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2011, Vol.17, No.3

  • 1.

    ‘Idea of Impartial Society’ Reflected in the Wisdom Theology of Proverbs

    Han, Dong-Gu | 2011, 17(3) | pp.12~33 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    With social attention to make Korean society more just and impartial, related academic discussions have been also heated up. Recently, two books concerning ‘justice’ have been published: John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice (2003) and Michael J. Sandel's Justice (2010). One of them, A Theory of Justice by Rawls, brings up ‘a theory of justice as impartiality.’Ancient Israelite society came to be an empire, by David and Solomon. It was consist of various regions and nations and they were in harmony. They needed social systems in which rational economic justice works so that the members of the society may coexist in peace. The aim of this study is to analyze the central part of the book of Proverbs (10: 1 - 22: 16) and see how economic justice and impartiality were sought. The studies of the book of Proverbs have had so far difficulty to find a meaning of verses that seem to be arranged randomly without any connection to each other. So, this study proposes a new method of analyzing them. Most of all, I categorize all verses in the book according to meanings. After that, I subdivide them by themes, and then make three stages of development in their progress of thoughts; (1) Early verses expressing simple phenomena, (2) Developed verses with value assessments, and (3) Developed verses with religious motivation. Early verses expressing simple phenomena bear ‘fortune earning principles’ (=more effort earns more fortune). Under this supposition, they highly appreciate human efforts. These early optimistic economic view was based on the premise that most of the readers of the Proverbs have their own agricultural property. The theologians of the wisdom literature founded their principles of unity of the empire on causationism. In this thought, every thing was managed by rationality. To enhance the rationality, external logic, i.e., assessment with value, was expressed in the verses. These external logic was reinforced by religious motivations.
  • 2.

    Two Faces of ‘Fair Society’ in the OT Law Code

    우택주 | 2011, 17(3) | pp.34~53 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In order to theologically appreciate the “Fair Society,” a political catchword recently raised by the Government, this study probes two faces of the Old Testament law codes in their socio-political background, especially on the laws of debt easement and the liberation of the debt slaves. This study assumes that the Old Testament is (1) state literature, (2) a minority report, and (3) ideological writings by the interested parties, which are all politically interwoven with each other. As a result, such laws as the debt easement and the liberation of debt slaves appeared in the Deuteronomic Code, the Covenant Code, and the Holiness Code were designed not only to propagandize the good image of the rulers and ruling parties towards the majority of the helpless people but also to weaken the power of the rival parties. Josiah, king of Judah in the Deuteronomic Code, Jeroboam I, king of Israel in the Covenant Code, the returning priest groups in the Holiness Code seem to have intended to do so. However, the social reality effected by those laws appeared to be hardly improved because of the corruption and depravity of the judicial system of those societies, as witnessed by the prophets and the long history up to the days of Jesus. Thus the law codes or any political catchwords for “Fair Society” could not improve the unfairness of the societies. This is the two faces of the law codes expressing the fair society. The main cause creating such unfair society were due to the covetousness of the few ruling elites no other than the helpless majority. In a sense, one can conclude, the Old Testament law codes as the normative literature of Christianity instruct us, the leader of the faith community and the intellectual groups of our society no less than the other power groups, to give up the various ways of life to extend our own power, wealth and privilege.
  • 3.

    A Study on a Fair Society Presented in the Old Testament

    배희숙 | 2011, 17(3) | pp.54~82 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    On Liberation Day last year was issued a manifesto for ‘a fair society’ as a national vision by the government. In the circumstances, the purpose of this study is to present a view of ‘a fair society’ according to the Old Testament. For this purpose, the author gives attention to the vocabularies קꕋꙀ and הꙌꕇꙃ in the Old Testament in relation with the concept 'justice'. Therefore it is by no means a comprehensive research on the historical meaning of the words, but on the important and typical examples of usages which gives a view of the spectrum of meaning of ‘justice’. קꕋꙀ and הꙌꕇꙃ are used in references to God, kings and people. The analysis of their usages comes to an understanding that 'justice' does not mean an equal distribution in the society but takes aim at the solidarity of the social members in every aspect. In addition to the definition, this study puts forward the historical background of Israel in 8th and 7th century B.C.E. when קꕋꙀ and הꙌꕇꙃ were particularly demanded. Israel strived for building a fair society not only through the new law for the marginal group but also the theologization(‘Theologisierung des Rechts’) which was designed for the integrity of the regulations following the will of God. This last point provides biblical scholars with a possibility to take part in establishing a fair society.
  • 4.

