establishment of Davidic dynasty in the post-exilic period) and the temple in Jerusalem (the place of integration and compromise between the priests and levites).
  • 4.

    Davidic Kingship in Psalm 144 and Its Theological Implications

    Hee Suk Kim | 2010, 16(4) | pp.71~92 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This essay attempts to demonstrate that Psalm 144 pictures the Davidic kingship as subordinate to YHWH's kingship. For this purpose, it employs a compositional approach to the Psalter initiated by G. H. Wilson. The main focus of the essay lies in the examination of the intertextual relationships between Psalm 144 of Book V of the Psalter and Psalms 8 and 18 of Book I. First, Psalm 144 borrows an image of Davidic kingship of Psalm 18 which represents YHWH's kingship, yet transforms it into an image of a normal person who becomes subordinated to YHWH's kingship. In Psalm 18, David is described as a warrior that mirrors YHWH the Divine warrior, which well explains David's ability to make the nations submit to him. In Psalm 144, though David is pictured as a warrior, the connection between him and the Divine Warrior is not present, which accordingly allows for depicting David as being afflicted by the nations. Psalm 144 also borrows a question in Psalm 8 that asks about the humanity's role in creation, yet it purposefully twists Psalm 8's answer to the question into another direction. Contrary to Psalm 8's declaration of humanity's dominion over the created world, Psalm 144 expresses the meaninglessness of life. Accordingly, it seems that Psalm 144 interconnects the previous points in order to re-evaluate the theological importance of Davidic kingship. In Book I, Davidic kingship is elevated into the representation of YHWH's kingship. In Book III, Davidic covenant is seriously questioned as if it had become a failed one. Davidic kingship is seen as having failed, since it has been regarded as an essential element of the Davidic covenant. This connectedness of Dadivic kingship and Davidic covenant is understood from a totally different perspective in Book V, which attempts to provide expectations for the restoration of Davidic covenant not with the restoration of Davidic kingship per se but with the subordination of it to YHWH's kingship. As a conclusion to the Psalter, Book V postulates that the restoration of Davidic covenant should be done in a way of democratizing the covenant participants, all those who fear YHWH by obeying to the Torah, not of re-establishing the royal position of Davidic descendants.
  • 5.

    Suggestions for Improving the Translation of the Song of Songs in the New Korean Revised Version

    강승일 | 2010, 16(4) | pp.93~113 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The Hebrew text of the Song of Songs is in a very good condition presenting no serious text critical issues. However, the book contains some fifty hapax legomena along with very difficult words rarely attested in other books of the Hebrew Bible. In addition, the author of the book uses highly sophisticated poetic devices which can hardly be rendered into another language. Therefore, it would be a daunting task for any translator to render such a book as the Canticles into Korean. While working on a commentary on the Song of Songs, the present author has found that many verses in the translation of the book of the New Korean Revised Version are in need of emendation. Some verses in the current translation fail to reflect the original Hebrew's poetic styles or deliver the intended meaning of the original text. Other verses are to be revised for a better reading on text critical grounds. This study lists these problematic verses with the author's own translation and provides detailed explanations for such emendation. Admittedly, the New Korean Revised Version largely focused on updating old vocabularies in the original Korean Revised Version, thus failing to reflect many of the discoveries and development of recent biblical scholarship. Therefore, time is ripe to discuss the issue of revising or improving the New Korean Revised Version. It is hoped that this short essay will make contributions to this undertaking and that further studies will examine the translation issues of the individual books of the New Korean Revised Version.
  • 6.

    Zur Problematik der Mitgliedschaft der neuen Juden-Kultgemeinde in der nachexilsichen Zeit

