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2012, Vol.18, No.1

  • 1.

    Proverb’s Understanding of God and Sacredness

    Han, Dong-Gu | 2012, 18(1) | pp.12~33 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The present article studies how the early texts of Proverbs(10:1-22:16) worked out its communication with the world. As a result, it argues that Proverbs understands the world-view and social demands of the Davidic-Solomonic era with a view to yield consequential theological discourses. Besides, the present article will examine the texts in order to demonstrate that the sacredness of God is revealed in the social order and justice. The study begins with the historical background and world-view of the early texts of Proverbs. Then it investigates the causal relation and the understanding of God, the notable characteristics of Proverbs, and also compares the traditional values with the novel ones as represented in the book. Consequently the study will show how the early texts of the book considered the social and religious ideas as well as the reverence of God in the book. By doing so we will find out the sacredness which is imbedded in the social ethics, particularly characterized in the texts. (The early part of) Proverbs employed the social demand requested in the time of David and Solomon that ‘the diversity of nations and social classes should be conformed to the norm’, establishing the principles of justice to set up a social order. In the book the principle that ‘the work of his hands rewards him’ is found; wealth is a reward of labor. Surely the book claims justice of fairness, principle of retribution, and causal relations to form the order of the empire. Furthermore, Proverbs declares the universal values such as wisdom, justice and order, which were novel and made possible to break down the barriers of ethnic and regional identity. Proverbs communicated with the social demands and spirit of Davidic and Solomonic era, and as a result, accommodated particular theological discourses in it. In a way it can be said that the sapient theologians of Proverbs made the real communication with the society possible. They made use of the certain measures of ‘diligence-indolence, wise-folly, and justice-injustice’ to innovate particular social value and code; they also contemplated to prevent unjust accumulation of wealth through the social regulation. They saw that divine values and codes were reflected in daily life. In other words in the social and ethical deeds divine will is to be found. Daily life is to be just and sacred. The theologians of Proverbs argue that YHWH judges and observes human beings as omniscient and omnipotent Creator. Thus God manages to correspond appropriately to all the deeds of human beings, regardless of their plans. The theologians of Proverbs found God’s sacred will in daily life as well as the social and ethical regulations, thus requested the Israelites to fear YHWH.
  • 2.

    A Research on the Studies of Proverbs 1-9 in Pursuit of the Methodology of Wisdom Literature

    Keun Jo Ahn | 2012, 18(1) | pp.34~59 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to research current studies on Proverbs 1-9 to find methodologies in wisdom literature. Proverbs chs. 1-9 have been discussed as a theological wisdom corpus. Most of the scholarly works are categorized in six interpretive methods as follow. First, historical-critical analysis has been chiefly utilized in studies on those texts. It regards the corpus as a collection of various materials of wisdom tradition. However, Yahwism is considered as the unifying factor among the different resources. Second, religious studies has focused on the influence of the ancient Near Eastern backgrounds of neighboring culture upon Israelite wisdom. In particular, the personified wisdom is occasionally compared with Egyptian ma'at. Yet, originality of the Lady Wisdom in Proverbs is sustained. Third, literary approaches maintain the literary unity of the corpus and read it through rhetorical critical methods or inter-textual analyses. They highlight poetics of the proverbs 1-9 and incessant flow of the wisdom tradition from the Torah or the prophetic literature. Fourth, sociological studies on the corpus call interpreters' attention. We do not know the existence of schools in ancient Israel. Yet, some scholars discuss that there must be temple school or scribal family school in the second temple period of Israel. Wisdom literature itself derives from this Persian social matrix. Fifth, conceptual researches on the texts attempt to read the chapters 1-9 through a specific and coherent idea. Feminist critical approach on the corpus also shows a consistent rendering on those texts. Finally, integral readings put together both interests in the final shape of those texts and the compositional process of their formation. The textuality of the Proverbs 1-9 is the primary concern of the interpreters. However, integral readers also take a careful examination on the historical development of literary traditions in the corpus. They criticize the later theologization of Yahwism of the corpus. Instead, education and faith were identical elements of Israelite wisdom from the beginning.
  • 3.

