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2014, Vol.20, No.3

  • 1.

    “Good Deeds” in Matthew 5:16

    김희성 | 2014, 20(3) | pp.13~43 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This is a study of one of the most important values to offer a point of communication with the non-Christian world: Good Deeds. The focus of this paper is restricted to Matthew 5:13-16, and a synchronic assessment based on linguistic analyses and a diachronic assessment based on historical-critical analyses are employed. The syntactic structure of Matthew 5:13-16 reveals that Good Deeds are a Christian’s obligation that he has to reveal onto others as light with the goal of glorifying God. In the semantic analysis, the keyword “ergon” becomes a semantic field in which “Good Deeds” are emphasized to such a degree that they appear as major objective of Christ’s mission in appointing his people. Examined from a pragmatic standpoint, the dual combination of the indicative mood and the imperative mood in this passage constitutes a strong inducement of the reader to conduct Good Deeds. An editorial analysis reveals that the editing is focused on the beginning and end part of the passage on salt and light, and the emphasis is on the Christian’s obligation to conduct Good Deeds in order to glorify God. Taking into consideration the overall context of the sermon on the mount in which it is embedded, the passage reveals that those who will appear as sons of God at the end of days have to receive this title as reward through a life that resembles God, and prove themselves to be sons of God through love of their enemies. Within the context of the entire book of Matthew, Jesus’ personality, words and actions become the light, and his followers that receive this light are the light of the world. In a renewed world, they will operate as sources of light. All in all, Good Deeds are God’s commandments to realize his will and follow his words as passed on through the law as well as prophets. Good Deeds further actualize Jesus’ new commandment which he based on a reinterpretation of God’s law and the words of the prophets and can be summarized as love of God and love of your neighbors. Ultimately, Good Deeds are the means by which the world encounters the light of God. Good Deeds, thus, combine with “a better righteousness” which is a condition to enter the kingdom of God and become a path to salvation and also a way to lead people to God. Good Deeds alone appear as light to them and in turn, give glory to God. Hence, this is the only way for Christians to give glory to God and the most important biblical value to communicate with the non-Christian world.
  • 2.

    A Study on Contact Points Between Oriental Religions and Christianity for Spreading Mission - Focused on Taoism and Buddhism -

    Kim Eun-soo | 2014, 20(3) | pp.44~70 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    There are much more Taoists and Buddhists than christians in Asia, and also Taoism and Buddhism have a long history more than Christianity. Therefore, this paper is to study a possible contact point being in these oriental religions and christianity for spreading mission and to provide the practical ways to mission for Korean churches. For this, this tried to find a contact point for mission comparing christianity with the ideas in Taoism's 『T'ai-p'ing Ching, 太平經』 and 『Vajracchedika-Prajnaparamita-Sutra, 金剛經』. The trinity of Taoism and Buddhism thoughts is a method revealing oneness and a method revealing others. It is more helpful to explain the truth of christianity based on oriental hebraistic thought than western Newtonian and Cartesian thoughts based on the dualism which judges right from wrong of reality. At first, the way to being of God as the Trinity in christianity is similar to the trinity(三一性) of Taoism. 'Ŭm'(陰), which is the origin of all things is God(Father) we can see through our eyes, and 'Yang'(陽) is God(Jesus Christ), who is seen as a son. Jesus Christ said to us, "Anyone who has seen me has seen the Father".(John 14:9) We can be seen the Father from Jesus Christ, the son of God. The spirits of the Father and the Son, which is 'ch'i'(氣) in Taoism, exist fully in action among us. The action of the Trinity of God is the Holy Spirit. This Holy Spirit is the spirit of the truth.(John 15;26, 14:26) The trinity(三一性) of Taoism is to realize the truth and to follow the way to the truth as a kind of movement for life. The 'Sunyata,'(空) in Buddhism means a state that one couldn't shut oneself in the limit and call oneself by his name. And it is the same as the color(色, 形). Therefore, it means that the color is the Sunyata. The color which has a physical form is the same as the Sunyata, which is a transcendent man. So Jesus Christ who had come into the world as a man is the same as invisible God. As a result, the color is similar to the Son of God, and the Sunyata is similar to God the Father. Life comes from Two of these. That is the 'spirit' like the Holy Spirit in christianity. Consequently, even though Taoism and Buddhism as an oriental religion have many similarities with the christianity that has an oriental world, it is impossible to find doctrine continuity with christianity. However, despite this obvious theological differences, it is necessary to try to find mission contact points from the world view of oriental religions, for the Gospel can spread much better in the principles of oriental religion. So it is meaningful to find the contact point for mission because the Christian Gospel as an oriental religion in the principle of analytics can spread more clearly to Koreans who have lived in the tradition of Taoism and Buddhism for a long time more than in the thoughts of western dualism.
  • 3.