    박경철 | 2010, 16(4) | pp.114~136 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Der Ziel dieser Arbeit will eine neue Diskussion ber die bisherigen Untersuchungen der Problematik der Mitgliedschaft der neuen Juden-Kult- gemeinde in der nachexilsichen Zeit einf hren. In dieser Zeit waren die Hauptaufgaben der Wiederaufbau des Tempels und die Wiederherstellung des Kultus. Es bestand die wichtigste Aufgabe vor allem im Aufbau der neuen Kultgemeinde und in der Kl rung dessen, wer ihr angeh ren darf. Fast alle Ausleger beobachten die Klage der Fremden und Eunuchen in Jes 56. Damit erkl ren sie die Situation der Gemeinde in der nachexilischen Zeit. In den im folgenden zu behandelnden nachexilischen Texten(Ez 44; Esr 9: 1-4; Neh 13: 1-3 und Dtn 23), die manche Ausleger auf Jes 56: 3ff. beziehen, findet sich zwar deutlich die Problematik der Teilnahme am Kult bzw. der Kultgemeinde f r Ausl nder, der Mischheirat" bzw. des Zusammenlebens mit ihnen. Jedoch zeigt diese Arbeit, da die oben genannten Texte Ez 44, Esr-Neh und Dtn 23 zwar die Situation mit der Problematik der Fremden in der nachexilischen Gemeinde zeigen, aber Jes 56: 3ff. weder mit Ez 44 noch mit der Ausscheidungspolitik von Esra und Nehemia noch mit dem Gemeindegesetz von Dtn 23: 2-9 im Widerspruch steht, sondern eine andere Vision einer neuen Kultgemeinde in der nachexilischen eschatologischen Heilszeit hat. Zusammenfassend zeigt die Problematik der Klagen bzw. Selbstsorgen der Fremden und Eunuchen und der Zusagen Jhwhs an sie in Jes 56, da zwar die Fremden selbst sich um ihren Ausschlu vom Volk Israel sorgen, weil sie um Jhwhs Erw hlungsglaube seines Volkes Israel sowie um die damit verbundene Tradition wissen. Jedoch entgegen ihrer Sorge ergeht die Zusage Jhwhs an sie im Zusammenhang seiner Erw hlung des Volkes Israel. Dabei wird die Gerechtigkeit zum Heil f r die V lker betont. Ihre Zugeh rigkeit zur eschatologischen Gotteskultgemeinde wird f r die Fremden und Eunuchen nun allein dadurch bedingt, da sie den Sabbat bewahren und am Bund Jhwhs festhalten. Dies ist ein neues Verst ndnis vom Gottesvolk bzw. von der neuen Gottesgemeinde, genauer gesagt, von der neuen Gottesknechtsgemeinde im ganzen Jesajabuch. Die eschatologische Heilsansage im ganzen Jesajabuch f r diese neue Gemeinde gilt nicht nur f r Israeliten, sondern auch f r die V lker. Davon ist am Anfang(Jes 2: 2-5) und am Ende(Jes 66: 22-23) des ganzen Jesajabuches die Rede. Genau diese Vision findet sich auch in Jes 56: 8. Der Text Jes 56 zeigt, da die Problematik nicht mehr darin liegt, aus welchem Stamm jemand kommt, also ob er Israelit ist oder nicht, oder ob jemand keine leiblichen Nachkommen hat, also ob er fortpflanzungsf hig ist oder nicht, sondern vielmehr darin, ob jemand die Gerechtigkeit bt, den Sabbat h lt und am Gottesbund festh lt. F r dieses wichtige neue Verst ndnis der eschatologischen Heilszeit erw hnt Jes 56 besondere Gruppen, die Fremden und Eunuchen, also diejenigen, die in der neuen eschatologischen Kultgemeinde Jhwhs vorstellbar sind. Es geht in Jes 56 um Gerechtigkeit, Sabbat und Bund als die Bedingungen f r die Zulassung zum Jhwhkult bzw. zur Kultgemeinde. Diese Arbeit will einen wissenschaftlichen Beitrag zur Disskussion um die neue Situation in bezug auf die Juden-Kultgemeinde in der nachexilsichen Zeit.
  • 7.

    Isaiah 10:34 and the Jewish Messianism in the Great Revolt

    junghwa Choi | 2010, 16(4) | pp.138~156 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims at reconstructing Jewish messianic expectation during the Great Revolt(AD 66-70). Reconstructing Jewish messianic expectation during the Great Revolt is not an easy task because Josephus remains silent on anything messianic. Thus, instead of taking passages directly from Josephus, an alternative approach will be taken by focusing on the socio-political behaviour of the Jews at the eve of the destruction of the Second Temple(B.J. 6. 285): when thousands of Jews were waiting for divine intervention, a zealot prophet delivered an oracle that God wanted the Jews to go up to the Temple and to wait for the "signs of deliverance." The paper attempts to demonstrate that the socio-political behaviour in B.J. 6. 285 was caused by messianic expectation, and also that, at the centre of the messianic expectation, there might have been Isaiah 10: 34 as a scriptural basis. It is also highly likely that there existed two different interpretation of Isaiah 10: 34 available during and after the Great Revolt. On the one hand, the participants of the Great Revolt might have interpreted Isaiah 10:34 as a prophecy for the Messiah coming to destroy the Romans, while others, as appears in Josephus, Tacitus, Suetonius, and rabbinic literature, interpreted the same verse as applied to Vespasian and Titus. The messianic expectation in the Great Revolt, in general, seems to have been varied and individual during the most part of the Great Revolt. Several leaders came up along with their followers possibly with some sort of messianic expectation. Therefore, there was no reason for the early Christians not to take part in the revolt. At the end of the revolt, upon impending fall of the Jerusalem Temple, two groups of zealots stopped fighting each other, and a collective hope for miraculous divine salvation became powerful amongst the Jews possibly right after the proclamation of the zealot prophet as testified in B.J. 6. 285. The messianic hope, as mentioned above, was based on the interpretation of Isaiah 10: 34.
  • 8.