    The Issue of the Translation of ‘maskil' in Proverbs

    Jinkyu Kim | 2012, 18(1) | pp.60~81 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The goal of this study is to find out the fittest Korean word for the Hebrew word ‘maskil.’ This study narrowly focuses on the translation of ‘maskil’ (hiphil, participle, absolute form) in the Book of Proverbs. There are only six cases of this form in Prov (10:5; 10:19; 14:35; 15:24; 17:2; 19:14), besides two cases with a preposition (16:20; 21:12). The best translation for this word would be ‘prudence/prudent’ as many English Bible versions rendered this way. (The authoritative English translations such as ESV, RSV, NRSV, and NASB were selected to compare with Korean versions.) However, New Korean Revised Version (NKRV) never uses this term for ‘maskil’ in this form. NKRV largely translates this word into ‘widom/wise.’BDB and TDOT offer the best translation for the definition of ‘maskil’ in context. BDB provides six definitions for the hiphil form of ‘sakal’ as follows: (1) “look at,” (2) “give attention to, consider, ponder,” (3) “have insight, comprehension,” (4) “cause to consider, give insight, teach,” (5) “act circumspectly, prudently,” (6) “prosper, have success” (BDB, #7919). BDB pinpoints the definition of the substantive form of ‘makil’ belongs to the fifth category among these (Prov 10:5, 19; 14:35; 15:24; 17:2; 19:14; Job 22:2). TDOT also gives a similar definition for the hiphil form of ‘sakal’ when used absolutely. It means “be reasonable, act reasonably,” “be prudent, act prudently” (TDOT 14:118). Other dictionaries such as NIDOTTE, THAT, and TWOT do not give such a precise definition for ‘maskil’ in the hiphil substantive form. Above all, B. Waltke gives the most inspiring definition for 'maskil.' In his excellent commentaries on Proverbs, he defines “being prudent” is the most important meaning for ‘maskil.’ Though the Korean word for ‘prudence’ (shinjung) may not be a precise word for ‘maskil’ because of the slight differences of the semantic fields between two languages (however, it is unavoidable in many cases), but this word is its fittest term for 'maskil' among Korean wisdom-related words.
  • 4.

    Memento Mori, Carpe Diem! - Eine Untersuchung zum Tod als das Schlüsselwort zum Verständnis des Koheletbuches -