    Changing Worlds, Unchanging Gospel – Paul’s Case

    Yon-Gyong Kwon | 2014, 20(3) | pp.71~105 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The unstoppable trend of globalization poses a serious question before us: How can the old gospel cope with those issues and problems which arise from the complex phenomena of globalzation? This article tries to give an answer to the question by exploring the relevance of Paul’s gospel in such an age.After briefly describing globalization as blurring/crossing the boundaries, and defining the situations of the Early Church as one of such crossing of boundaries (Introduction), the study begins by tracing Paul’s career both before and after his conversion, from Paul the persecuter to Paul the apostle to the Gentiles. This leads to the consideration of the theological challenges Paul faced, especially that of God’s faithfulness: how we are to make sense of God’s old promise to Israel when Israel rejects the gospel while Gentiles accept it eagerly (II). The next section deals with Paul’s re-reading of the Genesis stories which involves a radical redefinition of God’s people in terms of God’s sovereign promise and election with explicit denial of the relevance of physical descent (III). The study goes on to examine further how Paul’s discussion of circumcision, the mark of Jewish identity par excellence, goes beyond not only the typical Jewish attitude of the day but also the literal sense of the biblical text, the move made possible by the new revelation he received through his encounter with Christ (IV). This leads to the final, climactic, section which demonstrates that Paul’s fresh reading, occasioned by the newly developed situation of the Gentile mission, is ultimately rooted in his conviction that the gospel of Jesus is the power of God for those who believe him. God comes to rescue of his people, both Jew and Gentile, through the life-giving Spirit by liberating them from the bondage of sin and giving them a new leash of life, thereby creating a living hope for the ultimate restoration of God’s glorious creation. The study concludes with a thought about the practical implications of the foregoing considerations for those living in an era of globalization like ours.
  • 4.

    Globalization from the Viewpoint of the Biblical Values and Its Missionary Implications

    유종근 | 2014, 20(3) | pp.106~172 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    I have attempted in this paper to review the socio-economic phenomenon of the globalization with regard to the biblical values and to explore its relationship with the globalization of the gospel as a vehicle for the Missio Dei, the salvation of the creation. The socio-economic phenomenon of the globalization has been much maligned for its alleged aggravation of the gaps between the haves and the have-nots. While this is indeed one of the noticeable characteristics of the globalization, there is also a countervailing tendency toward equalization in a global scale, which the New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman famously dubbed as "the world becoming flat." In addition, the globalization has made the overall income level steadily rise so as to significantly improve the standards of living for a great majority of people throughout the world. Perhaps, from the biblical point of view, the greatest achievement of the globalization is the near elimination of colonialism and delegitimization of the despotism, and a significant improvement, through the spread of democracy and the increasing economic interdependence, in the likelihood of the global peace, even though sectarian and ethnic wars continue to rage today. Moreover, the increasingly fierce competition in the global markets has made it difficult to ignore the global standards not only in the business area but also in human rights and gender equality. All these phenomena reflect the values God has given us through his words in the Bible. But I am convinced that God, as the lord of history, has been the mover of the globalization processes in order that such socio-economic phenomena may serve as vehicles to spread the gospel throughout the globe, i.e., the globalization of the gospel. In the "fullness of the time" when the spread of Hellenism and the establishment of the Pax Romana made it convenient to spread the gospel, God set in motion the globalization of his gospel by sending out to this world his first missionary Jesus Christ. The process of evangelical globalization began by Jesus picking out and training his disciples. After his resurrection, Jesus charged that his disciples "go and make disciples of all nations" so that their disciples would each make more disciples and the number of disciples could grow exponentially. This process must continue until his second coming and each of us believers in Jesus Christ is charged with his Great Comission to "go and make disciples of all nations."The rapid acceleration of the socio-economic globalization and the spread of the gospel that has transformed the former peripheries of the christianity into new heartlands has caused a new phenomenon in which the migrants from these new heartlands bring their evangelical zeal to the former heartlands of Europe and the North America and reignite the flickering flame there. Nevertheless, not all the migrants are christians, although many of them are. The church in the host nation must do all it can to make disciples of these non-christian migrants and send them back as missionaries. That is a far superior strategy to sending out missionaries who do not speak the native languages and fully understand the native culture.
  • 5.

