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2015, Vol.21, No.2

  • 1.

    Ezekiel's Criticism on the Temple and YHWH's Being as the Temple(Ezek 8-11)

    Han, Dong-Gu | 2015, 21(2) | pp.9~37 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The nation Israel was destroyed by Babylon and its temple was too. The destruction of the temple gave a great impact on the life of the Israelite. The significance of it in the life of the Israelite is extraordinary. When it was absent, from 587 to 515 BCE, a variety of groups proposed theologies alternative to it. The present study examines a part of the theology proposed by Ezekiel that attempted to overcome the crisis caused by the temple's absence. Particularly the exact meaning of the message from Ezekiel 11:16b, “yet for a little while I have been a sanctuary for them in the countries where they have gone,” is examined. The historical context of the time and the temple theology, which was contradicting to Ezekiel's, were put under the study. Also, the basis of Ezekiel's theological stand that is 'figuring out the existence of God as spirit' and the theological thought that ‘YHWH God is mobile ever’ should be examined too. The ‘sanctuary’ in Ezekiel 11:16b refers neither to a small temple in Babylon nor a similar place of meeting to be set up. Also, it does not mean aform of piety, which is different from a form of ritual. In fact it means that the functions and duties the temple used to perform traditionally are to be attributed to YHWH himself. With the absence of the temple, the meeting place between God and the human beings is lost, thus the latter became lifeless. In this seriousness of the absence of the temple, Ezekiel proposed an alternative. YHWH himself becomes a temple temporarily until his glory would come back. The function and the duties of the temple that the traditional 'temple theology' charged are all then attributed to YHWH. Yahwist asserts that wherever God is present is holy and thus a temple. It is quite similar to Ezekiel's. But, different to Yahwist, Ezekiel did not get rid of the value of temple, the place where YHWH God abides in always. He says that the water of new life flows from the temple. Ezekiel never abandoned the command of worship centralization. He rather tried to assist it with alternative ideas.
  • 2.

    Theodicy and Monotheism Appearing in Individual Lament Psalms: Centered on Psalm 4

    Lee Il Rye | 2015, 21(2) | pp.38~64 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The „Sitz im Leben“ of the individual lament psalm 4 is the situation of the dispute of the israel community over the understanding of god. The enemies appearing in the text are the „sons of men“ and „many men“. These men are associated with the suffering and are disputing with the poet over their different understandings of god. These men have an authenticity of establishing interrelationships and simultaneously are using their understanding of god as a power of confusion on the poet. The enemies and the poets understanding of god are related to each other and thus result in existential crisis. However, in the desperately dangerous situation the poet finds a new understanding of god beyond the traditional one through the entreaty of the enemies. This is the faith in monotheism with the poets ‘past-god-experience’ as a basic foundation. In psalm chapter 4 the poets ‘past-god-experience’ is the protection of god when the poet was in the middle of menace. The experience of god in psalm chapter 4 is the overall summery part as well as the key point part. The poet doesn’t look for a different god everytime he encounters trouble in the process of life, but he is constantly lead to his only god who he experienced in the past. When the poets faith in monotheism is in its peak of suffering, he not only keeps his faith but also extends the understanding of god. In addition, through the poets entreaty he gets to understand monotheism, which is the basis of the understanding of theodicy. He has an answer to the problem of the theodicy which appeared in the dispute with his enemies. Like god has saved him in the past from his crisis and showed him his presence, he now confesses the presence of god. The god who redeems the sufferer is a god of justice.
  • 3.

