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2013, Vol.19, No.1

  • 1.

    A Study on the Significant of Number Seven in Lev 26:14-33

    Choi Jong-Won | 2013, 19(1) | pp.12~42 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The present research primarily is to examine the meaning of the number seven in Lev. 26 in relation to the northwest semitic inscriptions and Deut. 28. In the context of the northwest semitic inscriptions, the number seven is used with literary style-method as the meaning of ‘treaty-curse’. From the composition critical method, Lev. 26 is in parallel with the schema ‘bless and curse’ in Deut 28. This concept is newly composed by a writer who synthesized a deuteronomistic and priestly thought in a composition ‘promise and threat’. In Lev. 26 the central paragraph is the part of ‘the curse’(vv. 14-33). To be fair, it shows that the exilic situation of the Book of Ezekiel is presupposed. In this study, the number seven(v. 18, 21, 24, 28) is dealt with the content ‘knife, hunger and infection’ as the curse-trias in the paragraph of ‘the curse’. From this analysis it is possible to explain systematically the negative conditional clauses with the ‘sevenfold-schema’. The paragraph reflects an expansion of literary style in Deut. 28 and theological thought in the text of Ezekiel. The point of the indirect compositional view is dependent on an ideological aspect of northwest-Semitic in the ancient Near Eastern. This development shows that the paragraph ‘the curse’ in Lev. 26 is originally instructed on the sevenfold-structure as used in Deut. 28. The editor(or compiler) of Lev. 26 deals with a literary style, which is stated as a breaking of the promise or treaty made with the Israelites. This style is best illustrated in the inscription of Sefire, Tell Feckeriye and Būkan in the northwest-Semitic domain. As a result, the text gives us a clue to an invention of some written tradition that the number seven provides the specific means as curse/treat and punishment in the braking of promise or treaty.
  • 2.

    Eli, Enemy of a Temple!

    Koowon Kim | 2013, 19(1) | pp.43~69 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article will be devoted to studying the usage of !wO[m' in 1 Samuel vv. 29 and 32, especially the phrase !wO[m' rc in v. 32, which is often regarded as an interpretive conundrum in the oracle. Many scholars, who find MT’s readings in 1 Samuel 2:29, 32 unintelligible, have resorted to emendation, based on different readings in LXX and 4QSama. This paper will critically review previous suggestions and prove MT readings to be commendable in and of itself. Towards this end, the relevant texts will be analyzed both philologically and literarily. I will propose to translate rc in v. 29 and !wO[m' rc in v. 32 as “in a temple” and “Oh enemy of a temple!” respectively and attempt to show that MT’s readings are intelligible, and, if properly understood, provide a hermeneutical key to understanding of the judgment oracle against Eli in its broader context. LXX's reading of verses 29a and 32a in 1 Samuel 2 may appear to provide an explanation of the difficult MT readings, but in fact, LXX complicates it. There is no definite evidence that LXX is the original and MT is its corrupt variant. MT rc “in a temple” in v. 29a and !wO[m' rc “enemy of a temple” in v. 32 make sense as they stand, in the sense that the sins of Eli's two sons were committed either in the temple or against the temple. Moreover, such understanding of MT readings may provide a hermeneutical key to understanding the story of the Elides' degradation, in which Eli's family is deprived of the privilege serving at the temple because they turned themselves into enemies of the temple. Although God revealed himself to Eli's house in Egypt, chose him out of all the tribes to be his priest, and gave him all the privileges pertaining to a temple-servant, the Elides proved themselves to be evil and ungrateful servants by desacralizing the temple. What they did in the temple or against the temple earns them the title !wO[m' rc ‘enemy of a temple’.
  • 3.