    Elijah’s Flee to Mount Horeb and God’s Revelation

    Han, Dong-Gu | 2014, 20(3) | pp.174~197 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The present article aims to find a theological meaning of Elijah’s flee to Mount Horeb, written in 1 Kings 19:1-18. As the story is followed by God’s revelation to him, it therefore also examines what is reveled and what theological significance it bears. The contents of God’s revelation at Horeb are consisted of various elements inconsistent. God’s revelations given to Israel at the various historical settings are all condensed in Elijah’s experience of meeting God; ultimately all are put under “Elijah’s experience of God and His revelation”. Thus it makes the interpretation of Elijah’s incident matter. The present study, first of all, observes the literary characteristics of the text in question, and reconstructs the history of its development. What revelations are meant in each stage of the development is sought after; particularly the “gentle whisper”(1King 19:12b), the supposed core of the revelations, is read to find its theological significance. Methodologically it was done by examining the history of its transmission and traditions. The “gentle whisper” was heard in the voice of various social groups in the post-exilic periods, and it is one of major parts in the study of pneumatology and spirituality of the Old Testament. With it, the priests were seeking (the interest of their own class and) Israel’s ideal, the prophets the ideal of the world (the light to the nations) and history (the new heaven and earth) by means of their sacrifice, and the wisdom theologians synthesisofboth.
  • 6.

    The Study of the Function and Meaning of False Vision in the Book of Ezekiel

    Dong-Young Yoon | 2014, 20(3) | pp.198~222 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The present study deals with the function and meaning of false vision in the Book of Ezekiel. The Book of Ezekiel describes Ezekiel as performing prophetic role among exiles in Babylonia. The multi cultural and polytheistic Babylonian environment gave Ezekiel new prophetic challenge, because the Israelites exiles were being rapidly assimilated with Babylonian culture and religion. So some male prophets even in the tragic exile claimed that they saw the vision of peace, whereas the peace did not exist. In addition, some female announced prophesy out of their own imagination. They sew magic charms on all their wrists and made veils of various lengths for their heads to deceive the people. Ezekiel criticized their false prophecy by using various vocabularies, comparing them with false divination, and emphasizing uselessness of their visions. However, Ezekiel’s prophetic authority was not completely conceded among exiles, because his prophetic channels such as dreams and visions could not simply discerned from hallucination. In fact, some Babylonian diviners also adopted dreams and visions in ecstatic state to receive divine will. So Ezekiel was required to prove the authority and authenticity of his visions. He employs a unique phrase “aw>v" !Azx]”(hazon shav) in order to support the authority of visions that he saw. For Ezekiel the phrase “aw>v" !Azx]” was the tool for arguing with false prophecy and pointing out the fallacies of new prophetic movement led by female prophets, while depending the authority of his prophecy.
  • 7.

    Described in Jonah’s Prayer (Jon 1:17-2:10)

    Kim, Sang-Lae | 2014, 20(3) | pp.223~255 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzes Jonah's prayer in 1:17-2:10 in the literary context of final-form of the text as a prayer of someone who just escaped a close death call, and looks closely at the personality of Jonah described in the given text. Through such exegesis, following new understandings were deducted. Firstly, the reason why Jonah asked the sailors to throw in down the sea is not because it was a voluntary human sacrifice, but a challenge and rebel against YHWH's authority. Secondly, the reason why described his actions as done according to God in chapter 2 is because he recognized the absolute authority of YHWH who saved his life. Thirdly, the prayer given in such background is certainly not a boastful prayer, but a prayer of repentance and thankfulness. Fourthly, his criticism against the gentile is not about idol worship, but about their ungratefulness towards God's grace. I believe such understanding of Jonah's description in chapter 2 illuminates a new light in understanding the Book of Jonah, and will contribute in expanding the horizon. Jonah`s Prayer portrays Jonah as devout and truthful. Nonetheless, this image of Jonah accentuates his caprice remarkably, as observed throughout the context of the book of Jonah.
  • 8.