    History of the Translation and Interpretation of the Book of Psalms in China and Korea up to the Year 1900

    정중호 | 2015, 21(2) | pp.65~90 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to trace and illuminate the specific phenomenon of translation and interpretation of the Book of Psalms up to the year 1900. Chinese translation of the Psalms can be found as the Nestorian Dahae-seonwang-gyung(多惠聖王經) and the Mongol Empire era Seongyoung(聖詠). In the early 17th century, Giin-sippyeon(畸人十篇) written by Matteo Ricci, Chilgeuk(七克), and Youngeon-yeojak(靈言蠡勺) contained the Psalms. The Psalms were translated into Chinese in Seongyoung-sokhae(聖詠續解) and Dalmee-seongyoung(達味聖詠) and they supposedly came to Korea before the year 1800. Along with those books the Cheonju-seonggyo-ilgwa(天主聖敎日課), Sujin-ilgwa(袖珍日課), and Cheonju-gyeonggwa(天主經課) also contained the Psalms. In the nineteenth century, the entire Old Testament, including the Psalms, was translated into Chinese and was brought to Korea intermittently. Korean translations of the Psalms were found in 1801, which was at the time of the Sinyou-persecution. They are the Seonggyung-jikhae, Sujin-ilgwa, Hyangsu-bobon-myungseong(向 Jesus 報本聖詠誦), Hyangrye-ju-syeongyoungsong(向 Jesus 聖詠誦), and Tyonju-seonggyo-ilgwa. Importantly The Psalms were translated into Korean as Yeondo(煉禱) prayer and used in the funeral rites in the 1800s. The Psalms 24, 51, 113, 119, 130, 148, 149, 150 were translated and published in the woodblock book Tyeonjyu-syeonggyo-ryegyu (天主聖禮規) in 1865. The Psalms 51 and 130 were also translated in Tyeonjyu-syeonggyo-gonggwa. The Psalms were adapted into prayer with the partial commentary. For the Yeondo(煉禱) prayer, the Psalms contain the musical and ritual elements in abundance, since several Christians used the Yeondo(煉禱) prayer in funeral processions and when they wanted to pray in unison throughout the night. Finally, some of the Psalms were translated at the end of the nineteenth century in the Miimi-gyohoe-gangrye, Uigyung-mundab, Wi-wonib-gyoin-gyudo, and Chosun- Christian-journal. Sixty-two of the Psalms had been translated in Sipyun-chwalyo.
  • 4.

    A Practical Use of the Book of Psalms

    Kim, Chang Joo | 2015, 21(2) | pp.91~121 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Psalms is a collection that Israelites sang variously toward God. A close look shows that Psalms is consisted of 5 books; Book I 1-41, Book II 42-72, Book III 73-89, Book IV 90-106, Book V 107-150. Why is the Psalms divided into 5 Books? It is often said that David, presumably regarded the author of the Psalms, is responsible for the five books just as the pentateuch of Moses. In recent research, however, it shows that the division is related to communal readings by 3 years cycle. It suggests how deeply the Psalms has a large impact on Israel individually and communally as well. Later, Western church and Orthodox church of medieval times began to follow Judaic tradition. In this respect, a comparative study of the two traditions is also necessary. Meanwhile, theopoetics is a technical term that articulates Yhwh as origin of revelation and mystery as real life through poetic emotion. It gives a new perspective to understand the Psalms radically. First, theopoetics can inspire poetic imagination that the collection of Psalms is a record of the human quest for God, but not an object of historical criticism. Second, it distinguishes communication of the Psalms from that of the Pentateuch and Prophets. In short, the last two are divine teachings and proclamation toward Israel, whereas the former is Israelite responses and confessions toward God. Nonetheless, the Psalms is consisted with a part of biblical canon. If so, how do the Psalms as canon play a role in a daily life? The conclusion I came to in this study is that Israelite read the Psalms regularly and repeatedly as an annual reciting biblical passage. It is difficult the Psalm when you read it unaccustomedly. Thus, ancient biblical community takes an assigned portion of the Psalms routinely every 3 years. Then the regular reading will shed light on every word of the Psalms. Now the dutiful reciting of the Psalms becomes duty of a devotee, and further the text of the Psalms becomes a texture in a daily life simultaneously. This is why Hieronimous called the Psalms as the Grand Temple. The Psalms lectionary is to name performative and discipline reading.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Multiculture in postexilic Jewish Community - Receptivity and Exclusiveness of Gentile in Ezra and Nehemiah