    David’s Holiness: Examined in His Exile to the Temple in Noph(1Sam 21:1-9[2-10]; Cf. 1Sam. 22:6-23)

    Han, Dong-Gu | 2013, 19(1) | pp.70~94 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    David had to undergo many incidents to become a king. He had equipped inwardly and outwardly for the rise during the crisis. This paper investigates the way of the wisdom David sought in that time. Firstly, the literary characteristics and structure of Sam. 21-22 are examined, and then the text of Sam. 21:1-9 is analyzed. A new word-view, which David pursued, is also to be unveiled. David tried to get over the obstacles of kinship, regionalism, gender, race, and society which were inherited from the earlier times. David is good at controlling his feelings with the help of his deep trust in God. He didn't express his uneasy feelings with Saul but sublimated it into inner side. Furthermore, breaking up with the ‘concept of the holiness of lineage’ in the ancient times which is ruled by pan-ritualism, he sought the ‘concept of the holiness of generality’. On the foundation of rationality, which means taking responsibility of one's actions, by positioning all his actions in front of God, he sought holiness and purity of generality. David's holiness in his feeling toward God made him an autonomous person who acts freely but takes responsibility of the outcome. This also made David maintain immeasurable confidence in God. Transforming the pan-ritualism which was tied to the obstacles of kinship, regionalism, gender, race, and society, his confidence formed a rational and general justice. It created a new spirit of times, a foundation of the incoming great empire.
  • 4.

    King David’s Politics of Reconciling Northern Israel with Southern Judah and His Political Strategy for National Unification

    Hae Kwon Kim | 2013, 19(1) | pp.95~132 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of the present article is first to explore King David’s Politics of Reconciling Northern Israel with Southern Judah and His Political Strategy for National Unification through close analysis of 2 Samuel 1-5, and then to argue that David’s rise to power illustrates the Deuteronomistic viewpoint of monarchy. It consistently argues that David’s enthronement over the entire people of Israel was made possible through David’s realpolitical sagacity and faith commitment to the Samuel-mediated oracle saying, “Yahweh God of Israel will make you a shepherd over the entire people of Israel in place of Saul his predecessor”. This was obviously case with David’s realpolitical performances which were designed to bring the broken and self-insecure heart of the northern tribes close to him and to reconcile Judah with Israel through several public show-ups of his heartfelt sympathy with the sorrow and pain of the northerns over the deaths of Saul, Jonathan, and Abner. 2 Samuel 1-5 demonstrates that the God-given oracle regarding the future reign of David over all Israel was substantiated and made real only through diverse human agents’ approval of and commitment to the original Samuel oracle. This characterizes the Deuteronomistic kingship in contrast to other ancient near eastern royal mythologies, whose aim was to provide check and balance for a human king lest he/she fall into the trap of despotism and political autonomy. Thus comes the contract of the elders of Israel with David as a climax to the history of David’s rise to power, which means that David was enthroned as a constitutional monarchy and was bound to rule Israel only under the people of God’s approval of and full assent to his kingship. The present essay concludes that David’s unification of Israel with Judah was achieved only through the elders of Israel’s request for David to be a king over all Israel on the condition that David will remain faithful to the equal and bilateral contract between the two parties.
  • 5.

    Searching for the Strange Woman: Re-envisioning the Good/Evil Dichotomy through Reading Female Figures in the Song of Songs and Proverbs

    Park, Ji-Eun | 2013, 19(1) | pp.157~182 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines power, ideology, and gender dynamics in the postexilic Persian social context, with special attention to the female figures in the Song of Songs and Proverbs, which have common motifs but different perspectives on the female body and sexuality. By developing Jonneke Bekkenkamp and Fokkelien van Dijk's argument that the Song of Songs can be read as a ‘subversive narrative against Proverbs, I seek to explore the human-constructed nature of the good/evil dichotomy represented through the Strange Woman in the Song of Songs and the Capable Woman (the Woman Wisdom figure) in Proverbs. In doing so, a postcolonial feminist perspective can be my methodological tool for examining how the images of the female figures in the Song of Songs and Proverbs in the postexilic context were manipulated and reshaped to serve the interests of the postexilic community and the dominant male elites and to regain their lost identities. A postcolonial feminist perspective suggests that (re)creating identity also meant retrieving their humiliated masculinity. Interestingly, the reformulation of identity accompanied the resurgence of the family structure, and the female body and sexual desire were viewed as dangerous and destructive to the community as well as to men. In this respect, the presence of positive views about the female body and sexuality in the Song of Songs may have caused the production of the Strange Woman figure, whose promiscuous body and sexuality are used as a rationale for restricting the female body and sexuality. Likewise, Woman Wisdom and the Capable Woman may have been (re)created in contrast to the Strange Woman figure in order to emphasize good wife and mother images. Therefore, this article aims to re-envision the Strange Woman figure in order to deconstruct the good/evil dichotomy of the female body and sexuality and to provide an alternative way of reading the Strange Woman figure for contemporary readers of Proverbs and the Song of Songs.
  • 6.