    Scribe-Discourse on the Torah - Theology in the Postexilic Period -

    Kyunggoo Min | 2014, 20(3) | pp.256~279 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the debate over the Torah-obedience between priesthood and prophethood by literary-critical analysis in the Post-Exilic Period, being shown that it is about the competition between two Torah-concepts. However, there is no substantive difference between the Torah-perceptions and interest, as both groups seek to Torah-obedience. According to Deut 31:9-11 the reading of the Torah is a priestly task, since the written Torah after the death of Moses, the priesthood has been handed over. This wins a crucial function, as its mediation role is essential to the Torah-obedience. In contrast, a prophetic school, because after Jer 31:31-34, the Torah will be written by Yahweh himself on the heart. This aims at the direct Torah-obedience of the people and so revises the idea of ​​Deut 31:9-13. This counter-position of the prophetic Torah is concretized in two aspects, firstly, by the materials of stone (Deut 31:9-13) and heart blackboard (Jer 31:31-34) are opposite to each other; and on the other hand Heart-Torah has a new quality, because in contrast to the breakable Torah of Deut 31:9-13 is by Jer 31:31-34 now unbreakable. Consequently, Jer 31:31-34 designed a novel Torah-concept which is connected to Deut 30:11-14. With which groups the representatives of these two concepts are to be identified? Their common feature is the pronounced Torah-interest, so they are probably better understood not as a scribe but as a Schriftgelehrte. At this group includes priests, prophets and scribes who preach not just verbally, but in writing. Through their respective updating of different traditions to develop new modes of Torah-obedience, a literary connection between the Pentateuch and the prophetic books is also generated, which is why, for example, there is a Pentateuch-editorial processing of the prophetic books.
  • 9.

    The history of researches on Ezekiel in light of significant stems of development and in a recent trend of Study

    임시영 | 2014, 20(3) | pp.281~324 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Since 1900, introduction of study of historically elapsed time and its retroactive studies critical study on Ezekiel is having hardship due to inconsistent studies or mutually various fused situations. This study in this sight first presents each criticism's development condensedly and across-the-board based on German studies of fundamental knowledge of historical criticism related to Ezekiel's basic documentation and its formation or editing. However, at the same time, it is purposed, by arranging core studies' outputs more deeply, to approach easier and more comprehensive than one brought up from criticized questions as a matter of Ezekiel study. To follow, each tendency of radical study from historical process and its expansion and reaction followed by beginning of literature criticism to data criticism and redaction criticism after 1900 is first likely to be pursued. This is also a prior work process to help looking after each and different Ezekiel studies' methodological roots and its following relationship after 1990. Following recent studies are categorized and evaluated in a way of each study's methodology's characteristics. For this process, schematic sorting according to today's annotation methodology in a view of analytics suggested by Manfred Oeming is admitted. Hence, today's Ezekiel study's each tendencies are evaluated and classified in a routine of 'authors and their world', 'documents and their world', 'recipients/readers and their world' and 'real incidents and their world'. Finally, this dissertation is concluded to prospect study of Ezekiel. From now on, Ezekiel's study wraps up to the fact that it is desirable to be progressed in a way of diachronic study's acceptance and application based on synchronic study.
  • 10.

    The Psalms research in current Study since the 1990‘s

    김태경 | 2014, 20(3) | pp.325~356 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to survey a number of current studies in Psalm studies since 1990s and provide an overall perspective. For this study I have examined the major psalm studies of foreign scholars and korean scholars at the same time. Using the diachronic and synchronic methodologies, the current Psalm studies shows the following characteristics. First of all, the diachronic methodology, namely the classical form critic including the questions about Gattung, the original life setting(Sitz im Leben) is not predominant any more in Psalms studies. Merely, the several studies have been undertaken in the area of individual lament Psalms, wisdom Psalms and royal psalms, which seem to be fully explored by Herman Gunkel. On the contrary, the synchronic research has continually undergone in the following two directions. First, most researches focuses on the general linguistic approaches, namely a major feature of Hebrew poetry, language, image, structure, syntactical constriction. Second, the most prevailing interest in Psalm researchers has to do with the questions about the editorial intention of the final form of the text. This study is intended to explore the theological intention of the current position of the individual, Psalm or small unit of several psalms or the final form of the Psalm in the current position. Further, along with the diachronic and synchronic approaches, the psalm studies habe employed a range of different methods, namely ideologic, feministic and ecological approaches. Recently, several scholars tend to concern this tendency. Despite of this concern, the remarkably various methodologies enrich the Psalm studies. In fact, the methodologies are not contrary to each other, but cooperative. Moreover, it seems that this tendency will go further.