    Choi Jong-Won | 2015, 21(2) | pp.122~154 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to study not only the Identity of Israel in postexilic Jewish Community, but also Receptivity and Exclusiveness of Gentile in the book of Ezra-Nehemiah. For this study, literary criticism in the texts of ‘foreign[or other] women’(Ezra 10:2, 10, 11, 14, 17, 18, 44; Neh 9:2; 13:26-27, 30) were discussed, and first of all, it is compared and analyzed by materials of ancient near East. Each texts strictly prohibite intermarriage of Israelites, who would have married women from other nations, and compel a divorce even between marriaged couple. The ‘Ezra-group’ or ‘Nehemiah-group’ was facing the crisis, because holy seed has become mixed with ‘the peoples of the land after return of Gola Community in the postexilic period. At this point, last compositor of these books was making a set of appropriate prohibition about the mixed marriage in connection with Dtn 7 and 23:3-6 and has added an extension of the concept of holiness from the edited Priestly tradition in Lev 11 and 18 for a renewal of the new faith community. This community was based on the separation between Receptivity and Exclusiveness of Gentile in a religious and ritualistic position, but it is clear that there was fierce competition around the temple Zerubbabel to take the politic privilege. In this study the important text is Nehemiah 13. Its compositor new strengthen the Jewish solidarity in the politic position. He was trying to resolve the politic privilege by the concept of priesterly purity. The core of this issue is ‘the marriaged women with other nations. Interestingly, it was adapted to the identity of the women and the meaning of the word ‘foreign’, which was to related not with the ‘ethnic’ character but the ‘other’ religious Receptivity in the Israel’s society. Thus the compositor interpreted the identity of the early Jewish Community in closely relation to the topic ‘holy seed and purity’. With this concept he accepted the theological tradition in Jesaja 6 and his message was oriented to obey the Torah. Through this study we come to know how the bild of the Gentile in the Israel’s society was accepted. And it is today help newly to define attitude of Gentile in the light of the Bible.
  • 6.

    Judicial Organizations and Judges in Ancient Israel

    So Hyeong-Geun | 2015, 21(2) | pp.155~175 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The article deals with the israelite judicial organizations and the judges in the light of the Old Testament. There were settlements for conflicts by ‘self-help’, ‘consultation’, ‘pater familias’ and one-sided violence between the contending parties in the patriarchal age and segmental period. In the wilderness period Moses took his seat to serve alone as judge for the people(Ex 18:13), by Jethro’s suggestion he appointed officials over thousands, hundreds, fifties and tens as judges. They judged the small matter, but Moses judged every great matter(Ex 18:22). This judicial system was a prototype of the dualised judicial organization in Ancient Israel. In addition, it seems that judges(‘shofetim’) dissolved the conflicts between people(Jdg 4:5). In the early part of Israelitic monarchy period the king was in charge of the judgement at first hand(2 Sam 15:3; 1 Ki 7:7), and until the 8th century elders(1 Ki 21:8, 13 ets), officials(Jes 1:23 ets) and priests undertook the legal actions between people. In the latter part of Israelitic monarchy period (7th Century BC) professional judges were appointed probably by the king Josiah, for example the judges(hebrew ‘shofetim’) and officials for each of the tribes in every gates (Deu 16:18) and the Levitical priests and the judges(hebrew ‘shofetim’) in Jerusalem(Deu 17:9) judged the civil and criminal suits in each position, and these ‘shofetim’ were professional judges. This judicial organization was a system of appeal in ancient Israel. It was the priest that was responsible for the Judgement for the sake of the resolution of suits in the post-exilic period. The priests in this period were in charge of not only the cultic judgements, but non-cultic judgements containing the civil and criminal ones(Ez 44:23-24). The mentions on the ‘shofetim’ appear in Esra 7:25 and 10:14, but we don’t know what the identity of ‘shofetim’ in these texts was. It seems that the judgements were proceeded by priests(Esra 9-10) and governor(Neh 5).
  • 7.