    Qoheleth’s ‘New Wisdom’ Viewed Through a Lens of ‘Zhongyong’

    Myung Soo Suh | 2013, 19(1) | pp.183~207 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to read Ecc.7:15-18 which suggests a kind of new wisdom through a lens of Confucian classics, ‘Zhongyong(中庸)’. According to the passages, the wise man should not be too righteous because there is a righteous man who perishes in his righteousness. Rather there is a wicked man who prolongs his life in his wickedness. So he who fears God shall be quit in regard to both. Qoheleth here takes issue with two orthodox doctrines, that is, (1) the righteous have a long life(Ex.20:12; Dt.4:40; Ps.91:16; Pr.3:2,16; 4:10), and (2) the wicked shall not live out half their days(Ps.37:10; 55:23; 58:3-9; 73:18). Why does the author suggest the paradoxical solution as a new wisdom? At a first glance, it seems to collide with Deuteronomic instructions which insist a firm choice. The author's new wisdom as uselessness of going to extreme seemed to derive from social situation that the orthodox theology could not comprise the complexity of the world and life. So It can be concluded that the book of Ecclesiastes was written and compiled in Jerusalem under Ptolemic rule with the purpose of teaching young men. In thinking of life the author surely based on the experiential and empirical knowledges. The author's experiential knowledges tell his audiences that life is so contradictory, ironic and paradoxical. For this reason the author pays attention to the way of moderation/mean/equilibrium for the better safe life. With regard to moderation/mean/equilibrium as a new way of conduct it is valuable to read the text through a lens of ‘Zhongyong’ which is junzi(君子)’ ideal way of behavior. The way of ‘Zhongyong’ consists of two attitudes of life such as (1) firmly harmonizing of the extremes(執其兩端) and doing on the basis of ones' own position(素位而行). Especially the former has been explained in comparison to scaling. In direct ratio with weight of something, a weight have to be moved for measuring. It is called ‘kwondo(權道)’ in Confucian term. In conclusion, ‘Zhongyong’ is a way of action which avoids going to the extremes. It desires not too much nor too little(過猶不及). This idea corresponds to the new wisdom of the text(Ecc.7:15-18). Where comes from the principle of the Golden Mean? The author of ‘Zhongyong’ said that it comes from the Sincerity(誠) in self which corresponds to the Heavenly Way(天道). The Sincerity(誠) is similar to ‘the fear of God’ in Hebrew thought.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Triadic Structure of the MT of the Book of the Twelve and the Literary and Theological Function of the Book of Jonah within it

    Cheol-Woo Park | 2013, 19(1) | pp.208~237 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    I have made Barry Alan Jones' recent important thesis as my point of departure for the issue of the composition and unity of the Book of the Twelve. I am at one with him in his conclusion that the Book of Jonah functions as the concluding book not only in 4QXIIa the Book of the Twelve but also in the first half of that of Septuagint. But I disagree with his contention that the placement of the Book of Jonah within the MT is almost accidental. I tried to correct it on the basis of my understanding of the structural particularity of the MT of the Book of the Twelve and demonstrate the opposite view that it functions as a concluding book in the structure of the MT of the Book of the Twelve. I tried to show that the corpus of the MT of the Book of the Twelve has the triadic structure of three blocks interconnected with each other developing theological contents, and that the book of Jonah functions as the concluding book in the first block(Hosea-Joel-Amos-Obadiah-Jonah) of the triadic corpus, preparing the next two blocks beginning with the book of Micah. These observations show, differing from Barry Alan Jones’ view, that the insertion of the Book of Jonah, in addition to the historical reason that Jonah was a person earlier than Micah(2Kgs 14:25), was made on the basis of the very careful theological and literary consideration. Therefore, this structural understanding should be borne in mind in dealing with the composition, unity and theology of the MT of the Book of the Twelve.