    A Comparison between Mencius’ jenyi(仁義) and mišpāt uşedeq in the Hebrew Bible

    Myung Soo Suh | 2011, 17(3) | pp.83~99 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Confucius and Mencius’ influences have been great in the sphere of Confucian cultures. It is generally said that Confucian and Mencius' thought can be respectively integrated into jen(仁)and jenyi(仁義). Confucian jen reflects an existential aspect to reach the noble spirit and internal supremacy. Mencius added yi(義) which reflects a practical aspect to Confucian jen. Based on Confucian jen Mencius put grave emphasis on yi, which provides the principle of social activity. These jen and yi can be respectively compared with <ḥesed> and <mišpāṭ uṣedeq>. Just as yi is based on jen, <mišpāṭ uṣedeq> is based on <ḥesed>. However, in spite of the similarity between jen and <ḥesed>, jenyi and <mišpāṭ uṣedeq>, it must not be ignored that there is difference between them. That is, on the other hand two masters' thought presupposes that human nature is good, <ḥesed> and <mišpāṭ uṣedeq> presuppose relative goodness between Yahweh and Israel. Thus it is expectant that an effort for integrity of hermeneutic horizon and structural recognition may offer a wide and deep field of meaning.
  • 5.

    A Case Study in Search for a Methodology of Old Testament Ethics: Capital Punishment

    김창대 | 2011, 17(3) | pp.102~135 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study has revolved around the task of searching for a methodology which culls out today's ethical norms from the Old Testament statements and events. For this, we have attempted a review of Old Testament ethics literature. We are led to the conclusion that study on Old Testament ethics has been conducted in the two-fold directions: deontological and teleological approaches. These two approaches have a common factor that justice and righteousness as the character of God play a key role. On the basis of these observations, this study has explored the meaning of justice and righteousness and has paid attention to their function in bringing the kingdom of God into fulfillment. The justice and righteousness are not only a principle of God's creation of the world, but also a principle of God's redemption in history, upon which human ethical actions should be modeled. In this light, the principle of justice and righteousness is suggested to be the chief basis of Old Testament ethics. At this point, a question rises: How can we make a consistent methodology for Old Testament ethics on that basis. In an effort to replying to this question, this study has focused on the cases of capital punishment for murder in the Old Testament. In doing so, this study has come up with the finding that the OT law of capital punishment has its general principle: a human is created in the image of God. This general principle, however, has been applied in several paradigms according to various times. This does not mean that those paradigms were at odds with one another. Each of those paradigms has occurred as a result of applying the general principle to specific times in order to fulfill the kingdom of God. In conclusion, this study proposes a methodology with which Old Testament ethics should be studied regarding every ethical issue: (1) First, to find out a general principle relating to each ethical issue upon the basis of justice and righteousness, (2) to pay attention to paradigms in which the general principle has been substantiated in various times and genres in the Old Testament, and then (3) to elicit a new paradigm consistent with the general principle in a way that fulfills the kingdom of God for today's situations.
  • 6.

    Arbeit und Herrschaft in der biblischen Urgeschichte(Genesis 1-11)

    Youn Hyung | 2011, 17(3) | pp.136~157 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Wie lässt sich das Verhältnis Gottes zur Welt und zum Menschen beschreiben? Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist es, durch die Behandlung des Themas „Arbeit„ Aspekte des göttlichen und menschlichen Wesens in der biblischen Urgeschichte zu analysieren, denn die Bibel erzählt sowohl die Geschichte der göttlichen als auch die der menschlichen Arbeit. Als die hermeneutische Methode wird die kanonische Auslegung versucht, die als das Standard der Interpretation auf der Endgestalt des Textes beruht. Sie beträgt dazu, die eigentliche theologische Dimension der biblischen Texte zu entdecken. Um das Wesen der göttlichen und menschlichen Arbeit zu begreifen, sollen die entsprechenden Texte der biblischen Ungeschichte ausgelegt werden, die mit der Arbeit zu tun haben. Vor allem wird die charakteristische göttliche und menschliche Tätigkeit untersucht. Daraus resultieren drei Ergebnisse. Erstens: Herrschaft ist das Zentrum göttlicher und menschlicher Arbeit. Zweitens: Menschliche Arbeit ist überhaupt nicht Resultat des Fluchs, sondern ursprüngliche existentielle Gegebenheit. Drittens: Gott hat den Menschen als tätiges Wesen bestimmt, für dessen Wesen Arbeit konstitutiv ist. Die menschliche Tätigkeit in der Geschichte als Verwirklichung menschlicher Autonomie wird von Gott respektiert, insofern sie ihr Maß bewahrt. Reaktionen Gottes sind immer Folge menschlicher Grenzüberschreitungen, die aber keine äußerlichen Strafen darstellen, sondern sie garantieren, dass die Tatfolgen eintreten. Aber trotz aller Misserfolge gibt Gott seine Hoffnung für den Menschen und seine Beziehung zu ihm nicht auf. Gott steht also nicht in einer distanzierten Beziehung zur Welt, sondern ist in ihr tätig, damit ihre ursrüngliche Bestimmnung doch noch wirklich wird. Schließlich beträgt diese Untersuchung dazu, dass die bisherige negativ beurteilte menschliche Arbeitstheologie korrigiert werden soll. Das Verhältnis vom Subjekt und Objekt bei der Arbeit steht nicht in der Herr-und Knechtschaft, sondern in der Korrelation beider Seite.
  • 7.