    Cha-Yong Ku | 2012, 18(1) | pp.82~104 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Das Koheletbuch lässt zwei relevante Leitgedanken erkennen, nämlich memento mori sowie carpe diem, die anscheinend gegensätzlich stehen. Daher wird Kohelet allgemein als entweder 'Künder der Nichtigkeit des Lebens' oder 'Künder der Lebensfreude' betrachtet. In dieser Arbeit wird aber nach F. Kutschera versucht, die beiden Gedanken durch den Tod zusammenzubringen. Ferner wird das durch eine genauere Untersuchung des Textes untermauert. Das Koheletbuch wird zweifach gerahmt. Der äußere Rahmen besteht aus zwei Mottoversen (1:2; 12:8) von ‘Nichtigkeit von Allen’. Der innere Rahmen wird aus zwei Gedichten gebildet, die jeweils nach bzw. vor dem Motto eine eröffnende- u. schließende Stimmung macht. Das Gedicht über den Kosmos (1:(3)4-11) stellt die Vergänglichkeit der Menschengeneration der Ewigkeit der immer bleibenden Erde gegenüber und bezieht sich daraus auf ‘memento mori’. Der Tod wird in dieser Stelle nicht explizit zur Wort gekommen, trotzdem wird die Nichtigkeit subtil aus dem Menschen definitiven Tod begründet. Beim Gedicht von Alter und Tod (11:9-12:7) wird der Tod dagegen bildhaft dargestellt und die Gegenüberstellung zwischen dem Verfall der Menschen und der Vitalität der anderen Geschöpfe ausgeprägt. Dabei wird die Unterschiedlichkeit zwischen den Menschen und seinem Schöpfer besonders in 12:7 eindeutig ausgedrückt. Der Mensch erkennt seine Begrenztheit durch den Tod. Alle seine Bemühungen nach Erfolg werden immer daran gescheitert. Aus diesem Grund kommt in der Königstravestie ein Hass auf das Leben zur Wort. Aber beim Koheletbuch dominiert keinesfalls solches Pessimismus. Der Aufruf zum tatkräftigen Handeln und zur Lebensfreude kommt als eine andere wichtige Gedanke dieses Buches schon in der Königstravestie vor. Überraschend haben die beiden Lebensverhältnisse ihre Ursprung gemeinsam im Tod. Der Tod lässt den Menschen nicht nur ihre Begrenztheit sondern auch die Souveränität Gottes erkennen, der den Menschen Leben und Lebensfreude schenkt. Das Leben im Angesicht des Todes heißt daher eine Art vom durch den Tod intensivierte Leben. Der Tod bringt auch die beiden Leitgedanken von memento mori und carpe diem im Koheletbuch subtil zusammen.
  • 5.

    Park, Young-Joon A Study of eschatological concept in Ecclesiastes

    Young Joon Park | 2012, 18(1) | pp.105~128 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Ecclesiastes was not accepted as eschatological contents. but it was actual and opposite contents. because the author against the traditional revenge(ecclesiastes 7:15; 8:14) and emphasis the relationship between God and Human being(ecclesiastes 5:1) and there is no respectation to Human being(ecclesiastes 1:3; 2:11, 22; 3:19) and also coheret is focused on actual life not future one. so the study of ecclesiastes was in the opposite background of the text. but we can see the eschatological facts in additional context(ecclesiastes 3:17: 8:5b-6: 11:9; 12:14). The purpose of this paper is to find eschatological contents and intents of editor in ecclesiastes 3:17; 8:5b-6; 11:9; 12:14 focused on mishpat - Judgment. Finally to show the theological meaning of whole Ecclesiastes. For it, First of all. I'll recognize the late additional part of ecclesiastes through redaction criticism. and classify the part that has difference in Theology. this four contents was emphasised the notion about judgment. it reflect the respactation about eschatology. the one who add this contents maybe the teach man. The purpose of additional script is to emphasis Judgment of God. it will tell you only Hope of Human being. he solves the nervous and immorality in life as eschatological judgment. so he emphasis the judge of God. he finds the hope through God's judgment, that was not found in life. so the last main topic of ecclesiastes is not emptiness, but hope.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Lists in the Book of Nehemiah

    Kim, Rae Yong | 2012, 18(1) | pp.129~152 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Five long lists occur in the book of Nehemiah. This article investigates their characteristics and roles in their present places. For this, I will check specific words, phrases, verses related to the lists, and then I will compare the lists with each other, and those with other similar lists in the Old Testament. Neh. 3 is a list of builders of the Jerusalem walls. Furthermore, it plays a role indicating the people against the enemies like Sanballat and Tobiah between Neh. 2 and Neh. 4 mentioning the story related to obstacles of the Jerusalem wall. Neh. 7 is a list of people who returned to Jerusalem. The list plays a role connecting them to those who gathered at the Water Gate. This means that the present congregation is connected to the old congregation who retuned from Babylon. This emphasizes legitimacy of the present community. Neh. 10 is a list of people who signed up the covenant voluntarily. This list plays a role emphasizing that Ezra and Nehemiah’s reforms succeeded. Neh. 11 is a list of people who settled in and outside Jerusalem. It mentions only the family of Judah and Benjamin. Furthermore, it emphasizes fathers of each person, including even the seventh generation. This means that real and legitimate successors of the community are the family of Judah and Benjamin. Neh. 12 is a list including the names of priests and Levites in the period of Zerubbabel (vv. 1-9) and Joiakim(vv. 12-21). This list is placed before the ceremony of dedication of the Jerusalem wall in Neh. 12:27-43, so it shows that the priests and the Levites will actively be present at the ceremony . Accordingly, the five lists have the characteristics and roles of the people related to each event in the book of Nehemiah. Neh. 3 and 7 emphasize solidarity of the community, Neh. 7, 11 and 12 emphasizes continuity of the community, Neh. 11 and 12 emphasize legitimacy of the community, and Neh. 10 emphasizes active participations of the leaders of the community.
  • 7.