    Religion of the Laws of Hammurabi

    Jong-Keun Lee | 2010, 16(4) | pp.157~187 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This paper deals with religion of the Laws of Hammurabi, exploring religious motifs of laws with other Ancient Near Eastern laws. The Laws of Hammurabi were composed by King Hammurabi during his last years of reign, which are royal apologia for his rule. On the top of the stele, Shamash, the sun-god, god of justice is seated on his throne, while Hammurabi is standing before him. Shamash is giving laws to him which expresses divine character of the laws. The lengthy prologue and the epilogue show the divinely approved functions of the king as the protector, and shepherd of the people, upholding justice and peace. The prologue deals with divine calling by gods at divine council of gods. Many gods, temples and city-states are listed both in the prologue and the epilogue, and royal beneficiary works are emphasized too. Hammurabi lists about 60 curses by the names of gods and entreats later kings to keep the law and not to demolish statutes. The Laws stipulate both swear and divine water ordeal for many cases where evidences are not enough to judge. Oath before god was used in cases of property rights, slaves, distribution of income, damages during business by thieves, and issues of deposit at a depot. Oath was done at the temple, or in front of divine images, and was accepted trustworthy. Divine water ordeal was applied to witchcraft, innkeeper's behavior, suspicion of adultery, and sexual abuse by father-in-law. River was regarded as divine to judge in settling the issues. The member who was thrown into the river, and floated was regarded as innocent. The laws of Hammurabi are based on religion, and both religion and law are from divine will. Both the prologue and the epilogue of the Laws are rooted in religion, and all clauses of oath and divine river ordeal show dependance on divine will, which express religion of the Laws.
  • 9.

    KOTS goes to 'Erets Israel'

    Yoo,YoonJong | 2010, 16(4) | pp.187~222 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This essay purposes to describe KOTS's visit to 'Eretz Israel' in celebration for jubilee year anniversary with historical and archaeological explanations. The essay is arrayed in chronological order which we visited. Twenty eight members joined from June 17 to June 25, 2010. First, I would like to classify places where we visited according to the following criteria, though some places are ambiguous to classify: 1) The ancient Tel or ruins: Archaeological Garden and City of David in Jerusalem, Jericho, Qumran, Masada, Aphek, Meggido, Beth Shan, Avdat, Gezer, Azekah, Lachish, Tel Arad, Beersheba, Tel Dan, Hasor, Bethsaida, Capernaum, 2) Historical sites: Dung Gate, Damascus Gate, Tomb of Rachel, Via Dolorosa, Bethany, Mt. Olives, Western Wall, Western Wall Tunnel, Temple Mount, Siloam Tunnel, Akeldama, Kidron valley, Ein Kerem, Tabga, Hebron (Machpelah), Caesarea, 3) Natural Scenic Area: Dead Sea, Sea of Galilee, Yam Ashdod, Engedi, Wadi Qelt, Mt. Carmel, Mt. Tabor, Golan Heights, Banias, Dead Sea, Jordan River, Mitzpe Ramon, Timna National Park, 4) Museum or institution: Bible Land Museum, Israel Museum, Bible Museum, Yad wa Shem, Tzir Yehuda, Bengurion University. Second, I like to classify places where we visited according to geography of Israel: 1) Judaean & Ephraim Mountain: Jerusalem, Bethany, Jericho, Hebron, Qumran, Dead Sea, Masada, Beth Shan, Ein Kerem, 2) Negev Area: Beersheba, Avdat, Arad, Timnah National Park, 3) Shepelah: Gezer, Azekah, Beth Semesh, Lachish, 4) Galilee & North: Hasor, Dan, Capernaum, Golan Heights, 5) Central Hill area: Meggido, Mt. Carmel, Jezreel, 5) Sea: Yam Ashdod, Caesarea. Joppa. To an Old Testament scholar, Eretz Israel is the most important subject to study. It was a great chance to study Eretz Israel systematically in person. During seven days, we have visited more than sixty places in all over the Israel. We moved here and there like military training. It was tough, but nobody complained. Eretz Israel is soil from which Judaism, Christianity, and Islam came from. However, unfortunately, because of security problem, we cannot visit many places in West Bank and Gaza. It is quite irony. It provides the reason why we have to pray for the peace of the world. In sum, it is quite certain that the visit was illuminating, challenging, and enhancing for KOTS members' understanding to the Old Testament.