    The Popular Religion in the Holiness Code

    김선종 | 2011, 17(3) | pp.158~179 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This article tries to reveal the popular religion of the ancient Israel hidden in the Holiness Code by analyzing the concepts of God and the land. According to Wellhausen's traditional historical criticism, the Holiness Code including Leviticus reflects the theology of the elite priestly group in the postexilic period when there was no king in Israel. These priests would have seized the political power as well as the religious one. Therefore, it is natural to assume that the religion of this power group formulates the state religion. However, this perspective may be a simplistic hypothesis on the history of Israel because several texts of the Holiness Code uncover the strata of the popular religion of the Israelites. First, the biblical readers find some texts in which God is demonstrated as a personal God. This fact draws our attention in that the individualized God is a particular character of the popular religion in the Ancient Near East. Moreover, the image of God who eats the food in the Holiness Code is different from God of the power elite who wants to abstract the popular image from God. So, the expression 'food of God' is used not merely for the anthropomorphic and literary usage but shows the naive idea of people on their immanent God. Second, the notion on the land of the Holiness Code is not the same as that of Deuteronomy. While, in this book, the land of Israel is conquered by the Israelites by the conquering war, people are expelled by the land when it is defiled by them in the Holiness Code. The land of Israel is described as God's extended sanctuary. This aspect is consistent with the H's description on the land as a Nazarite. As a being distinguished to God, the land has to maintain its purity. The land as a mother conceiving the creatures is an important character of the popular religion. This study on the popular religion of the Holiness Code demands us to reconsider the traditional hypothesis that has been estimated as the unanimous opinion on the formation of the Pentateuch. Although the Torah would have been finally edited by the priests or the scribes, this religious leader group does not reject unconditionally the religion of people but absorbs its dynamic faith.
  • 8.

    A wide-area economic bloc of Philistine and Judah in the seventh century B.C.

    정중호 | 2011, 17(3) | pp.180~200 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to find out the actual trading reality of the Philistine and Judah who maintained a relatively peaceful relationship in the 7th century B.C. as a part of international trade networks of Assyrian Empire. When viewing the geopolitical location, Judah had a special role in the hinterland of the Philistine port cities. In particular, in the 7th century B.C., Judah and Philistia formed a wide-area economic and trade bloc. Assyria used a variety of special measures to activate its network of international trade in the Mediterranean area. Assyria constructed karu, an international trade center, and installed qepu, Assyrian officials who were stationed in the area. And so even though Philistine cities revolted, Assyria appointed the leaders again as an exceptional action for considering international trade at the area. Assyria appointed a prince who were educated in Assyria as a king. In addition, Sennacherib rearranged territorial boundaries between Judah and Philistia for the balance of power. Judah and Philistine formed and developed a wide-area economic bloc under the umbrella of the economic policies of the Assyrian empire. In the wide-area economic bloc Ashkelon and Ekron acted important roles. Ekron was the famous center of olive oil industry and Ashkelon was the most important port city for maritime and land trade. Ashkelon did maritime trade with areas of the Phoenician, Greece and Cyprus. Such information could be confirmed through Petrographic analysis. In the midst of Ashkelon's various trading goods, wine was the most important flagship. Judah was the main grain exporter in the 7th century B.C.. Grain was exported to Ashkelon. In the areas of the Negev, east Jerusalem, and foothills of Samaria, grain was produced more and part of those agricultural products were exported to Ashkelon Population of the Negev region was increased while simultaneously strengthening the administrative force, which formed an environment for thriving trading activity. The incense road was crossed by the Negev region and provided incense to Judah and Philistine.