    Manumission Laws of the Old Testament and phenomena of slavery in the late Chosun

    정중호 | 2012, 18(1) | pp.154~177 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to uncover that Manumission Laws (Exod. 21:2-11; Deut. 15:12-18; Lev. 25:39-46) were practicable laws. For this purpose the present writer analyzed phenomena of slavery in the late Chosun and compared them with economic situation of Israel and Judah. The results of the analysis demonstrate similar elements between Chosun and Israel as following; (1) Marginal benefit of slave owners was decreased because the cost of maintaining slave labor exceeded value of marginal product of slave labor, (2) Slave labor was substituted by free labor through activation of distribution and the market functions, (3)Farmers were poor and became wandering people. So the number of low wage workers were abundant. Especially the results of analyzing Manumission Laws show as follows;(1) Because of treating Hebrew slaves as hired workers and giving gifts after six years service, marginal benefit of slave owners increased, in doing so the value of marginal product of slave labor exceeded the cost of maintaining slave labor. (2) Due to the activation of the distribution system and the market function of Israel and Judah, which are related to sea trade of Pheonicia and international trade network of Assyria, the price of slave was reflected on the markets concurrently and it was easy to find wage workers. (3) Immigrants and refuges were increased because of geopolitical location and frequent coup d’etat. Due to shortage of risk preventing devices under the system of command economy and rent capitalism,farmers were poor and became wandering people. Thus the number of low wage workers were abundant. Therefore Manumission Laws were practicable laws to multiply the economic interests and needs of landowners rather than intended to suggest a mere ideal.
  • 8.

    Hittite Telipinu Edict and Succession of Kings in Ancient Israel

    Jong-Keun Lee | 2012, 18(1) | pp.178~204 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to compare Telepinu Edict with the royal succession in the ancient Israel by literary comparative method. Telipinu Edict dictated the laws of peaceful succession in the Hittite throne. It was designed to stop the royal murders which had taken place in the previous decades. The rules of successions are as follows:1. Only a king’s son of the first rank shall be installed as a king. 2. If there is no king’s son of the first rank, the one who is a son of second rank becomes king. 3. If there is no male royal child, whatever, a man who will marry the daughter of the first rank shall become king. The edict was meaningful in terms of legitimizing kingship in the ancient world. The kinship was guaranteed and they were able to punish the violators of this edict through Panku, the council of elders, equivalent to modern constitutional court. The edict abolished the involvement system and no other family members were punished except the guilty person. The edict made a great impact on the Hittite history, putting an end to royal murders. This is a part of cultural heritage of human civilization. When the legal spirit of this edict was kept in the process of royal transition, peace and safety were ensued in the nation. Otherwise, human casualties and confusion followed due to rapid changes of monarchies. The principle of the edict can be seen in the history of ancient Israel. The Davidic covenant in southern Judah followed something like Telipinu edict, leaving peaceful succession of kings with the elder son or other sons in general, preventing abnormal involvement from outside or other special situations. Successive military coups and sudden usurpation of kingship in northern Israel brought much bloodshed and national confusion, causing Assyrian exile and national downfall with slavery of the people in the end.