    Anthropology and the Old Testament: From Frazer’s Sympathetic Magic to Douglas’s Concept of Purity

    SEUNG IL KANG | 2015, 21(2) | pp.177~204 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    With the emergence of the so-called historical criticism of the Bible in the 19th century, the theories and methodologies used in social sciences began to be applied to the Old Testament. While biblical studies have collaborated with other disciplines such as semitic linguistics, archaeology, ancient Near Eastern studies, theology, and philosophy, it has rarely engaged with the community of anthropologists. This paper briefly reviews the history of scholarship of anthropological interpretation of the Old Testament from Robertson Smith's Lectures on the Religion of the Semites: First Series, The Fundamental Institutions to some recent series of collections of essays. Then it discusses methodological problems in the use of anthropological data to biblical studies. As a case study, it applies two well-known anthropological theories to the interpretation of some enigmatic rites and anecdotes in the Old Testament: one is the theory of sympathetic magic put forward by James G. Frazer in his magnum opus The Golden Bough, and the other is Mary Douglas's understanding of the concept of purity/holiness. The incident of the bronze serpent made by Moses (Num 21), the scapegoat ritual (Lev 16), and the story of five golden tumors and five golden mice (1 Sam 5-6) are interpreted in light of the theory of sympathetic magic. And the concept of contagious holiness inspired by Mary Douglas's contagious impurity is the key to the interpretation of the story of Uzzah's sudden death(2 Sam 6). The results of this study suggests the followings: (1) some rituals in the Old Testament may have originated from old magical practices; (2) stories in the Bible reflects humankind's general features of social life, symbol systems, and religious concepts; and (3) the study of the Old Testament should not remain within the framework of the ancient Near Eastern context and engage in dialogue with findings from anthropological inquiries.
  • 8.

    Yahweh, the Ruler of Animals: A Study of a Theological Zoology

    Cha-Yong Ku | 2015, 21(2) | pp.205~235 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The main purpose of this paper is the formulation of theological zoology. Theological zoology is the study of the relationship between God, human beings and animals. Throughout history, the examination of the relationship between humans and animals has been one-sided and, therefore, the results are distorted. Many texts of the Old Testament imply that animals should not only be an object of exploitation for humans. This assumption is based on the two special relationships of animals with God and with humans. In the relationship between animals and God, God is ‘Herr der Tiere’. In the Old Testament, God is the Lord of the animals who feeds all kinds of animals in the world, raises and protects them. And in the relationship between animals and humans, humans and animals not only relate to each other as the ruler and the ruled but they also stand in competition with each other. This paper examines the Old Testament for texts that refer to animals, focusing especially on their relationships with God and with humans. The emphasis lies on the text analysis. The main texts that will be studied can be divided into four themes: 1. As for the Creation of animals with humans, Gen 1:24-30; 2:19; 2. As for the animals receiving God's care, Gen 6:19-22; 9:1-17; Ps 104:10-30; 50:10f; 147:9; Job 38:39ff; 3. As for the animals as human competition, Isa 13:20-22; 23:13; 34:8-17; Jer 50:39; Hos 2:14; 4. As for the animals as a good example for humans, Job 12:7; Prov 6:6-8; Isa 1:3; Jer 8:7. The analysis of these texts will establish a new understanding of the relationship between God, humans and animals. Because of the humans’ sovereignty over the earth, that God has granted them (‘dominium terrae’), until now, the human-centered structure has been represented as a relationship of subordination, that is God - humans - animals. However, it becomes apparent that this relationship is not the only one in the composition of God’s Creation. God created the animals in the same way as the humans and ranked them both as coequal. God distributed the food fairly between them and acknowledged them as the subjects of the covenant. As ‘Herr der Tiere’, He takes care of the animals and sometimes even seems more kind towards them than towards humans. This can be good example for humans as to how they should treat animals. Therein, one can discern the purpose of ‘dominium terrae’. Hereby, in the theological zoology one can add to the subordinated relationship between humans and animals the equivalent relationship between humans and animals under the rule of the Creator. Moreover, this relationship can be further divided into two more detailed structures, namely the structure of human predominance and animal predominance. The discussion about theological zoology is the result of the modern-day interest and commitment to environmental protection. Through theological zoology, the notion of animals being mere subjects of sacrifice needs to be revised. Animals, too, are God’s creatures that ought to co-exist with humans in this world.